Young child: a young child
who is learning to walk.
The postnatal growth from conception to 5 months when the head grows
more than the body.
The greatest growth always occurs at the top –the head.
The infants learns to use their ‘’UPPER LIMBS ‘’before heir
‘’LOWER LIMBS ‘’.
The same pattern occurs in the head area _.
The top parts of the head= the eyes and the brain- grow faster
than the lower parts such as the jaw.
The pre-natal growth from
5 months to birth when the
fetus grows from the inside
of the body outwards.
The muscular control of the
trunk and the arms comes
earlier as compared to the
hands and fingers.
Refers to the
motor skills from
the center of the
HEIGHT & WEIGHT
Its normal for new born babies to drop 5 to
10 percent of their body weight within a
couple of weeks of birth.(Due to the baby’s
adjustment to neonatal feeding/ once they
adjust to sucking, swallowing and
digesting, they grow rapidly).
Breastfed babies are typically heavier than
the bottle-fed babies through the first 6
months.(After 6 months, breastfed babies
usually weigh less than bottle-fed babies.
In general, an infant’s length increases by
about 30% in the first 5 months.
A baby’s weight usually triples during the
first year but slows down in the second
year of life.
Low percentages are not a cause for alarm
as long as infants progress along a natural
curve of steady development.
Among the most dramatic changes
in the brain in the first 2 years of life
are the spreading connections of
dendrites to each other. (Remember
neurons, dendrites, axon, synapses).
Myelination or myelinization
=The process by which the axons are
covered and insulated by layers of fat
cells, begins prenatally and continues
=The process of MYELINATION or
MYELINIZATION increases the speed
at w/c information travels through
the nervous system.
At birth, the newborn’s brain is
about 25% of its adult weight. By the
second birthday, the brain is about
75% of its adult weight.
Shortly after birth, a baby’s brain
produces trillions more connections
between neurons than it can
possibly use. The brain eliminates
connections that are seldom or
never used. The infant’s brain is
literally waiting for experiences to
determine how connections are
Along this aspect of motor development, infants and toddlers begin from
reflexes, to gross motor skills and fine motor skills.
The newborn has some basic reflexes which are, of course automatic, and
serve as survival mechanisms before they have the opportunity to learn.
Many reflexes which are present at birth with generally subside within a
few months as the baby grows and matures.
Sucking Reflex( The sucking reflexes is initiated when something touches
the roof of an infant’s mouth. Infants have a strong sucking reflex which
helps to ensure they can latch unto bottle or breast. The sucking reflex is
very strong in some infants and they may need to suck on a pacifier for
Rooting Reflex( The roofing reflex is most evident when an infant’s cheek
is stroked. The baby responds by turning his or her head in the direction
of the touch and opening their mouth for feeding).
Gripping Reflex( Babies will grasp anything that is placed in their palm.
The strength of this grip is strong, and most babies can support their
entire weight in their grip).
Curling Reflex( When the inner sole of a baby’s foot is stroked the infant
respond by curling his or her toes. When the outer sole of a baby’s foot
is stroked, the infant will respond by spreading out their toes).
Startle/Moro Reflex( Infants will respond to sudden sounds or
movements by throwing their arms and legs out, and throwing their
heads back. Most infants will usually cry when startled and proceed to
pull their limbs back into their bodies ).
Galant Reflex( The galant reflex is shown when an infant’s middle or
lower back is stroked next to the spinal cord. The baby will respond by
curving his or her body toward the side which is being stroked).
Tonic Neck Reflex( The tonic neck reflex is demonstrated in infants who
are placed on their abdomens. Whenever side the child’s head is facing,
the limbs on that side will straighten, while the opposite limbs will curl).
Gross Motor Skills
It is always a source of excitement for parents to witness dramatic changes
in the infant’s first year of life. This dramatic motor development is shown
in babies unable to even lift their heads to being able to grab things off
the cabinet, to chase the ball and to walk away from parents.
Fine Motor Skills
Are skills that involve a refined use of the small muscles controlling the hand,
finger and thumb. The development of these skills allows one to be able to
complete tasks such as writing, drawing and buttoning.
