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System of rice intensification status, issues and future research strategies

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System of rice intensification status, issues and future research strategies

System of rice intensification status, issues and future research strategies

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System of rice intensification status, issues and future research strategies

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification- Status, Issues and Future Research Strategies K.Srinivasa Rao Ex. Head, Div. of Crop Production Central Rice Research Institute Cuttack-753 006, Orissa, India ______________________________ E- mail: ksrao_52@hotmail.com
  2. 2. Rice is grown in all the countries of the world, except Antarctica. It has large influence on nutrition and food security all over the world. It is the staple food for over half of the world’s population. About 4/5th of the world’s rice is produced by the small scale farmers and is consumed locally. Rice systems support a wide variety of plants and animals, which also help to supplement rural diet and incomes. Rice is therefore on the frontline in the fight against world hunger and poverty. Rice is also a symbol of both cultural identity and global unity. “Rice is Life”
  3. 3. RICE 2011-12 2020-21 2025 Projected demand (m/ton) 105 122 130 Required growth rate(%/year) 2.06 1.71 1.60 Demand projection of rice for the years 2011,2020 and 2025 in India
  4. 4.  Declining resource base Land Water Labour  Deteriorating soil health  Increasing environmental concerns  Increased pest and disease problems  Increasing cost of cultivation  Increasing food demands  Procurement & Marketing issues  Unprecedented disasters like cyclone, flood, etc.  Poor extension services and socio-economic barrier Issues & Challenges for enhancing rice production
  5. 5. Low Land and Water Productivity Degrading Land Resource Base Depleting Aquifers Dwindling Land for Agriculture High Water Losses Shrinking Water Resources Increasing Population Pressure Food Security MAJOR CHALLENGES
  6. 6. Rice and Water  80% of fresh water is used for agriculture.  More than 50% of this is consumed by the rice crop.  Rice consumes about 4000-5000 ltr. of water to produce 1 kg of grain.  Irrigated Rice cannot be ignored as it contributes significantly to food security.  Little scope to save water from other irrigated dry crops.  Hence pressure would be on rice cultivation to cut down the water requirement.
  7. 7. Water saving strategies and options in rice cultivation Genetic  Designing water use efficient varieties and hybrids. Management o Zero tillage o Raised bed method o Direct seeding o System of Rice Intensification (SRI) o Aerobic rice o Alternate wetting and drying
  8. 8. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - a new management technique for increasing the productivity of irrigated rice
  9. 9. What is SRI ? It is a set of modified practices for growing rice which was developed in Madagascar in 1983 by Father Henri Laulanie. Features Planting young seedlings 8 – 12 days old Planting single seedling/hill Along with soil Wider Spacing 25 cm x 25 cm Organic manuring Compost , Gm , Straw No standing water till PI stage Alternate wetting and drying Aerated Soil Weeding by Cono-weeder
  10. 10. SRI increase rice yields significantly through effective integration of soil, water, nutrient and plant management, without dependence on high cost modern inputs. SRI practices are helpful in improving the soil quality and soil biodiversity and protect the environment sustainability. SRI increases the profitability of rice farmers, especially those, who are resource-poor by saving inputs SRI technology uses less seed, water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides but yields more with large root volume, profuse and strong tillers with big panicles, more and well-filled spike lets with high grain weight Why SRI
  11. 11. Claims of SRI method  Very high yields (up to 15 – 17 t/ha).  Water saving (up to 50%)  Improved soil health.  Improved input use efficiency.  Lower seed requirement.
