In this chapter, an attempt will be madeto explain the major happenings during thenine months before birth, to emphasize thesignificance of the moment ofconception, and to show what environmentaland psychological factors affect the course ofdevelopment.
How Life Begins vagina, uterus, fallopian tube and ovaries testes, epididymis and vas deferens Union of sperm and egg
1. Many sperm try to penetrate the egg.2. The first sperm through succeeds.3. The outside of the egg swells, casting away the othe sperm. The sperm„snucleus seeks the egg„s nucleus.4. The 2 nuclei merge and chromosomes pair up.5. The fertilized egg divides.The fertilization process
Timetable of Prenatal DevelopmentPeriod of the Zygote (fertilization toend of second week) The size of the zygote- that of apinhead- remains unchangedbecause it has no outside source ofnourishment. As it passes down the fallopian tubeto the uterus, it divides many timesand separates into an outer andinner layer. An outer layer later develops into theplacenta, the umbilical cord, and theamniotic sac, and the inner layerdevelops into a new human being. About 10 days after fertilization, thezygote becomes implanted in theuterine wall.
Embryonic stage- age 2 weeks-2 months Develops into a miniature humanbeing. Major development occurs, in thehead region first and the extremitieslast. All the essential features of the bodyare established. The embryo begins to turn in theuterus, and there is spontaneousmovement of the limbs. The placenta, the umbilicalchord, and the amniotic sac develop. At the end of the 2nd prenatalmonth, the embryo weighs, on theaverage, 1 ¼ ounces and measuresin length 1 ½ inches.
Fetal Stage- age 8 weeks-birth Changes occur in the actual size of the partsalready formed and in their functioning. No newfeatures appear in this time. Some internal organs are well enoughdeveloped to begin to function. Heartbeat can bedetected by about the 15th week The different internal organs have assumedpositions. Nerve cells increase rapidly in number. Fetal movements appear- rolling and kicking andshort or quick. By the end of 7th lunar month, fetus is wellenough developed to survive. By the end of the 8th lunar month the fetal bodyis completely formed.
Fetal Development (adapted from Jane Beltran) First Lunar Month- Foundations formed for nervous system, genito-urinary system, skin, bones andlungs.- Buds of arms and legs begin to form.- Rudiments of eyes, ears, and nose appear.
Second Lunar Month- Fetus markedly bent- Head disproportionately large, owing to brain development- Sex differentiation begins- Centers of bone begin to ossify
Third Lunar Month- Fingers and toes are distinct- Placenta is complete- Fetal circulation is complete
Fourth Lunar Month- Sex is differentiated- Rudimentary kidneys secrete urine- Heart beat is present
Fifth Lunar Month- Lanugo (fine downy hair covering a human fetus) covers entire body- Fetal movements are felt by mother- Heart sound are perceptible with fetoscope
Seventh Lunar Month- Skin is red- Papillary membrane disappears- If born, infant cries, breathes, but usually expires
Eight Lunar Month- Fetus is viable- Eyelids open- Fingerprints are set- Vigorous fetal movement occur
Ninth Lunar Month- Face and body have loose wrinkled appearance due to subcutaneous fatdeposit- Lanugo disappears- Amniotic fluid decreases somewhat
Kinds of BirthNatural, or Spontaneous birth- headfirst positionBreech birth- buttocks appear first, followed by the legs, and finally, theheadTransverse birth- the fetus is positioned crosswise in the mother‟suterus. Instruments must be used for delivery unless the position can bechanged before the birth process beginsInstrument birth- when the fetus is too large to emerge spontaneously orwhen its position makes it normal birth impossible, instruments must beused to aid in delivery.Caesarean section- if x-rays taken during the part of pregnancy indicatethat complications may result if the infant emerges through the birthcanal, the baby is brought into the world through a slit made surgically inthe mother‟s abdominal wall.
Infancy is the beginning or early period of existence as anindividual rather than a parasite in the mother‟s body.
Adjustments of InfancyTemperature Changes- there is a constant temperature of 100ºF in theuterine sac, while temperatures in the hospital or way home may varyfrom 60-70ºFBreathing- when the umbilical cord is cut, infants must begin to breatheon their own.Sucking and swallowing- the infant must now get nourishment bysucking and swallowing, instead of receiving it through the umbilicalchord. These reflexes are imperfectly developed at birth, and the infantoften gets less nourishment than is needed and thus loses weight.Elimination- the infant‟s organs of elimination begin to work soon afterbirth; formerly, waste products were eliminated through the umbilicalchord
Indications of the difficulty of adjustment to postnatal lifeLoss of weight- because of difficulties in adjusting to sucking andswallowingDisorganized behavior- such as irregularities in breathing rate, frequenturinations and defecations.Infant mortality- the rate of infant mortality during the first 2 days ofpostnatal life is high.
Physical developmentThe head grows the fastest and matures the earliest, followed bythe rest of the body downward. In addition, those parts that are closest tothe center of the infants body (e.g., the trunk) grow faster and matureearlier than do parts that are farther from the center (e.g., the hands). Thephysical structure of the brain develops rapidly as well.