The ability to exhibit fine motor skills involve activities that involve precise eye-
The development of reaching and grasping becomes more refined during the first
2 years of life. Initially, infants show only crude shoulder and elbow movements,
but later they show wrist movements, hand rotation and coordination of the
thumb and forefinger.
SENSORY and PERCEPTUAL
The newborn senses the world into
which he/she is born through
his/her senses of vision, hearing,
touch, taste and smell. As he/she
advances physically his/her sensory
and perceptual abilities also
RESEACH FINDINGS regarding
NEWBORN’S VISUAL PERCEPTION
The newborn’s vision is about 10 to 30 times lower than normal adult
vision. By 6 months of age, vision becomes better and by the first birthday,
the infant’s vision approximates that of an adult.
Infants look at different things for different lengths of time. In an
experiment conducted by Robert Fantz(1963 cited by Santrock, 2002), it
was found out that infants preferred to look at patterns such as faces and
concentric circles rather than at color or brightness. Based on these
results, it is likely that ‘’pattern perception has an innate basis’’. Among
the first few things that babies learn to recognize is their mother’s face, as
mother feeds and nurses them.
Can NEWBORN Hear?
The sense of hearing in an infant develops much before the birth of the
baby. When in the womb, the baby hears his/her mother’s heartbeats, the
grumbling of his/her stomach, the mother’s voice and music.
Infants’ sensory thresholds are somewhat higher than those of adult
which means that stimulus must be louder to be heard by a newborn than
by an adult.
Can NEWBORNS differentiate
In an experiment conducted by
MacFarlane(1975) ‘’ Young infants
who were breastfed showed a clear
preference for smelling their
mother’s breast pad when the babies
were only two days old. This shows
that it requires several days of
experience to recognize their
mother’s breast pad odor’’.
Can NEWBORNS feel pain?Do
they Respond to touch?
They do feel pain. Newborn males
show a higher level of cortisol( an
indicator of stress) after a
circumcision than prior to the
Babies respond to touch. The
newborn automatically sucks an
object placed in his/her head toward
the side that was touched in an
apparent effort to find something to
Can NEWBORNS distinguish
the different tastes?
In a study conducted with babies
only two hour old, babies made
different facial expressions when
they tasted sweet, sour and bitter
When saccharin was added to the
amniotic fluid of a near-term fetus,
increased swallowing was observed.
This indicates that sensitivity to taste
might be present before birth.
Do infants relate information
through several senses? Or
Are infants capable of
INTERMODAL PERCEPTION is the ability
to relate, connect and integrate
information about two or more sensory
modalities such as vision and hearing.
In a study conducted by Spelke and
Owsley(1979), it was found out that as
early as at 3 ½ months old, infants looked
more at their mother when they also
heard her voice and longer at their father
when they also heard his voice.
This capacity for intermodal perception or
ability to connect information coming
through various modes gets sharpened
considerably through experience.
WHAT INFANTS and TODDLERS
can do Physically?
DOMAIN: Physical Health, Well-Being and Motor Development
STANDARD 1_ The children demonstrates adequate growth ( weight, height, head
STANDARD 2_ The child has adequate sensory systems to participate in daily activities.
Startles to loud sounds
Visually follows a moving object from side to side
Visually follows a moving object up and down
Reacts to pain by crying
Withdraws or reacts with surprise when in contact with something cold
Reacts with pleasure/smiles or relaxed expression when he/she tastes something
Reacts by making a face/frowns/grimaces when he/she tastes something he/she
does not like
Reacts with pleasure when he/she smells something nice
Reacts by making a face when he/she smells something fouls
STANDARD 3_ The child has adequate stamina to participate in daily activities.
Pushes and/or pulls moderately heavy objects (e.g.. chairs, large boxes)
Walks without tiring easily
Play without tiring easily, able to keep pace with playmates
Participates actively in games, outdoor play and other exercises
Sustains physical activities (e.g. dancing, outdoor games, swimming) for at least
MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT(Gross
Standard 1_ The child shows control in coordination of body movements
involving large muscle groups.
