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What is Bio-diversity????????? ‘Biological diversity’ or biodiversity is that part of naturewhich includes the differences in genes among theindividuals of a species, the variety and richness of allthe plant and animal species at different scales inspace, locally, in a region,in the country and theworld, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrialand aquatic,within a defined area.
Genetic diversityEach member of any animal or plant species differs widely from other individuals in its genetic makeup because of the large number of combinations possible in the genes that give every individual specific characteristics. Thus, for example, each human being is very different from all others.
•Species diversityThe number of species of plants and animals that arepresent in a region constitutes its species diversity. Thisdiversity is seen both in natural ecosystems and inagricultural ecosystems
Values of Biodiversity:Food: About 80,000 edible plants and about 90% of present day food crops have been domesticated from wild.Drugs & Medicines: About 75% of world’s population depend on plants or plant extracts.Fuel: Forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. Fossil fuels are also products of Biodiversity.Social Value: Many of the plants like Tulsi, Lotus, Peepal etc are considered holy plants. About 2.1 million species have been identified till date, while many more species are believed to exist.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with asignificant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened withdestruction. An area is designated as a hot spot when it contains atleast 0.5% of plant species as endemic. There are 25 such hot spots of biodiversity on a globallevel. These hot spots covering less than 2% of the world’s landarea are found to have about 50% of the terrestrialbiodiversity
BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OFINDIA The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Thar Desert of Rajasthan.
Criteria for determining hot-spots: No. of Endemic Species i.e. the species which are found nowhere else. Degree of threat, which is measured in terms of Habitatloss.
A habitat is the physical and biological environment used by an individual, a population, a species, or a group of species.
Habitat Loss has occurred when quality of the environment is so low that it is no longer usable by a given species.
Habitat Degradation is the process by which habitat quality for a given species is diminished.
Causes of Habitat Loss include man made objects such as roads, dams, Etc.
Roads are structures used to facilitatemovement. However, they are barriers for animals such as amphibians, small reptiles, and invertebrates.
Damming streams and rivers have destroyed many aquatic ecosystems. Many animalsmove up and down the streams searching for places to breed.
Consequences of Habitat Loss include theendangerment and extinction of species, as well as the destruction of land and ecosystems.
Other structures that are considered to be a cause of Habitat Loss are parking lots, mines, buildings, and railroads.
Causes of Habitat Degradation are AirPollution, Water Pollution, and Pesticides.
A combination of CFC’s and halons reduce the concentration of the ozone, allowing UVrays to reach the earth surface, forming toxic clouds called smog.
Water Pollution includes material such asmud that smothers the bottom of aquatic ecosystems at high concentrations.
Pesticides, Insecticides, and Rodenticides areused to kill animals that would eat our crops.
Protecting remaining intact sections of natural habitat. Educating public about the importance of natural habitat and biodiversity. Devloping family planning programs in areas of rapid population growth. Finding ways to increase the agricultural output by organic farming.
refers to the variety of species in a specific area increases as one moves toward the equator (WHY?)
Poaching is the illegal hunting, killing or capturing of animals Simple as taking an animal without a permit Using a prohibited weapon/ trap Stealing an animal from a zoo/ sanctuary Common in developing countries Poaching leads to extinction
• Ivory from elephant tusks: jewelry, flatware handles, piano keys, sculptures• Leopard skin: said to give kings magical powers when placed upon his throne• Tiger Penis: Used in Asia as a pain killer or aphrodisiac• Lion Meat: said to give superhuman strength and increase sex drive
Elephant Rhinoceros Leopard Tiger Lion Panda
You personally? Nothing realistic. Donating money to your favorite wildlife protection and conservation organization helps, but does little to fundamentally stop international poaching The best thing would be to join one of these organizations and volunteer as an anti poaching ranger. Good luck with that.
The word ‘ conflict’ is defined as ‘ an incompatibility between opinions or principles ‘ a situation that arises because of differences in perception, attitude and insufficient understanding, mostly, on part of the wiser party.’‘ any conflict that arises where the behavior of one (either people or wildlife) is unacceptability disadvantageous to the other’.
Cont,,,, INTRODUCTION….. With the increase in wildlife population in response to protection, human-wildlife conflict also has increased. Large-scale forest degradation, rapid infrastructure development and population explosion, conflicts between domestic stock and wild carnivores have increased.
Man – wildlife conflicts: The conflict between man and wildlife started with the evolution of man, but intensity increased due to the activities of modern man Due to the lack of stable food and disruption of movement, wild animals came out of forest area and attack the agricultural field and humans and in turn got killed by the humans.
Due to the minimum disturbance caused by the residents with in the buffer zones to the habitat, the prey base is considered to be balanced Therefore the conflict related to the tiger is very minimum though not absolutely nil.
Main problem of the man animal conflict is caused by the wild dogs (Cuon alpinus) and the leopard (Panthera pardus) The main reason for the conflict from the wild dog is that the wild dogs are occasionally found in groups and with the combined effort, it easily kills the livestocks specially and the cattle’s become victim
Wild Boar is the greatest enemy of the residents of the area who cultivates potatoes as their cash crop
Second most prevalent conflict with the leopard The conflict caused by the leopard kill is more on sheep and horses and its preferences to these species over other animals are not yet known
Studies by Raman Sukumar in three locations in India suggested that up to 20% of elephant deaths were caused directly by crop defence. These studies took place in 1982 and the situation is thought to have worsened since. In Sri Lanka it is reported that up to 150 wild elephants are shot or poisoned by farmers every year.
Killing of HumansHouse DamageDamage to Agri. crop Type of conflict s Accidental Killing of injury livestock
Anthropogenic/Man made causes Habitat loss Agricultural practices Entry into forests Insufficient prey base Poverty Population pollution Exploitation of forests Culture and society
There are some common field between Man and animal, Which ultimately leads to conflict due to resource limitation like: SPACE FOOD SHELTER Increasing population of human beings Loss of forest Decrease in quality of forest Development activities
Mitigation Reaction: ◦ Driving away wild animals ◦ Removing problem animals ◦ Killing problematic animals ◦ Law enforcement