Aquaculture for food and nutrition security in Timor-Leste: Challenges and opportunities


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WorldFish Senior Aquaculture Scientist, Jharendu Pant, presents 'Aquaculture for food and nutrition security in Timor Leste: Chellenges and Opportunities', at a national workshop which discussed ‘Aquaculture for Food Security and Nutrition’. Held on 5 March, the workshop provided a platform for international and national experts to analyze the current and potential contribution of aquaculture to food security and the reduction of malnutrition in Timor-Leste. Combating poverty and malnutrition is the foremost priority of the Government of Timor-Leste, who together with the European Commission Food Security Coordination Group convened the workshop.

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Aquaculture for food and nutrition security in Timor-Leste: Challenges and opportunities

  1. 1. Jharendu Pant, Julio da Cruz andShakuntala Thilsted5 March 2013, Dili, Timor-Leste
  2. 2. Outline:1. Fish and human nutrition & health: 1.1 fish in diet – why? 1.2 why focus on women and young children?2. The Challenge: Combating poverty and malnutrition3. Aquaculture development strategy: Where we are? 3.1 preparation process 3.2 key elements 3.3 implementation
  3. 3. 1. Fish and Human Nutrition & Health1.1 Fish in diet – why? irreplaceable animal-source food: – rich source of multiple nutrients – animal protein (all fish) – essential fats (eg Omega-3 fatty acids – some marine &freshwater fish) – small fish – eaten whole (with head, bones, viscera ) rich in essential micronutrients; e.g. Vitamin A, Iron, Zinc, Calcium (with high bioavailability) – enhances bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from ALL foods in the meal
  4. 4. 1.2 Why focus on women and children? – first 1000 days of life: • 9 months : pregnancy • 0-6 months: lactation (exclusive breastfeeding) • 6-24 months: complementary feeding + breastfeeding – good nutrition on first 1000 days: window of opportunity: • brain development / better cognitive power • learning and school performance • work performance • immunity against diseases • individual and national development
  5. 5. 2. The Challenge: Combating poverty and malnutrition• around half of the children in the Timor-Leste are deprived of diet with balanced nutrition• malnutrition among children under 5 years estimated as: – Underweight: 45% – Stunted: 54% – Wasting: 25% (WFP, 2010) 5
  6. 6. The challenge… – carbohydrate as major calories source (maize, rice, cassava, taro, yam, banana…) – animal source food eaten only occasionally: • Beef and pork – very expensive; only for special occasions • Chicken – also an expensive item • Fish – relatively expensive but limited availability in the uplands 6
  7. 7. The challenge…• per capita annual fish consumption: – Timor-Leste: 6.1 kg (RFLP/FAO 2011) – Global average: 17.8 kg (FAO, 2012) [Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan (2011-2030) aims at achieving the goal of ‘FOOD SECURITY BY 2020’] 7
  8. 8. The challenge…• Per capita fish consumption target? – To reach closer to Global average, TL needs a fish supply of: 30,000 t by 2030 – Current fish annual supply: • capture fisheries: 3,200 t (FAO, 2007) • aquaculture: 46t (NDFA, 2010) 8
  9. 9. The challenge…• Challenge: bridging future fish demand-supply gap• a coordinated approach vital to realizing the goal of achieving food and nutrition security (Comoro Declaration, 2010) 9
  10. 10. 3. National aquaculture strategy (2012 -2030):Where we are? 3.1 Preparation process: • NDFA – WorldFish meeting in November 2010 emphasized the need for a National Aquaculture Development Strategy • a Framework for the strategy development prepared • process supported by WorldFish, RFLP/FAO and CTSP 10
  11. 11. preparation process… • analyses of current situation of aquaculture in Timor- Leste • review of secondary data/information (review of key policy/strategy documents) • field visits and consultations with local stakeholders: – East: Manatuto, Baucau, Viqueque, – South: Aileu and Manufahi – West: Liquica, Ermera, Bobonaro 11
  12. 12. preparation process… • stakeholders‘ Consultations in Dili (for drafting of strategy) – DFOs, farmers and Farmers’ groups, Hatchery officers – Line Government Ministries/ Departments; I/NGOs; Development Partners • final draft presented to the stakeholders in Dili (February 2012) • adopted as interim strategy document by MAF • presently in process of getting approval by the Government 12
  13. 13. 3.2 Timor-Leste aquaculture development strategy: Key elements
  14. 14. Key elements.. Goal: contribute to food and income through expansion and intensification of aquaculture Guiding principles: – Aquaculture development in Timor-Leste is centered on the country’s goal of addressing the problem of chronic food insecurity and malnutrition; – The National Aquaculture Development Strategy is in harmony with the Timor- Leste Strategic Development Plan (2011-2030), and will be implemented in three phases: short (2012-2015); medium (2016 – 2020) and long term (2021 - 2030) – Development of sustainable aquaculture will be through an ecosystem approach, taking account technical, social, economic and environmental aspects – The strategy envisions a coordinated approach with joint ventures between the government, local communities, International/National Non-governmental Organizations (I/NGOs), the private sector, and development partners being critical components to realize success.• 14
  15. 15. impact area and indicators Impact area Indicators (by 2030) Food 12,000 t from aquaculture Consumption 15 kg/capita/year Households 40,000 Nutrition Fish in diets Governance Institutional capacity for management and development
  16. 16. • major outcome areas1) identification of suitable agro- ecological zones for aquaculture development2) aquaculture yields improved in existing and new ponds3) NDFA institutional capacity4) sustainable supply of inputs (seed, feed)5) aquaculture product markets functioning
  17. 17. Major outcome areas contd… 6) aquaculture contributes to improving food and nutrition security 7) functioning partnerships between GOs/NGOs, communities, the private sector and donors 8) aquaculture farmers’ groups and cooperatives 9) policy environment suited to aquaculture
  18. 18. 3.3 Implementation: supporting NDFA to implement the strategy vital: • Need for a strong partnerships: (government, donors, I/NGOs, private sectors, producers)
  19. 19. – implementation of strategy – priority MAF– New Zealand funding support (upcoming) for implementation of strategy: • inception & implementation phases • NDFA, WorldFish, NIWA as major partners • Other partners (I/NGOs)– growing interest among I/NGOs – aquaculture as livelihood diversification options 19
  20. 20. – private sectors’ interests– rapidly developing infrastructure & services– buoyant market • School meal programs • Supplementary feeding programs (women & children) • Household food and nutrition security • Local and Dili market 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. Contact: Julio da Cruz National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Dili, Timor- Leste Jharendu Pant WorldFish, Penang Malaysia 22