Making Climate-Smart Agriculture Work for the Poor


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This presentation by Henry Neufeldt from ICRAF talks about climate-smart agriculture, the key areas of science innovation there, some farmer climate coping strategies, the constrains, the benefits and the key messages concerning CSA.

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  • Recommendation 1:  Integrate food security and sustainable agriculture into global and national policies 
Establish a work programme on mitigation and adaptation in agriculture in accordance with the principles and provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), based on Article 2, as a first step to inclusion of agriculture in the mainstream of international climate change policy.Make sustainable, climate-friendly agriculture central to Green Growth and the Rio+20 Earth Summit.Finance ‘early action’ to drive change in agricultural production systems towards increasing resilience to weather variability and shocks, while contributing significantly to mitigating climate change. This includes supporting national climate risk assessments, developing mitigation and adaptation strategies, and programme implementation.Develop common platforms at global, regional and national levels for coherent dialogue and policy action related to climate change, agriculture, crisis response and food security, at global, regional and national levels. These include fostering country-level coalitions for food security and building resilience, particularly in countries most vulnerable to climate shocks.
  • Based on CCAFS household survey in four countries (Kenya, Uganda 2x, Tanzania, Ethiopia) from 5 sites within which 7 villages with 20 HHs were surveyed
  • Making Climate-Smart Agriculture Work for the Poor

    1. 1. Global Landscape Forum Technical Networking Session 2.1: Climate-Smart Agriculture: Resilience, Food Security, Mitigation and Adaptation Avoiding Tradeoffs, and Creating Synergies in a Connected World MAKING CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE WORK FOR THE POOR Henry Neufeldt World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) 16 November, 2013
    2. 2. Climate-smart agriculture Food Systems Small scales Food security Large scales Efficiency Fairness Adaptation Short term Mitigation Long term
    3. 3. What will we call the boundaries of Safe(r) operating spaces for the food systems? Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change 2012
    4. 4. Toward Tier 3 Sustainability—Toward risk mitigation and resilience in food systems Recommendation 2: Significantly raise the level of global investment in sustainable agriculture and food systems in the next decade Recommendation 3: Sustainably intensify agricultural production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other negative environmental impacts of agriculture Photo: N. Palmer (CIAT) Recommendation 1: Integrate food security and sustainable agriculture into global and national policies Recommendation 4: Target populations and sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change and food insecurity Recommendation 5: Reshape food access and consumption patterns to ensure basic nutritional needs are met and to foster healthy and sustainable eating habits worldwide Recommendation 6: Reduce loss and waste in food systems, particularly from infrastructure, farming practices, processing, distribution and household habits Recommendation 7: Create comprehensive, shared, integrated information systems that encompass human and ecological dimensions Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change 2012
    5. 5. Key areas of science innovation Discovery, testing and implementation of mechanisms across scales that allow for adaptive management and adaptive governance of social-ecological systems essential for long-term human provisioning Development of integrated metrics of safe space that are practical and meaningful for decision-making by relevant communities in near real time Systematic gathering and integration of quality data and information to generate knowledge in time frames and at scales relevant for decision-making through analytical tools, models and scenarios Establishment of legitimate and empowered science policy dialogues that frame post–disciplinary science agendas on local, national and international scales Neufeldt, Jahn et al 2013
    6. 6. Review of SRI management impacts on yield, water saving, costs of production and farmer income per ha in 13 countries Average: +50% yield -37.5% water use -16% costs +94% income Uphoff 2012
    7. 7. GHG mitigation through no-till in selected countries UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2013
    8. 8. Evergreen agriculture with Faidherbia albida
    9. 9. Innovation and food security Relationship between innovativeness (number of farming system changes) and household food security (number of food deficit months). Error bars indicate the 95% confidence interval of the mean Kristjanson et al 2012
    10. 10. Farmer climate coping strategies • Farmers most interested in reducing food insecurity • No long- or medium-term planning possible under food insecure situation • Tree planting (and other investments in livelihood improvements) only after basic food security is guaranteed • Food insecurity rose by at least one month (above on average 3 months) during recent drought and floods • Coping strategies lead into ‘poverty trap’ • Agroforestry reduced food insecurity by about 1 month Reduce Quantity, Quality or # of meals All #s in % Lower Nyando Middle Nyando Community or family support Help from Gov, NGO, Church Borrow money Casual Labor Sell possessions or livestock Consume Seeds Children attend school less 85 30 42 32 28 72 72 38 38 23 18 37.5 25 40 61 12.5 Thorlakson and Neufeldt 2012
    11. 11. Constraints: insecure tenure Economic, Environmental and Social Tenure Unadjud Freehold Impacts Effect Net returns to land ($ ha-1 y-1) $126 $288 2.28 Woody crops, woodlots etc (ha km-2) 5.4 25.6 4.7 Hedgerows (km km-2) 5.2 23.6 4.5 Social cost from embedding -$40 $30 $70 Social "tax" -32% +10% Norton-Griffiths 2012
    12. 12. Financial benefits of no-till wheat production in northern Kasakhstan Derpsch et al 2010
    13. 13. • • • • • • Up-front public sector finance needed to turn projects viable Projects build institutional capacity Projects deliver food security and adaptation with mitigation co-benefits Insurance schemes provide safety nets against falling into the poverty trap Combining many and diverse investments in land can increase returns and drive large-scale investment in sustainable NRM Robust M+E frameworks are needed to quantify how different CSA practices reduce climate risk Foster et al 2012
    14. 14. Key messages Climate-smart agriculture1 practices can contribute to food security of resource-poor rural populations while providing important adaptation and mitigation co-benefits if they are adapted to local conditions and national policies, and global food systems are in tune with sustainable development goals. 1Agriculture is understood to consist of crops, livestock, forests, fisheries and aquaculture
    15. 15. Key messages In order to maximize the synergies between the three pillars (production, adaptation, mitigation) agricultural policies should consider multiple targets from the onset, and research is needed that identifies the relative contributions of different practices to each of the pillars.
    16. 16. Key messages Overcoming barriers to adoption of climate-smart agriculture for long-term transformation toward sustainable management of resources requires: national agriculture development plans with appropriate institutions at national to local levels; provision of infrastructure; access to information and training; access to capital and insurance; stakeholder participation; and, last but not least, improvement of tenure arrangements.
    17. 17. Key messages Investment in improved natural resource management through climate finance can provide essential livelihood (through improved and diversified income, strengthened institutional capacity, reduced climate risk) and global mitigation benefits if high investment risks and low returns on investment can be overcome.
    18. 18. Thanks for a future