Fetal Development and the three stages of labor and delivery by Sandra Landinguin


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Fetal Development and the three stages of labor and delivery by Sandra Landinguin

  3. 3. 2 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />2 weeks - Fertilization: the sperm and egg join in the fallopian tube to form a unique human being. Forty-six chromosomes combine, which pre-determine all of a person&apos;s physical characteristics. <br />The picture on the right is a fertilized egg, only thirty hours after conception. Magnified here, it is no larger than the head of a pin. Still rapidly dividing, the developing embryo, called a zygote at this stage, floats down from the fallopian tube and towards the uterus. <br />
  4. 4. 3 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />3 weeks - Once in the uterus, the developing embryo, called a blastocyst, searches for a nice place to implant, where it actually burrows beneath the surface of the uterus. The yolk sac, shown on the left, produces blood cells during the early weeks of life. The unborn child is only one-sixth of an inch long, but is rapidly developing. The backbone, spinal column, and nervous system are forming. The kidneys, liver, and intestines are taking shape. <br />
  5. 5. 4-5 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH <br />4 weeks - The embryo produces hormones which stop the mother&apos;s menstrual cycle.<br />5 weeks - Embryo is the size of a raisin. By day twenty-one, the embryo&apos;s tiny heart has begun beating. The neural tube enlarges into three parts, soon to become a very complex brain. The placenta begins functioning. The spine and spinal cord grows faster than the rest of the body at this stage and give the appearance of a tail. This disappears as the child continues to grow. <br />
  6. 6. 7 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />7 weeks - Facial features are visible, including a mouth and tongue. The eyes have a retina and lens. The major muscle system is developed, and the unborn child practices moving. The child has its own blood type, distinct from the mother&apos;s. These blood cells are produced by the liver now instead of the yolk sac.<br />
  7. 7. 8 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />8 weeks - The unborn child, called a fetus at this stage, is about half an inch long. The tiny person is protected by the amnionic sac, filled with fluid. Inside, the child swims and moves gracefully. The arms and legs have lengthened, and fingers can be seen. The toes will develop in the next few days. Brain waves can be measured. <br />
  8. 8. 10 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH <br />10 weeks - The heart is almost completely developed and very much resembles that of a newborn baby. An opening the atrium of the heart and the presence of a bypass valve divert much of the blood away from the lungs, as the child&apos;s blood is oxygenated through the placenta. Twenty tiny baby teeth are forming in the gums. <br />
  9. 9. 12 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH <br />12 weeks - Vocal chords are complete, and the child can and does sometimes cry (silently). The brain is fully formed, and the child can feel pain. The fetus may even suck his thumb. The eyelids now cover the eyes, and will remain shut until the seventh month to protect the delicate optical nerve fibers.<br />
  11. 11. 14 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH <br />14 weeks - Muscles lengthen and become organized. The mother will soon start feeling the first flutters of the unborn child kicking and moving within.<br />
  12. 12. 15 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH <br />15 weeks - The fetus has an adult&apos;s taste buds and may be able to savor the mother&apos;s meals.<br />
  13. 13. 16 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />16 weeks - Five and a half inches tall and only six ounces in weight, eyebrows, eyelashes and fine hair appear. The child can grasp with his hands, kick, or even somersault.<br />
  14. 14. 20 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />20 weeks - The child can hear and recognize her mother&apos;s voice. Though still small and fragile, the baby is growing rapidly and could possibly survive if born at this stage. Fingernails and fingerprints appear. Sex organs are visible. Using an ultrasound device, the doctor can tell if the child is a girl or a boy. The one on the left is a baby girl.<br />
  16. 16. 24 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />24 weeks - Seen here at six months, the unborn child is covered with a fine, downy hair called lanugo. Its tender skin is protected by a waxy substance called vernix. Some of this substance may still be on the child&apos;s skin at birth at which time it will be quickly absorbed. The child practices breathing by inhaling amnionic fluid into developing lungs.<br />
