Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Beyond protected areas: Landscape approaches to reconcile conservation and development

417 views

Published on

Given at the IUCN Congress by Terry Sunderland.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Beyond protected areas: Landscape approaches to reconcile conservation and development

  1. 1. Beyond protected areas: Landscape approaches to reconcile conservation and development Terry Sunderland, IUCN Conservation Congress 7th September 2016
  2. 2. • Difficulty justifying protectionist approaches alone • Inclusion of poverty alleviation strategies • Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) approach introduced in the 1980s • Integrated approaches focus on PA’s but in the context of the wider landscape (buffer zone) • Previous studies of these missed the “landscape” context • Very little critical analysis of ICDPs From protected areas to “landscapes”
  3. 3. What strategies have contributed to the achievements of landscape- scale “integrated conservation and development projects?”
  4. 4. Two geographical case studies: Lower Mekong and Cameroon Mekong r and Hoang Minh-Ha ty of the intervention. By bridging the gap
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopy Lower Mekong • Biodiversity hotspot of global significance • Major threats: habitat loss, infrastructure development, land grabbing, wildlife trade • Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam (15 sites): • Forested landscapes (> 10,000 ha) • History of conservation intervention in previous 7-10 years
  6. 6. Research • Landscape trends and threats analysis • ICDP comparison (multi-variate analysis, qualitative assessment of outcomes) = analysis of organisational strategies • Governance and policy review • Land cover change • Potential for rewards mechanisms (PES, REDD+) • “Best practice” for integrating conservation and development
  7. 7. Threats analysis
  8. 8. What do projects actually do?
  9. 9. Land cover change • Surprisingly, majority of protected areas experiencing low levels of deforestation and tree cover loss • HOWEVER, significant degradation outside of PA’s
  10. 10. Project implementation “best practice”
  11. 11. Potential for reward mechanisms (PES, REDD+) • PES is seen as a “win-win” for conservation and development • Strong legislative framework for PES (e.g. Vietnam) • Implementation is complex and beneficiaries often unclear • None of the sites surveyed have established PES schemes • Thus potential for REDD+ is uncertain
  12. 12. • Concept of Technical Operations Units (TOU) was developed upon creation of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 1992 (articles 41 & 42 of Decree) • Forest Environment Sector Programme (FESP) framework, elaborated in 2003 by the Government of Cameroon with assistance of international development partners: • [A] “TOU is a delimited geographical area, based on ecological, socio-economic, cultural and political characteristics for the enhancement of integrated landscape management involving all stakeholders” • Similar to the French “terroir” in which landscapes are administrative units Cameroon: Technical Cooperation Units (T0U)
  13. 13. ToU’s in Cameroon • TOU’s of varying extent and geographical coverage and complexity • Often “managed” by external agents with funding from bilateral arrangements (e.g. German Development Bank (KfW)) • Sustainability?
  14. 14. • TOU Conservator is appointed by PM decree • A Management Committee is created and organised by PM decree • The key advantage is that within the TOU area, all stakeholders elaborate and implement a holistic management concept using the synergy of their partnership How are ToU’s administered?
  15. 15. • 440,000 ha. • Complex mosaic of forest, timber concession, PA’s and community managed areas • Home to Cross River gorilla and other endangered species • Strong pressures from cross-border trade The Takamanda-Mone TOU
  16. 16. • Integrated landscape management tool • Multi-stakeholder land use- based forest management approach • Focused management interventions on specific land uses • Promote platform for societal dialogue between managers of various land-use types (timber production, nature protection, industrial agriculture, industry, habitation, recreational areas) Advantages of TOU process
  17. 17. • Increased involvement of local people in forest management issues • Promoting community development through use of:  Forest royalties from exploitation of forest management units (UFA) and production forest reserves  Income generated from direct exploitation of forest resources (Community Forest Management)  Harvesting and commercialisation of non-timber forest products  Accompanying development measures initiated in communities close to nature protection areas- Village Development Plans Impact of TOU’s on local populace
  18. 18. • Traditionally a key component of conservation delivery • HOWEVER, recent systematic review (Roe et al. 2016) suggests such initiatives are largely ineffective • Estimated alternative livelihoods would have to contribute >25% of HH income to change behaviour A word about “alternative livelihoods”
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopy Lessons learned (for Indonesia??) • Landscape-scale initiatives with agreed and negotiated goals and objectives from the start have better outcomes, but flexibility is absolutely key (adaptive management) • Multi-stakeholder participation and partnerships are critical • Implemented should happen with a full understanding of policy processes • Beware alternative livelihoods! • Greater integration at landscape scale should be real and not assumed • Longer-term time scales = better outcomes. Process not project!
  20. 20. www.cifor.org t.sunderland@cgiar.org @TCHSunderland

×