Holds head steadily
Moves arms and legs equally to reach at dangling object
Bounces when held standing, briefly bearing weight on legs
Sits with support
Stating to crawl but not yet very good at this
Sits steadily without support
Creeps or crawls with ease as a primary means of moving around
Stands without support
Stands from a sitting position without any help
Squats from standing position with ease
Stands from standing position with ease
Bends over easily without falling
Stands from a bent position without falling
Walks sideways by holding onto the sides of crib or furniture (cruises)
Walks with one hand held
Walks without support
Walks up the stairs with hand held, 2 feet on each step
Walks down stairs with hand held, 2 feet on each step
Jumps in place
Climbs onto a steady elevated surface (e.g. bed, adult chair or bangko etc.)
Kicks a ball but with little control of direction
Throws a ball but with little control of direction
Throws a ball but with little control of speed
Runs without tripping or falling
Maintains balance (walking on a low, narrow ledge, between 2 lines without
Moves with music when he hears it
Can move body to imitate familiar animals
Can move body to imitate another person/TV character
Walks up the stairs with alternating feet, without help
Walks down the stairs with alternating feet without help
Kicks a ball with a control of direction
Throws a ball with control of direction
Throws a ball with control of speed
MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT(Fine
Standard 1_ The child can control and coordinate hand and finger
Hands open most of the time
Bring both hands together towards dangling object/toy
Uses either hand interchangeably to grasp objects
Uses all 5 fingers in a ranking motion to get food/toy placed on a flat surface
Grasps objects with the same hand most of the time (hand preference emerging)
Pulls toys by string
Bangs 2 large blocks together
Picks up objects with thumb and index fingers
Grasps and transfer objects from hand to hand
Grasps objects with the same hand all the time (definite
hand preference established)
Puts small objects in/out of container
Holds thick pencil or crayon with palmar grip (e. g. all 5
fingers wrapped around pencil)
19- 24 months
Colors with strokes going out of the lines
PERSONAL CARE AND HYGIENE
(Activities of Daily Living)
Standard 1_ The child participates in basic personal care
Sucks and swallows milk form breast/bottle
Begins to take complementary or semi-solid foods by the en of 6 months
Keeps reasonably still while being dressed, undressed bathed and while
diaper is being change
Holds feeding bottle by himself
Helps hold cup for drinking
Chews solid foods well
Feeds self with finger foods
Scoops with a spoon with spillage
Feeds self with assistance
Feeds self using fingers to eat rice/viands with spillage
Feeds self using spoon with spillage
No longer drinks from feeding bottle
Drinks from cup unassisted
Participates when being dressed by lifting arms or raising legs
Pulls down gartered short pants/underpants or panties
Informs caregiver of the need to move his bowels so he/she can be
brought to comfort room
Takes a bath with assistance
Brushes teeth after meals with assistance from adult
Washes and dries hands under adult supervision
Washes and dries face with the assistance of an adult
Gets drink for self unassisted
Removes loose sando
Informs caregiver of the need to urinate so he/she can be
brought the comfort room
Goes to the designated place to urinate but sometimes wets
Goes to the designated place to move his/her bowels but
sometimes still sols his/her pants
Goes to the designated place to move his/her bowels but
needs help with wiping and washing
Brushes teeth after meals with adult supervision
Washes and dries face under adult supervision
LANGUAGE (Expressive Language)
Standard 1_ The child is able to use words and gestures to
express his thoughts and feelings.
Makes gurgling; cooing, babbling or other vocal sounds
Uses gestures (e.g. stretching his/her arms, pointing) to indicate he/she
Repeats sounds produced by others
Says meaningful words like papa, mama, to refer to specific
Uses animal sounds to identify animals (e.g. meow-meow
Uses environmental sounds to identify objects/events in the
environment (boom for thunder)
Speaks in single words
Says “yes” and “no” appropriately
Uses words accompanied by gestures to indicate what heshe wants
Responds to simple questions with single words
Uses possessive pronouns
Says what he/she wants without accompanying this with gestures
Attempts to converse even if he cannot be clearly understood
PRE-READING AND PRE-MATH
Standard 1_ The child is able to match identical objects, colors,
Able to match 2 identical objects (e.g. 2 spoons, 2 balls)
Matches identical objects
Matches identical pictures
Presented by: Arrissa E. Gimena & Elsa C. Navales