Food security means :0 availability,0 accessibility and0 affordability of food to all people at all times.
Food Security is ensured in a country only if0 Enough food is available for all the persons0 All persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality and0 There is no barrier on access to food.
Need for Food Security:0 For the poor sections of the society0 Natural disasters or calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami,0 Widespread crop failure due to drought
How drought affects food security Drought takes place Total production of food grains Shortage of food in the affected areas Prices Some people cannot afford to buy food = Food Insecurity
Starvation0 If such calamity happens in a very wide spread area or is stretched over a longer time period, it may cause a situation of starvation.
Famine0 A massive starvation might take a turn of famine.0 A Famine is characterized by 1. widespread deaths and 2. epidemics
Famines and Starvation Deaths in India 0 Bengal Famine, 1943 -killed 1.5 million to 3 million 0 The Bihar famine, 1966-7 - 2,353 deaths due to starvation reported Starvation deaths have also been reported in: 1. Kalahandi and Kashipur in Orissa 2. Baran district of Rajasthan, 3. Palamau district of Jharkhand and many other remote areas during the recent years.
Food Insecure GroupsWorst Affected Groups:0 landless people0 traditional artisans0 traditional services providers0 petty self-employed workers0 Homeless, beggars etc.0 Families employed in ill-paid occupations0 casual labourers (seasonal activities+ very low wages)
0 SCs, STs and some sections of the OBCs (lower castes among them) –having poor land-base or very low land productivity0 Migrants ( as a result of natural disasters )0 Women and children
States facing problem of food insecurity0 Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar,0 Jharkhand,0 Orissa,0 West Bengal,0 Chattisgarh,0 parts of Madhya Pradesh and0 Maharasthra
Hunger, another aspect of Food InsecurityChronic SeasonalHunger Due agricultural Inadequate Hunger activities-rural diet for a regions & urban long time areas- casual labour Poor people When a person suffer from is unable to get chronic work for the hunger entire year
India’s attempts at attaining Food Security Green Revolution: Foodgrain Production Highest Low Growth Growth Maharashtra, Punjab and Madhya Haryana Pradesh Tamil Nadu Bihar, Orissa and Andhra and the N-E Pradesh states
India’s Food Security System Buffer Stock Food Security System of Public India Distributio n System
How the Public Distribution System works: Farmers or Fair Price Producers ShopsGrains MSP C.I.P Distributes Grains Allocates Grains F.C.I (maintains States Buffer Stocks) Central Issue Price
Government schemes0 PDS (initial Public Distribution System scheme)0 RPS (Revamped Public Distribution System)0 TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System)Special Schemes:0 AAY (Antyodaya Anna Yojana)0 APS (Annapurna Scheme)
Benefits from the PDS:0 Stabilizes prices of foodgrains0 Makes food available at affordable prices0 By supplying food from surplus regions of the country to the deficit ones, it helps in combating hunger and famine0 Prices set with poor households in mind0 Provides income security to farmers in certain regions
Problems faced by PDS:0 Problem of Hunger still exists in many areas of India0 Foodstock in granaries often above specifed levels0 Deterioration in quality of stored foodgrains if kept for longer time0 High storage costs0 Increase in MSP has led to shift from coarse grain to rice and wheat production among the farmers0 Cultivation of rice has also led to environmental degradation and fall in the water level
0 Average consumption of PDS grain at the all-India level is very low0 Malpractices on part of PDS dealers: Diverting the grains to open market to get better margin, Selling poor quality grains at ration shops, Irregular opening of the shops0 Low Income families earning just above poverty line have to pay APL rates which are almost equal to open market rates – lower incentive to buy from Fair Price Shops