ReflexesThe Moro reflex is anormal reflex for an infantwhen he or she is startled orfeels like they are falling.The infant will have a"startled" look and the armswill fling out sideways withthe palms up and thethumbs flexed. Absence ofthe Moro reflex in newborninfants is abnormal and mayindicate an injury ordisease.
Neck Righting reflexEvokes rotation of thebody simultaneously withthe course of the movementof the head.
Tonic Neck reflexConsists of theextension of the arm andthe leg on the direction towhich the face is turned(fencing posture).Here comes your footer Page 30
Sucking reflexElicited by stroking thelips, especially by thenipple.Here comes your footer Page 31
Rooting reflexInitiated by stimulatingthe cheek or area outsidethe lips and the infantdirects its mouth to suck thestimulus.Here comes your footer Page 32
Vocalization of infants2 categories:1. Crying- infant cry is the very first piece of human behavior which hassocial value.2. Explosive sounds- newborn infant occasionally makes explosivesounds similar to heavy breathing. They are uttered without meaningand occur purely by chance whenever vocal muscles contract.
Cognitive FunctionJean Piaget believes that the development of intelligence beginsduring the sensorimotor stage of the infant. Immediate experience isderived through the senses, through the interaction of the senses and theenvironment. Objects and events seen for the first time are vividlyremembered. Responses are defined by the object or event since theinfant is unable to classify his experience. Piaget theorized that to aninfant, an object or an event still exists even if it is no longer in sight. ionHe further theorized on two operations by which the infant acts upon theenvironment; assimilation and accommodation.Assimilation- from a regular succession of a previously learned behaviorsAccommodation- altering these behaviorsIt is an instinct for infants to possess “curiosity” by being attracted tonew objects and by integrating perceived relationships with their pastexperiences.Here comes your footer Page 34
Emotions of the newbornEmotional reactions may be described as states of pleasantnessand unpleasantness. The outstanding characteristics of the infantsemotional makeup is the complete absence of shift of responses showingdifferent degrees of intensity. Whatever the stimulus, the resultantemotion is intense and sudden.
Infants’ Social and Moral DevelopmentThey start to become aware of their environment. Their tasksinclude listening, visual following and sucking. Their discovery of thepeople may be supported by his crying, smiling and vocalizing. Theseresponses serve as signals which attract adults to be near the newborn.Based on Lawrence Kohlberg‟s theory of moral development, theinfant is in the first stage, the Pre-conventional stage which ischaracterized by obedience to being righteous on objects and events inorder to avoid the punishment of pain, anxiety, and prohibition ofindependence.
Ages & Stages - ToddlersWhen children learn to walk, they are called toddlers. Usually thisterm is applied to one and two year old children. The toddler stage is veryimportant in a childs life. It is the time between infancy and childhoodwhen a child learns and grows in many ways. Everything that happens tothe toddler is meaningful. With each stage or skill the child masters, a newstage begins. This growth is different for each child. Children have theirown timetable. During the toddler stage, most children learn towalk, talk, solve problems, relate to others, and more. One major task forthe toddler is to learn to be independent. That is why toddlers want to dothings for themselves, have their own ideas about how things shouldhappen, and use "NO" many times each day.
Toddlers bursting with energy and ideas need to explore theirenvironment. You need to make sure that they can explore in anenvironment that is safe for them. They want to be independent, andyet, they are still very dependent.
Intellectual DevelopmentToddlers name familiar people and objects. Their attention span isshort. They are curious. They use "NO" frequently. They point to objectsthat they want. They name body parts and familiar pictures. They imitateanimal sounds. They use pronouns me and mine. They can hold a penciland scribble. They combine two words to form a basic sentence. Theypoint to objects that they want. They use objects for their intendedpurpose. They begin to include a second person in pretend play.
They express their feelings and wishes. They follow simpledirections. They still have a very limited attention span. They use three ormore words in combination. They can memorize short rhymes. They useobjects to represent other objects. They can join in simple songs. Theyhave trouble making choices, but they want to make choices. They beginto think about doing something before doing it.
Social Development in Toddlers Desire for IndependenceToddlers want to be independent. They may refuse being fed by acaregiver because they want to feed themselves. They may also try to getaway from caregivers so that they can do some independent explorationsof the world around them.
PlayingDuring the toddler stage of social development, the child primarilyenjoys solitary or parallel play. Toddlers enjoying playing near otherchildren, but do not quite know how to interact with one another yet.Toddlers often have difficulty sharing. Also, toddlers begin to startpretending during play times.
AnxietyToddlers often experience anxiety around unfamiliar people orother toddlers. They may also start to have anxiety about situations theybelieve to be unpleasant, such as going to the doctors office. Toddlersmay form an attachment to some type of object used for comforting theseanxieties, such as a blanket or stuffed animal.
Temper TantrumsDuring this stage of social development, toddlers may display anincreased number of temper tantrums. Temper tantrums usually arisefrom frustration about being unable to do what they want to do or fromtheir inability to communicate wants and needs verbally. Awareness of Others EmotionsToddlers may begin to recognize the emotions of others aroundthem. They may attempt to comfort a sad or crying child, for example.