1005 The System of Rice Intensification

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Presenter: Zhu Defeng

China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI)

SRI Workshop, Hangzhou, Feb. 28, 2010

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1005 The System of Rice Intensification

  1. 1. <ul><li>System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in China </li></ul>Zhu Defeng China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) SRI Workshop, Hangzhou, Feb. 28, 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Status of rice production </li></ul><ul><li>Basic principle </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to new CVs and development </li></ul><ul><li>Saving water </li></ul><ul><li>Higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Model of SRI practiced </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Status of rice production
  4. 4. Percentage of rice over grain crop in China
  5. 5. Percentage of provincial rice planting area over Chinese national rice area (2001)
  6. 6. Comparison of rice area, yield and production between World and China Region Area (Mha) Yield (t/ha) Production (Mt) World 151.3 4.00 605.8 China 28.4 6.31 179.1 China as % of World 18.8% 157.6% 29.6%
  7. 7. Rice area, yield and production in China
  8. 8. Annual growth rate of rice yield
  9. 9. Percentage of rice area for various rice seasons ( % ) Year Early rice Late rice Single rice 1975 36 35 29 1980 33 33 34 1985 30 30 40 1990 28 30 40 1995 27 33 41 2000 23 25 52 2003 21 23 56 2007 20 22 58
  10. 10. Nitrogen application and productivity in various regions Region China Europe World Nitrogen application (kg N/ha) 180 120 100 Yield (kg rice/ha) 6.4 7.0 3.5 Productivity of N fertilizer (kg rice/kg N) 35 58 35
  11. 11. History of hybrid rice research Year Activities 1964 Rice heterosis found 1970 Wild abortive (WA) type rice found 1973 Indica three lines developed 1975 Japonica three lines developed 1976 Hybrid rice used in farmer field 1981 PGMS and two-line hybrids breeding found
  12. 12. Comparison of yield between hybrid and inbred varieties Type Yield (t/ha) Relative yield (%) Hybrid 6.57 124 Inbred 5.31 100
  13. 13. Rice type and its percentage of planting area 49.8 5 .4 27.6 17.3 Indica Percentage of planting area ( % ) Type 49.8 Three line 5 .4 Two line 27.6 Japonica 17.3 Percentage of planting area ( % ) Type Inbred Hybrid
  14. 14. Percentage of planting area of hybrid rice
  15. 15. Distribution of hybrid area in China
  16. 16. 2. Basic principles
  17. 17. Basic principle of SRI and its effects Basic principle Effects Middle/young age of seedlings Tiller and root growth Sparser planting Tiller and root growth, larger panicles S-M-D irrigation (shallow -moisture-dry) Water saving, root growth and greater fertilizer use efficiency Organic/chemical fertilizer Soil fertility Hand rotating weeding Soil aeration, deeper roots
  18. 18. Main Contributions of SRI for China Practice Contribution Sparser planting with middle /younger age seedlings Labor-saving S-M-D irrigation Water-saving Organic/chemical fertilizer Sustainable production
  19. 19. <ul><li>Adapted to new generation of varieties and meet requirements of development </li></ul><ul><li>Higher transplanting efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Saving of water </li></ul><ul><li>Higher yields </li></ul><ul><li>Greater profitability </li></ul>Rationality of SRI for Chinese Conditions
  20. 20. 3. Adaptation to new CVs and development
  21. 21. Traits of main Japonica varieties in Jiangsu province in different periods Period Plant height ( cm ) Panicles ( no./m 2 ) Total grains (no./panicle) 1980-1985 69 396 92 1986-1990 69 396 93 1991-1995 71 370 101 1996-2000 98 363 109 2000-2002 99 321 122
  22. 22. Plant height of Indica variety in the Changjiang river region in various periods
  23. 23. Panicle number of Indica rice varieties in the Changjiang river region in different periods
  24. 24. Grain number of Indica rice varieties in the Changjiang river region in different periods
  25. 25. Agricultural labor transfer to other sectors, 1960-2000
  26. 26. <ul><li>Plant density(hill/m 2 ) of different rice seasons in different periods in South China </li></ul>Year Single season Early season Late season 1960s 37.5 60.0 60.0 1980s 25.5 34.5 34.5 Present 18.0 27.0 25.5
  27. 27. Effects of plant density on yield and its components of hybrid rice (Yueyou 938) in Xianju, Zhejiang Plant density (hill/m 2 ) Panicles (no./m 2 ) Ratio of panicle (%) Grain number (no./pan.) Fertility(%) 1000 grain weight (g) Yield (t/ha) 15 208.4 51.5 173.1 93.9 26.6 8.95b 12 232.4 60.8 161.5 92.8 26.7 9.06b 9 248.9 69.2 157.5 90.9 25.7 9.79a 6 202.4 59.2 173.0 91.6 25.9 8.86b
  28. 28. 4. Saving water
