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Consumer Behavior

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  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Consumer Behavior In The News…Promoting a car that doesn’t exist? That’s right! Audi created an ad for the RSQ, a futuristic car featured in the movie “I, Robot.” What possessed Audi to do this?Source: J. Halliday, “Audi effort features nonexistent vehicle,” Advertising Age, May 17, 2004, p. 152. 10-4
  5. 5. Consumer Behavior In The News…Promoting a car that doesn’t exist? What possessed Audi to do this?  In a word – PERSONALITY!  Audi execs feel it speaks to Audi’s core strengths including: “cool styling, sophistication, sportiness…”Source: J. Halliday, “Audi effort features nonexistent vehicle,” Advertising Age, May 17, 2004, p. 152. 10-5
  6. 6. The Nature of MotivationMotivation is the reason for behavior.A motive is a construct representing an unobservable innerforce that stimulates and compels a behavioral responseand provides specific direction to that response.There are numerous theories ofmotivation, and many of themoffer useful insights for themarketing manager. 10-6
  7. 7. The Nature of MotivationTwo useful motivation theories: theories2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms.3. McGuire’s Psychological Motives • A fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific aspects of consumer behavior. 10-7
  8. 8. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives1. Cognitive Preservation Motives Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Attribution (active, external) Attribution Theory Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need for Objectification (passive, external) 10-8
  9. 9. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives2. Cognitive Growth Motives Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Utilitarian Need (passive, external) 10-9
  10. 10. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives3. Affective Preservation Motives Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) 10-10
  11. 11. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives4. Affective Growth Motives Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Modeling (passive, external) 10-11
  12. 12. Applications in Consumer BehaviorThe Mercedes-Benz adprovides an excellentexample of targetingwomen high in need forassertionThey are competitiveachievers, seekingsuccess, admiration, anddominance.Important to them arepower, accomplishment,and esteem. Courtesy Mercedes Benz USA, Inc. 10-12
  13. 13. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Latent and Manifest Motives in a Purchase Situation 10-13
  14. 14. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Hedonic Shopping Motives Adventure Shopping Social Shopping Gratification Shopping Idea Shopping Role Shopping Value Shopping 10-14
  15. 15. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation ConflictThree types of motivational conflict:2. Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict • A choice between two attractive alternatives3. Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict • A choice with both positive and negative consequences4. Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational Conflict • A choice involving only undesirable outcomes 10-15
  16. 16. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy A Regulatory Focus Approach to Motivation 10-16
  17. 17. PersonalityPersonality is an individual’scharacteristic response tendenciesacross similar situations.While motivations are theenergizing and directing force thatmakes consumer behaviorpurposeful and goal directed, thepersonality of the consumer guidesand directs the behavior chosen toaccomplish goals in differentsituations. 10-17
  18. 18. Personality2. Multitrait Approach • The Five-Factor Model is the most commonly used by marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning.3. Single Trait Approach • Consumer Ethnocentrism • Need for Cognition • Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness 10-18
  19. 19. PersonalityThe Five-Factor Model of Personality 10-19
  20. 20. Personality Examples of Single-Trait Theories Vanity Trait Locus of Sensation Anxiety Control SeekingCompulsive Materialism Affect Self- Buying Intensity Monitoring 10-20
  21. 21. PersonalityThree additional traits:2. Consumer Ethnocentrism • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products.3. Need for Cognition (NFC) • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking.4. Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods. 10-21
  22. 22. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Other times,Sometimes consumers useconsumers choose products to bolsterproducts that fit their an area of theirpersonality. personality where they feel weak. 10-22
  23. 23. The Use of Personality in Marketing PracticeBrand image is what people think of and feelwhen they hear or see a brand name.Brand personality is a set of humancharacteristics that become associated with abrand and are a particular type of image thatsome brands acquire. 10-23
  24. 24. Video ApplicationThe following Video Clip demonstrates howSegway built brand personality with its “GetMoving” integrated marketing campaign! 10-24
  25. 25. 10-25
  26. 26. The Use of Personality in marketing Practice Dimensions of Brand Personality 10-26
  27. 27. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand PersonalityThree important advertising tactics: Celebrity Endorsers User Imagery Executional Factors 10-27
  28. 28. EmotionEmotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is theliking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling.Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings thataffect behavior. They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and personality. Unmet needs create motivation which is related to the arousal component of emotion. Personality also plays a role, e.g., some people are more emotional than others, a consumer trait referred to as affect intensity. intensity 10-28
  29. 29. Emotion Nature of EmotionsSource: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, 10-29 December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.
  30. 30. Emotion Dimensions of Emotion Pleasure Arousal Dominance 10-30
  31. 31. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion Arousal as a Product Benefit • Consumers actively seek products whose primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal. Emotion Reduction as a Product Benefit • Marketers design or position many products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant emotions. 10-31
  32. 32. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Consumer Coping in Product and Service Encounters  Active coping  Expressive support seeking  Avoidance 10-32
  33. 33. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion in Advertising  Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities.  Emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal.  Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself.  Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand preference through classical conditioning.  Emotion may operate via high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision relevant. 10-33