  17. 17. 30 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />30 weeks - For several months, the umbilical cord has been the baby&apos;s lifeline to the mother. Nourishment is transferred from the mother&apos;s blood, through the placenta, and into the umbilical cord to the fetus. If the mother ingests any toxic substances, such as drugs or alcohol, the baby receives these as well.<br />
  18. 18. 32 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />32 weeks - The fetus sleeps 90-95% of the day, and sometimes experiences REM sleep, an indication of dreaming.<br />
  19. 19. 40 WEEKS FETAL GROWTH<br />40 weeks - The baby, now approximately seven and a half pounds, is ready for life outside its mother&apos;s womb. At birth the placenta will detach from the side of the uterus and the umbilical cord will cease working as the child takes his first breaths of air. The child&apos;s breathing will trigger changes in the structure of the heart and bypass arteries which will force all blood to now travel through the lungs.<br />
  21. 21. A gynecologist is a physician who has a successfully completed specialized education and training in the health of the female reproductive system, including the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and diseases.<br />
  22. 22. THE THREE STAGES OF LABOR AND DELIVERYby Sandra Landinguin<br />
  23. 23. Labor progresses through three stages:<br />Dilation “opening”<br />Expulsion<br />Placental<br />
  24. 24. THE FIRST STAGE OF LABOR “DILATION”<br /> Dilation can last anywhere from 2-16 hours or more. At first, each contraction is 30-45 sec. in duration and occurs about every 15-20 min. Their function is to dilate the cervix until it is wide enough to let the baby through – usually about 10 cm (4 in.). In the course of the first stage of labor the contractions increase in frequency until they are only a minute or two apart. Each contraction itself becomes longer and, toward the end of the first stage, may last 90 seconds. There may be a series of very intense contractions; during this time the cervix has been stretched around the baby’s head. The woman may feel ready to give up, but this phase, known as transition, is soon over. It rarely lasts more than 30 min. and is often much shorter.<br />
  25. 25. THE SECOND STAGE OF LABOR “EXPULSION”<br /> In expulsion, the involuntary contractions continue to be long in duration and closely spaced, but now the woman has a strong urge to bear down with her abdominal muscles. At each new contraction she pushes down with all her strength as the baby’s scalp comes into view, only to disappear again when the contraction ends. This is known as crowning. With each contraction more and more of the baby’s head can be seen. When the baby’s head comes out as far as its widest diameter, it stays out, and in short it is free. <br />
  26. 26. THE HAPPIEST MOMENTS !!!<br /> Some babies will give their first cry at this point. With the next contractions the shoulders emerge, and the rest of the body slips out easily. The feelings of both parents at this time are almost impossible to put into words: elation, exhaustion, and great feelings of tenderness and caring. <br />
  27. 27. It was once the practice for the doctor to hold the baby up by the feet immediately following delivery to allow fluid and mucus to escape from the baby’s mouth and nose, so that the infant could start breathing, usually with a gasp and cry. Today it is more usual to aspirate the mucus from the baby’s mouth and nose by suction as soon as the head is delivered. This gives the baby a slight head start on independent breathing. <br />
  28. 28. As soon as delivery is complete, the umbilical cord is clamped and cut. The baby is then wrapped in a blanket, and someone performs a variety of procedures that vary from hospital to hospital. Typically, drops of silver nitrate are placed in the baby’s eyes to prevent infection, both mother and baby are given plastic identification bracelets, and fingerprints of the mother and sometimes footprints of the baby are taken. <br />
  29. 29. THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOR “PLACENTAL”<br /> During the placental stage, the afterbirth (the placenta and cord) is expelled from the uterus. Labor is now completed. <br />
  30. 30. The length of the entire process varies greatly, as does the actual experience of labor. 15 hours is an average figure for the duration of birth from the first contraction to the expulsion of the afterbirth for a first birth. But this average covers a spectrum of labor as long as 24 hours and as short as 3 hours or less. Labor is usually longer for first babies than for later ones, and longer for boys than girls. The reason for a longer first labor might be the easier adaptation of the woman’s body to the process and the reduced amount of anxiety present in subsequent births. <br />
  31. 31. A baby will make love stronger, days shorter, nights longer, home happier, the past forgotten, and the future worth living for.<br />
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  33. 33. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME !!!<br />