  12. 12. Irrigated environments- Irrigated Medium Lands in wet season and dry seasons. Rainfed environments- shallow lowlands where water control (irrigation & Drainage) is possible Irrigated boro rice areas in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam & other NEH states Favourable bunded uplands during wet season Production Environments
  13. 13. NURSEY PLANTING MARKER Components of SRI cultivation LAND PREPARAION
  14. 14. Mechanized Weeder Cono Weeder Mandava weeder WEED MANGEMENT WATER MANAGEMENT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
  15. 15. Healthy Root Growth More Tillers Heavy Panicles More Yield
  16. 16. Item Conventional Method SRI method Seed 50-60 kg/ha 5 kg/ha Transplanting Seedlings about 30 days old Seedlings about 8-12 day’s old Number of hills/m2 About 30-40 hills About 16 hills No. of seedlings/hill Three or more Only one Fertilization Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and insecticides Preference given to organic fertilization, non chemical means of weed control. Pesticides, insecticides usually not necessary Water Management Continuous flooding Only moist condition Weed management Manually/chemically controlled Turn down into the field by a weeder SRI vs. Conventional Method of Rice Cultivation
  17. 17. Evaluation of SRI with recommended package of practices - CRRI, Cuttack
  18. 18. Experimental Site Site: Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India (20.5 N, 86oE and 23.5 m above mean sea level) Ecosystem: Irrigated medium land Season: Wet (June-October) and dry (January to May) Soil: The soil of the experimental site is of Sandy loam of Mahanadi delta classified as alluvial (Inceptisol-aeric tropaquept)
  19. 19. Soil Property Texture Sand (%) 63 Silt (%) 14 Clay (%) 23 PH 6.5 Total N (%) 0.06 Available P (ppm) 36 Exchangeable K (meq/100g) 1.0 Exchangeable Mg (meq/100g) 4.7 Exchangeable Ca (meq/100g) 8.0 Organic carbon (%) 0.5 Percolation rate (mm/day) 8 Important properties of the soil of the experimental s
  20. 20. Weekly Distribution Pattern of Rainfall at Cuttack(Based on 60 Years Average Data from 1941 - 2000) 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 Standard Meteorological Week Rainfall(mm) Monsoon Period = 23rd – 40th SMW, Avg. Annual Rainfall= 1536 mm Dry spells of 5-15 days are common any time during the wet season. Experienced drought thrice within last seven years (1996, 2000 and 2002)
  21. 21. The SRI and ICM gave significantly higher grain yield than LRP. The mean grain yield under SRI (5.92 t/ha in 2005 and 6.99 t/ha in 2006) was higher by 21 and 24 percent over LRP (4.90 t/ha in 2005 and 5.64 t/ha in 2006). SRI gave about 7.5 and 14.8 per cent increase in grain yield over ICM in 2005 and 2006 respectively. Higher yield in SRI was realized due to more effective tillers hill-1, longer panicles with more fertile spikelets panicle-1. RESULTS
  22. 22. Varieties Grain yield kg/ha SRI ICM LRM Mean Lalat 5.84 5.45 4.71 5.38 CRHR-5 6.00 5.56 5.10 5.56 5.92(20.8) 5.51(12.4) 4.94 Grain Yield as affected by different crop establishment methods (Dry season) C.D. (0.05) for methods of establishment 0.29 (6.26) for Varieties NS (5.04) for M at same V NS for V at same M NS
  23. 23. Varieties Grain yield kg/ha SRI ICM LRM Mean Lalat 7.21 6.23 5.63 6.35 CRHR-5 6.76 5.94 5.66 6.12 6.99 (23.9) 6.09 (7.90) 5.64 Grain Yield as affected by different crop establishment methods (Dry season) C.D. (0.05) for methods of establishment 0.35 (5.20) for Varieties NS for M at same V NS for V at same M NS
  24. 24. SRI ICM LRM MEAN % DH at 33 DAT Lalat 6.14 20.67 18.11 14.97 CRHR-5 7.24 14.2 18.45 13.30 Average 6.69 17.44 18.28 % DH at 50 DAT Lalat 0.85 5.85 5.25 3.98 CRHR-5 1.05 5.95 5.65 4.23 Average 0.95 5.90 5.45 % WEH at harvest Lalat 0.5 2.1 3.05 1.88 CRHR-5 1.1 2.7 3.05 2.28 Average 0.8 2.4 3.05 Insect incidence as affected by different crop establishment methods (Dry season)
  25. 25. Impact of SRI on rice yields: SRI significantly increased rice yield. There is about 19 percent increase in yield over local recommended practice (LRP) and about 8 percent increase over Integrated Crop Management (ICM) S R SRI vs LRP SRI vs ICM
