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A rose by any other name? Evaluating integrated landscape approaches in the tropics

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Presentation by James Reed, Josh van Vianen, Jos Barlow, Terry Sunderland, CIFOR, at the Global Landscapes Forum on 16 November 2016 in Marrakesh, Morocco.

Published in: Environment

A rose by any other name? Evaluating integrated landscape approaches in the tropics

  1. 1. A rose by any other name? Evaluating integrated landscape approaches in the tropics James Reed, Josh van Vianen, Jos Barlow, Terry Sunderland Global Landscapes Forum, Marrakesh, 16th November 2016
  2. 2. What are landscape approaches and how effectively have they been implemented in the tropics?
  3. 3. Landscape approaches are the latest in an evolution of integrated attempts to reconcile C&D. 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010 - present 1980s: Integrated Rural Development 1998: Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) 1985 onwards: Integrated Conservation & Development projects (ICDPs) Contributing Sciences: Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology Island biogeography Conservation rooted frameworks e.g. “Ecosystem Approach” 1992: “Landscape Approach” first documented (Barrett 1992) (Integrated) Landscape Approach frameworks
  4. 4. Key findings from the “theory” literature Optimizing adoption of landscape approaches: • evaluating progress within a landscape is fundamental to determining where gains or losses are being made • hybrid, multi-level and cross-sectoral governance structures that integrate internal traditional knowledge and external institutional and financial support are increasingly preferable • must acknowledge the need for contextualisation and not subscribe to panaceas • inclusive, participatory stakeholder negotiation can help align local socio-cultural and global environmental concerns • should recognise dynamic processes and perverse outcomes See: Reed et al. 2016 - Integrated landscape approaches to managing social and environmental issues in the tropics: learning from the past to guide the future
  5. 5. Geographic distribution of landscape approaches 1 (5 countries represented) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (1)
  6. 6. Geographic distribution (grey literature)
  7. 7. Quality of the evidence Peer reviewed articles Grey literature (web screening) Grey literature (document screening) Totals Number of case studies 24 97 53 174 Number reported success 13 (54%) 46 (47%) 20 (38%) 79 (45%) Reliable data provided 6 (46%) 8 (17%) 1 (5%) 15 (19%)
  8. 8. Environmental and socio-economic impacts
  9. 9. Factors influencing “success”
  10. 10. Influence of governance structure
  11. 11. Key findings from the literature Current barriers to effective implementation: • the ongoing development of theory and conceptualization may be stimulating time lags • the proliferation of terms associated with landscape approaches may be impeding policy and practice progress • operating silos persist at all levels and scales • engaging multiple stakeholders is all too often seen as a box-ticking exercise to satisfy project requirements • monitoring remains the least well developed area of landscape approach application
  12. 12. Conclusions and recommendations  Landscape approaches remain contentious and under- theorized  There is good evidence of “landscape approaches” being implemented within the tropics but weak evidence of effectiveness  Multi-level engagement seems fundamental to success  Attempts to implement must be contextualized and willing to embrace complexity  Metrics need to continue to develop
  13. 13. Future outputs and research opportunities  A toolkit for landscape approach implementation  A synthesis of landscape approach frameworks  Analysis of stakeholder perceptions in a landscape approach  Evaluation of landscape approach in practice  Assessment of landscape approach investments
  14. 14. Thanks for listening! For further information: James Reed: j.reed@cgiar.org Terry Sunderland: t.sunderland@cgiar.org

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