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A rose by any other name? Assessing landscape approach effectiveness in the tropics

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A rose by any other name? Assessing landscape approach effectiveness in the tropics

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Presentation by James Reed, Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia & University of Lancaster. Held at the young researchers meeting on multifunctional landscapes, Gothenburg June 7-8, 2016.

Presentation by James Reed, Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia & University of Lancaster. Held at the young researchers meeting on multifunctional landscapes, Gothenburg June 7-8, 2016.

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A rose by any other name? Assessing landscape approach effectiveness in the tropics

  1. 1. A rose by any other name? Assessing landscape approach effectiveness in the tropics James Reed, Josh van Vianen, Jos Barlow, Terry Sunderland SIANI SLU - Young researchers meeting on multifunctional landscapes. Gothenburg, June 7th 2016
  2. 2. Rationale Landscape Approach A refinement of prior approaches Attempt to integrate multiple stakeholders A framework for policy and practiceAn attempt to reconcile disciplinary divides A tool to assess landscape perf. A strategy to align conflicting objectives What do we mean by “landscape approaches”?
  3. 3. Rationale Are landscape approaches being implemented in the tropics? Are they effective in reconciling conservation and development?
  4. 4. Methods Evolution of search terms and strategy: • Internal/external consultation • Two stakeholder workshops (Nairobi & Cape Tribulation) • Extensive scoping exercise using Web of Science • Developed inclusion/exclusion criteria for studies • Protocol published. See: Reed et al. 2015: What are landscape approaches and how effectively have they been implemented in the tropics? Specialist databases: Scopus CAB Direct ISI Web of Knowledge PubMed Internet searches: Google Scholar Other: Grey literature search
  5. 5. Screening results Peer-reviewed literature Grey (or additional) literature Initial scoping results in WoK: 26,303 articles Response to call for grey literature: 57 documents Retrieved from specialist databases: 13,290 articles – All TITLES screened Initial web screening: 214 documents Relevant after title screening: 1,171 articles – All ABSTRACTS screened Targeted web screening: 79 documents Relevant after abstract screening: 382 articles – All FULL TEXTS screened Articles identified by author group/experts: 56 documents Final studies of relevance: 82 articles Articles retrieved from bibliography screening: 82 articles
  6. 6. Landscape approaches are the latest in an evolution of integrated attempts to reconcile C&D. 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010 - present 1980s: Integrated Rural Development 1998: Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) 1985 onwards: Integrated Conservation & Development projects (ICDPs) Contributing Sciences: Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology Island biogeography Conservation rooted frameworks e.g. “Ecosystem Approach” 1992: “Landscape Approach” first documented (Barrett 1992) (Integrated) Landscape Approach frameworks
  7. 7. Key findings from the “theory” literature Optimizing adoption of landscape approaches: • evaluating progress within a landscape is fundamental to determining where gains or losses are being made • hybrid, multi-level and cross-sectoral governance structures that integrate internal traditional knowledge and external institutional and financial support are increasingly preferable • must acknowledge the need for contextualisation and not subscribe to panaceas • inclusive, participatory stakeholder negotiation can help align local socio-cultural and global environmental concerns • should recognise dynamic processes and perverse outcomes See: Reed et al. 2016 - Integrated landscape approaches to managing social and environmental issues in the tropics: learning from the past to guide the future
  8. 8. Where and how are landscape approaches being implemented? Peer reviewed articles Grey literature (web screening) Grey literature (document screening) Totals Number of case studies 24 97 52 173 Number of countries represented 16 52 42 61 Number reported success 13 46 20 79 Reliable data provided 6 8 1 15
  9. 9. Geographic distribution
  10. 10. “Conservation” impacts
  11. 11. “Development” impacts
  12. 12. Factors for success
  13. 13. Governance effects
  14. 14. Key findings from the literature Current barriers to effective implementation: • the ongoing development of theory and conceptualization may be stimulating time lags • the proliferation of terms associated with landscape approaches may be impeding policy and practice progress • operating silos persist at all levels and scales • engaging multiple stakeholders is all too often seen as a box-ticking exercise to satisfy project requirements • monitoring remains the least well developed area of landscape approach application
  15. 15. Conclusions and recommendations  Landscape approaches remain contentious and under- theorized  There is good evidence of “landscape approaches” being implemented within the tropics but weak evidence of effectiveness  Multi-level engagement seems fundamental to success  Attempts to implement must be contextualized  Metrics need to continue to develop
  16. 16. Thanks for listening! For further information: James Reed: j.reed@cgiar.org Terry Sunderland: t.sunderland@cgiar.org

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