  26. 26. Treatments Plant Height (cm) Panicles/m2 Panicle wt. (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Age of seedlings (days) 8 117 301 3.75 6.22 14 109 285 3.38 5.92 21 108 272 2.96 5.47 CV (%) 4.6 8.0 6.1 16.0 CD (0.05) NS 15.3 0.21 0.08 Crop density 15 cm x 15 cm (44) hills/m2) 109.2 316.6 2.38 5.82 25 cm x 25 cm (16) hills/m2) 114.1 283.3 4.06 6.21 30 cm x 30 cm (11) hills/m2) 111.6 259.0 3.66 4.82 CV (%) 2.3 8.7 4.5 12.6 CD (0.05) NS 21.2 0.20 0.10 CD (Main x sub plot) NS 26.6 0.37 NS Standardization of technology package for SRI- CRRI, Cuttack
  27. 27. Yield and water use efficiency were significantly affected by different water regimes. Highest yield and Water Use Efficiency were obtained when irrigation was provided at saturation and the lowest was obtained when irrigation was given at 10 days interval Total and effective tillers per hill and panicle weight were more in SRI. Despite of more tillers per hill in SRI, the total tillers as well as effective panicles on per unit area basis were not compensated by the wider geometry as compared to traditional method. Thus, on an average the grain was more under traditional method as compared to SRI Studies on Water Management
  28. 28. Water Management Practice Yield (t/ha) No. of tillers /m2 (70 DAT) Plant height, cm (60 DAT) SRI Trad SRI Trad SRI Trad SW 5+2 cm 6.09 (8.96) 6.81 (10.01) 460 446 85.7 86.4 At hair line Crack 5.43 (7.09) 6.87 (10.10) 459 442 83.0 88.8 Soil Saturation 5.72 (8.41) 7.39 (10.87) 518.0 394.0 83.87 86.17 Irrigation 10 d interval 3.81 (5.60) 4.72 (6.94) 348.00 272 79.0 81.9 Water Use Efficiency as affected by different Water Management Practices Figures in parenthesis indicates WUE in kg/ha-mm
  29. 29. Apply NPK @ 60:30:30 kg/ha (wet season) & 80:40:40 kg/ha (dry season). Soil test based fertilizer application especially for P & K is preferred. Apply 1/2 of total N, entire amount of P & ¾ of K as basal after final land preparation & draining out the standing water. Top dress the remaining N in 2 equal splits each at 3 weeks after transplanting and at PI. Also apply remaining 1/4 of K at PI. For better soil health apply N in the form of both organics (GM, FYM, Azolla etc.) & inorganic (urea) in 50:50 proportion. Apply ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha in Zinc deficient soils. In highly fertile soils, application of FYM or compost alone @ 10t/ha is sufficient as source of nutrients. Apply diverse organic manures. Organic manures act as food for microorganisms. Fertilizer Management
  30. 30. Carbon dioxide fluxes from rice field in SRI and flooded condition in morning and afternoon (at CRRI). The CO2 flux per kg of rice production is less in SRI compared to flooded rice
  31. 31. Treatment Grain yield t/ha Straw yield t/ha Panicle no./m2 Panicle Weight (gms.) SRP 5.81 4.08 244 1.95 SRI 6.82 5.52 295 2.15 DWS+SRI 7.14 6.80 460 1.65 Treatments: M1- SRI M2- State Recommended Practice (SRP) M3- Direct Wet Seeding (DWS) + SRI Management Fertilizer Dose: 80:40:40 kg NPK/ha Variety: Naveen (Dry Season) DEMONSTRATION CUM OBSERVATION TRIAL SRI
  32. 32. SRI under direct seeded
  33. 33. Method Value of output/ acre Value of Straw Seed cost Labour Fertiliz ers Net return SRI 8526 1025 35 2076 389 7052 Conventional 6467 681 326 2260 339 4222 Net returns under SRI and conventional paddy cultivation
  34. 34. SRI Conventional Seedbed preparation 6.58 7.84 Seed Treatment 0.52 0.95 Seed Sowing 0.35 0.59 Fertilizer/manure (Seedbed) 0.80 1.08 Ploughing 33.45 34.30 Land leveling 7.03 6.42 Field bund dressing/Drainage Channel 4.13 2.63 Application of fertilizer as basal 0.75 0.68 Application of manure 2.49 2.57 Transplanting 148 175 Hoeing & Weeding 57.12 49.90 Successive application of Fertilizer 0.80 0.83 Harvesting 63.15 71.88 Threshing 44.40 46.83 369.12 401.75 Labour requirement/acre (in hours)
  35. 35. The CRRI transferred the results of SRI research to extension agencies and farmers through training and on farm field demonstrations. The officials of the various state dept. of agriculture and farmers visited experimental plots and gained the experience of SRI cultivation. Trained the farmers of Bandakutra, Junagarh in cultivation techniques of SRI in collaboration with Syngenta Foundation together with KARRTABYA (NGO). About 100 farmers from the surrounding villages attended the workshop and got benefited. Our scientists including myself participated in various training programmes organized on SRI by State Department of Agriculture, ATMA, PPL, NGO’s etc as resource persons Technology Transfer and Dissemination
  36. 36. SRI- a climate resilient rice production system (Hindalapalli, Ganjam )
