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Beyond protected areas: Landscape approaches to reconcile conservation and development


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Given at the IUCN Congress by Terry Sunderland.

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Beyond protected areas: Landscape approaches to reconcile conservation and development

  1. 1. Beyond protected areas: Landscape approaches to reconcile conservation and development Terry Sunderland, IUCN Conservation Congress 7th September 2016
  2. 2. • Difficulty justifying protectionist approaches alone • Inclusion of poverty alleviation strategies • Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) approach introduced in the 1980s • Integrated approaches focus on PA’s but in the context of the wider landscape (buffer zone) • Previous studies of these missed the “landscape” context • Very little critical analysis of ICDPs From protected areas to “landscapes”
  3. 3. What strategies have contributed to the achievements of landscape- scale “integrated conservation and development projects?”
  4. 4. Two geographical case studies: Lower Mekong and Cameroon Mekong r and Hoang Minh-Ha ty of the intervention. By bridging the gap
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopy Lower Mekong • Biodiversity hotspot of global significance • Major threats: habitat loss, infrastructure development, land grabbing, wildlife trade • Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam (15 sites): • Forested landscapes (> 10,000 ha) • History of conservation intervention in previous 7-10 years
  6. 6. Research • Landscape trends and threats analysis • ICDP comparison (multi-variate analysis, qualitative assessment of outcomes) = analysis of organisational strategies • Governance and policy review • Land cover change • Potential for rewards mechanisms (PES, REDD+) • “Best practice” for integrating conservation and development
  7. 7. Threats analysis
  8. 8. What do projects actually do?
  9. 9. Land cover change • Surprisingly, majority of protected areas experiencing low levels of deforestation and tree cover loss • HOWEVER, significant degradation outside of PA’s
  10. 10. Project implementation “best practice”
  11. 11. Potential for reward mechanisms (PES, REDD+) • PES is seen as a “win-win” for conservation and development • Strong legislative framework for PES (e.g. Vietnam) • Implementation is complex and beneficiaries often unclear • None of the sites surveyed have established PES schemes • Thus potential for REDD+ is uncertain
  12. 12. • Concept of Technical Operations Units (TOU) was developed upon creation of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 1992 (articles 41 & 42 of Decree) • Forest Environment Sector Programme (FESP) framework, elaborated in 2003 by the Government of Cameroon with assistance of international development partners: • [A] “TOU is a delimited geographical area, based on ecological, socio-economic, cultural and political characteristics for the enhancement of integrated landscape management involving all stakeholders” • Similar to the French “terroir” in which landscapes are administrative units Cameroon: Technical Cooperation Units (T0U)
  13. 13. ToU’s in Cameroon • TOU’s of varying extent and geographical coverage and complexity • Often “managed” by external agents with funding from bilateral arrangements (e.g. German Development Bank (KfW)) • Sustainability?
  14. 14. • TOU Conservator is appointed by PM decree • A Management Committee is created and organised by PM decree • The key advantage is that within the TOU area, all stakeholders elaborate and implement a holistic management concept using the synergy of their partnership How are ToU’s administered?
  15. 15. • 440,000 ha. • Complex mosaic of forest, timber concession, PA’s and community managed areas • Home to Cross River gorilla and other endangered species • Strong pressures from cross-border trade The Takamanda-Mone TOU
  16. 16. • Integrated landscape management tool • Multi-stakeholder land use- based forest management approach • Focused management interventions on specific land uses • Promote platform for societal dialogue between managers of various land-use types (timber production, nature protection, industrial agriculture, industry, habitation, recreational areas) Advantages of TOU process
  17. 17. • Increased involvement of local people in forest management issues • Promoting community development through use of:  Forest royalties from exploitation of forest management units (UFA) and production forest reserves  Income generated from direct exploitation of forest resources (Community Forest Management)  Harvesting and commercialisation of non-timber forest products  Accompanying development measures initiated in communities close to nature protection areas- Village Development Plans Impact of TOU’s on local populace
  18. 18. • Traditionally a key component of conservation delivery • HOWEVER, recent systematic review (Roe et al. 2016) suggests such initiatives are largely ineffective • Estimated alternative livelihoods would have to contribute >25% of HH income to change behaviour A word about “alternative livelihoods”
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopy Lessons learned (for Indonesia??) • Landscape-scale initiatives with agreed and negotiated goals and objectives from the start have better outcomes, but flexibility is absolutely key (adaptive management) • Multi-stakeholder participation and partnerships are critical • Implemented should happen with a full understanding of policy processes • Beware alternative livelihoods! • Greater integration at landscape scale should be real and not assumed • Longer-term time scales = better outcomes. Process not project!
  20. 20. @TCHSunderland