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Personality and consumer behavior

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Personality and consumer behavior

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Personality and consumer behavior

  1. 1. PERSONALITY AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Prof. Abhipsa Mishra, CB
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. To Understand How Personality Reflects Consumers’ Inner Differences. 2. To Understand How Freudian, Neo-Freudian, and Trait Theories Each Explain the Influence of Personality on Consumers’ Attitudes and Behavior. 3. To Understand How Personality Reflects Consumers’ Responses to Product and Marketing Messages. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (contd..) 4. To Understand How Marketers Seek to Create Brand Personalities-Like Traits. 5. To Understand How the Products and Services That Consumers Use Enhance Their Self-Images. 6. To Understand How Consumers Can Create Online Identities Reflecting a Particular Set of Personality Traits. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  4. 4. Personality and it’s nature • Personality refers to the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another and that lead people to act in a consistent and predictable manner, both in different situations and over extended periods of time. • The Nature of Personality:  Personality reflects individual differences  Personality is consistent and enduring  Personality can change Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  5. 5. Discussion Questions • How would you describe your personality? • How does it influence products that you purchase? Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  6. 6. Theories of Personality • Freudian theory – Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation • Neo-Freudian personality theory – Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality • Trait theory – Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  7. 7. Freudian Theory • Id: Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction • Superego: Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct • Ego: Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  8. 8. Freud’s Theory: “The ID”  The id uses the most primitive of thinking process.  Basic biological urges (e.g., hunger, self-protection).  Operates on the Pleasure Principle.  Seeks pleasure and avoids pain:“I want what I want NOW!”  The id operates completely at an unconscious level.  No direct contact with reality. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  9. 9. Freud’s Theory: “The Superego” • Superego: the moral part of personality.  Internalized rules of parents and society. • Superego consists of two parts:  Conscience: “notions of right/wrong.”  Ego Ideal: “how we ideally like to be.” • Superego: constrains us from gratifying every impulse (e.g., murder) because they are immoral, and not because we might get caught. • It is partly conscious, partly unconscious. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  10. 10. Freud’s Theory: “The Ego” • The ego consists of a conscious faculty for perceiving and dealing intelligently with reality. • The ego acts as a mediator between the id and the superego. – The ego is partly conscious. – Deals with the demands of reality. – Makes rational decisions. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  11. 11. Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms • Repression: Pushing unacceptable and anxiety-producing thoughts into the unconscious; involves intentional forgetting but not consciously done; repressed material can be memories or unacceptable impulses. • Regression: acting in ways characteristic of earlier life stages/earlier stage of personality. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  12. 12. • Reaction formation: replacing an anxiety- producing feeling with its exact opposite, typically going overboard; repressed thoughts appear as mirror opposites. • Rationalization: creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior; real motive for behavior is not accepted by ego. Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  13. 13. • Denial: claiming and believing that something which is actually true is false. • Displacement: redirecting emotional feelings (e.g., anger) to a substitute target; involves directing unacceptable impulses onto a less threatening object/person. Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  14. 14. • Projection: attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings or beliefs to others; perceiving the external world in terms of one’s own personal conflicts. • Sublimation: substitute socially acceptable behavior for unacceptable impulses. Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  15. 15. Neo-Freudian Personality Theories • Style of life • Feelings of inferiority Alfred Adler • People are shaped by cumulative experiences of the past generations • Archetypes – ‘Mother nature’, ‘Chanda mama’, myths, stories, Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings Carl Jung • We establish relationships with others to reduce tensionsHarry Stack Sullivan • Compliant: move toward others • Aggressive: move against others • Detached: move away from others Karen Horney’s three personality groups Social relationships are fundamental to personality Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  16. 16. Trait Theory • Focus on measurement of personality in terms of traits – identifiable characteristics that define a person • Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. Eg. Extrovert, introvert Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  17. 17. Traits relevant to consumer behavior • Degree to which a person likes to try new thingsInnovativeness • Amount of emphasis placed on acquiring and owning productsMaterialism • The degree to which a person deliberately monitors and controls the self-image that is projected to others Self-consciousness • The degree to which a person likes to think about a thing and tries to seek the brand information. Need for cognition • Frugal people deny short term purchasing whims, choosing resourcefully to use what they already ownFrugality Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  18. 18. Soup and Soup Lover’s Traits • Chicken Noodle Soup Lovers – Watch a lot of TV – Are family oriented – Have a great sense of humor – Are outgoing and loyal – Like daytime talk shows – Most likely to go to church • Tomato Soup Lovers – Passionate about reading – Love pets – Like meeting people for coffee – Aren’t usually the life of the party • Vegetable/Minestrone Soup Lovers – Enjoy the outdoors – Usually game for trying new things – Spend more money than any other group dining in fancy restaurants – Likely to be physically fit – Gardening is often a favorite hobby Personality is linked to broad product categories and NOT specific brands Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  19. 19. Personality and Understanding Consumer Behavior Consumer innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Sensation seeking Variety- novelty seeking Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  20. 20. Personality and Understanding Consumer Behavior Consumer Innovativeness • Willingness to innovate • Further broken down for hi- tech products – Global innovativeness – Domain-specific innovativeness – Innovative behavior Dogmatism • Reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays towards the unfamiliar and towards information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  21. 21. Contd.. • Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to other-directedness – Inner-directedness (Idiocentrics) • rely on own values when evaluating products • Innovators – Other-directedness (Allocentrics) • Look to others • less likely to be innovators Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  22. 22. Need for Uniqueness • Consumers who avoid conforming to expectations or standards of others Sensation Seeking • The need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience. And the willingness to take social and physical risks for the sensations. Contd.. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  23. 23. Optimum Stimulation Level • A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences • High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers. Variety-Novelty Seeking • Measures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking • Examples include: – Exploratory Purchase Behavior – Use Innovativeness – Vicarious Exploration Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra Contd..
  24. 24. From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption Fixated consumption behavior • Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products • Characteristics: • Passionate interest in a product category • Willingness to go to great lengths to secure objects • Dedication of time and money to collecting Compulsive consumption behavior • “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  25. 25. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Cosmopolitanism Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products because of the impact on the economy. They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes Cosmopolitanism • A cosmopolitan orientation would consider the world to be their marketplace and would be attracted to products from other cultures and countries. Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  26. 26. Brand Personality • Personality-like traits associated with brands • Examples – Tetrapack and freshness – Nike and athlete – BMW is performance driven • Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price premium Personality and Consumer Behavior I Prof. Abhipsa Mishra
  27. 27. Discussion Questions • Pick three of your favorite food brands. • Describe their personality. Do they have a gender? What personality traits do they have?
  28. 28. Product Anthropomorphism and Brand Personification Product Anthropomorphism • Attributing human characteristics to objects • Tony the Tiger and Mr. Peanut Brand Personification • Consumer’s perception of brand’s attributes for a human-like character • Mr. Coffee is seen as dependable, friendly, efficient, intelligent and smart.
  29. 29. A Brand Personality Framework
  30. 30. Product Personality Issues Gender • Some products perceived as masculine (coffee and toothpaste) while others as feminine (bath soap and shampoo) Geography • Actual locations, like Philadelphia cream cheese and Arizona iced tea • Fictitious names also used, such as Hidden Valley and Bear Creek Color • Color combinations in packaging and products denotes personality

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