  37. 37. Parameters Rabi season 2011-12 (Variety: Satabdi) SRI *ICM Practice Traditional practice Productivity (t/ ha) 5.30 5.01 - Gross Income(Rs.) 64,390/- 60,968/- - Net Income (Rs.) 37,660/- 36,530/- - Returns per rupee invested 2.41 2.49 - On farm Research results in farmer’s fields of Ganjam District (Odisha) * ICM module- HYV (Satabdi – 120 days duration), Line transplanting, INM (FYM, 5t/ha +NPK 80:40:40 kg/ha), manual weeding and Need based plant protection
  38. 38. Conclusions ♦ Performance of SRI is location specific ♦ Varieties respond differentially to this method. ♦ It is a water and seed saving method. ♦ Can be a best option to promote hybrid rice as hybrids perform better under SRI and it helps to save significantly in seed cost. ♦ Has potential to improve soil health and environmental protection. ♦ Further research is needed to understand the factors contributing to higher yield, soil health parameters, and various aspects of sustainability. ♦ This technology could be well adopted in the coastal districts of Orissa during dry season. However, in western parts of the state it can be practiced both in wet and dry seasons.
  39. 39. Major Constraints Experienced at operational level Initial resistance to go for planting young seedlings Difficulties in weeding and non availability suitable weeders Non availability of enough quantity of organic manures Lack of proper control of water especially under canal irrigation and under bore wells (due to electricity problems) Poor drainage in heavy rainfall areas Non availability of trained Agricultural labour for planting and weeding
  40. 40. To realize the potential of SRI will require sustained interdisciplinary team efforts, ranging from strategic on-station research to participatory on-farm studies. This will have to deal with three broad, inter-related aspects of research:. 1. Interactions between genotypes and biophysical environments (G_E); 2. Interactions between biophysical environments and cultural practices; and 3. Adaptation of SRI and its components to the needs and opportunities of diverse rice production systems, including adjustments for socio-economic acceptability and suitability FUTURE RESEARCH STRATEGIES
  41. 41. Future Thrust Areas for Research on SRI ■ Varietal response to SRI and designing suitable plant type. ■ Identification of areas/zones most suited for SRI method. ■ Precise quantification of savings in water. ■ Effective weed management and refinement of machinery. ■ Detailed studies on soil health and microbial activity. ■ SRI vis-à-vis pest and disease incidence and their management. ■ Detailed economics of SRI and Cost : Benefit analysis. ■ Farmer participatory trials to fine tune the technology in terms of its economic viability and sustainability ■ Development of machinery for weeding & Planting ■ Studies on mitigating the effects of climate change if any with SRI adoption.
  42. 42. Evaluation of SRI with recommended package of practices Standardization of technology package for SRI in different rice growing regions and ecologies (varieties including hybrids, spacing of hills, number of seedlings per hill, age of seedlings, weeding practices, irrigation pattern, pest and disease management etc.) Fine-tuning the SRI technology in terms of economics and sustainability through Farmer participatory on farm trials Generation of scientific reasons of higher productivity realized with SRI in terms of greater root growth, water saving potential, degeneration of roots in flooded conditions, nutrient transformation, microbial biomass etc. Mechanization aspects of SRI- Development of Mechanical Weeder Research in Progress
  43. 43. Do’s Use quality seeds of relevant variety/hybrid for healthy seedlings Favourable uplands and areas with assured irrigation should be used for SRI Planning for SRI areas needs to be done at district level Young seedlings with intact soil roots to be shallow transplanted Use as much organic manures as possible Use cono-weeder for controlling weeds & creating aeration Care should be taken to control leaf folder & Nematodes Avoid flooding & adopt AWD to keep the soil at saturation Don’ts Not to be promoted where the fields are not leveled Not to be promoted in saline soils, lowlands & high rainfall areas Do’s and Don’ts for SRI:
  44. 44. PHB-71in Summer 2006-07 Under SRI

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