  29. 29. Difference in irrigation water amount between flooded irrigation and intermittent irrigation
  30. 30. Comparison of yield and its components in different water management regimes Variety Irrigation method Panicles (no/m 2 ) Grain number (no./pan.) 1000-grain weight (g) Yield (t/ha) V1 Flooding 222 154.9 26.6 9.15 Inter-mittent 216 163.6 26.3 10.09 V2 Flooding 234 141.5 25.5 8.40   Inter-mittent 223.5 166.6 24.6 8.69
  31. 31. Comparison of water use efficiency between flooding and intermittent irrigation method Variety Treatment Yield ( t/ha ) Water consumption (m 3 /ha) Water use efficiency (kg/m 3 ) V1 Flooding 9.15 12,708 (100) 0.72 (100) Inter-mittent 10.09 10,192 (80) 0.99 (138) V2 Flooding 8.40 12,727 (100) 0.66 (100) Inter-mittent 8.69 10,105 (79) 0.86 (130)
  32. 32. Process of soil redox change during intermittent irrigation Time(h) -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 24 48 72 96 120 Eh(mv) Water-dry Dry-water
  33. 33. Grain production and fertilizer consumption
  34. 34. Effect of aerobic irrigation (AI) and standing water irrigation (CK) on soil redox
  35. 35. Transplanting in shallow water Tillering in wet and shallow water Drainage at enough plant number
  36. 36. <ul><li>Control unproductive tillers </li></ul><ul><li>Make leaves erect </li></ul><ul><li>Improve roots </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain aerobic soil </li></ul>Recover irrigation at 3-5 days before PI
  37. 37. Seedlings with more tillers in seedbed
  38. 38. Demonstration of integrated rice management technique
  39. 39. 1. Integrated rice management technology -- starting with high-yielding variety
  40. 40. 2. Water saving (aerobic irrigation)
  41. 41. Wet Dry Wet Shallow water
  42. 42. 5. Higher yield
  43. 43. Relation of plant density to yield in single season rice 2002 2003
  44. 44. Relationship between seedling age and yield and its components of hybrid rice(Yueyou938) after green manure applications in Xianju, Zhejiang Seedling age (days) Grain yield (t/ha) Grain number (1000/m 2 ) % 1000 grain weight (g) % 0 8.78 35.6 100 25.4 100 8 8.53 36.1 101 26.2 103 13 9.47 44.0 124 25.6 101 18 9.09 43.8 123 25.4 100 23 8.71 37.5 105 25.8 102 28 8.34 36.5 103 26.3 104
  45. 45. Relationship between seedling age and yield and its components of hybrid rice (Yueyou938) in fallow field in Xianju, Zhejiang Seedling age (days) Grain yield (t/ha) Grain number (1000/m 2 ) % 1000-grain weight (g) % 0 7.71 29.01 100 26.0 100 8 8.03 31.68 109 25.8 99 13 9.24 38.99 134 25.5 98 18 8.98 38.83 134 25.6 98 23 8.18 32.71 113 25.8 99 28 7.35 27.17 94 26.0 100
  46. 46. Effects of nitrogen application on yield and its components of hybrid rice ( Yueyou938 ) in Xianju , Zhejiang Nitrogen rate (kg/ha) Panicle (m 2 ) Filled grains (no./pan.) Fertility (%) 100- grain weight (g) Yield (t/ha) 120 199.4 174.0 89.2 25.4 8.86ab 150 223.4 171.8 87.0 25.6 9.24a 180 221.9 146.3 91.4 25.8 8.53bc 210 215.9 149.0 92.0 25.9 8.52bc 240 230.9 146.1 90.3 26.2 8.44c
  47. 47. Comparison of yield in SRI and check (Jiayou 99, 2003) TR Panicles (no./m 2 ) G rains (no./panicle) Fertility (%) Grain weight (g /1000) Yield (t/ha) Relative yield (%) SRI 215.7 222.8 91.2 25.3 11.1 119.4 CK 209.6 191 92.6 25.1 9.3 100.0
  48. 48. Analysis of factors of yield increase in SRI compared with check Yield component Yield increase (t/ha 2 ) Contribution (%) Panicle 0.27 15.7 Grain number 1.38 80.1 Grain weight 0.07 4.3 Total 1.73 100.0
  49. 51. Pattern of tiller growth in SRI and check
  50. 52. 6. Model of SRI practiced
  51. 53. SRI practices used with Indica hybrid rice in South China <ul><li>1) Medium/young age seedling with 4-5 leaves </li></ul><ul><li>2) Sparser planting: 12-15 hills/m 2 with 1-2 plants for large panicle/strong tillering CV, and 15-18 hills/m 2 with 1-2 plants for medium panicle/ tillering CV </li></ul><ul><li>3) Shallow-moisture – dry (SMD) irrigation </li></ul>
  52. 54. Seedling raising in tray
  53. 59. 25 DAS
  54. 60. 33 DAS
  55. 61. 45 DAS
  56. 62. 53 DAS 65 DAS
  57. 63. Flowering
  58. 66. SRI practices used with Japonica variety in Northeast China <ul><li>1) 5- leaf seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>2) Sparse planting: 14-18 hills/m 2 with 1-2 plants for large panicle/strong tillering CV </li></ul><ul><li>3) Shallow-moisture – dry irrigation system </li></ul>
  59. 71.
  60. 73. Moist soil
  61. 75. Rice machine transplanting technology with pot-mat seedlings
  62. 76. Mat seedling Pot-mat seedling Mat seedling and pot-mat seedling
  63. 77. Pot-mat seedling 2 DAT
  64. 78. Technology demonstration
  65. 79. Comparison of yield of machine transplanting of pot-mat seedling and traditional (mat) seedling Province Season Pot-mat seedling Tradition seedling Yield increase (%) Heilongjiang Single 671.8 605.8 10.9 Ningxia Single 675.8 615.3 9.8 Guangdong Early 638.1 568.7 12.2 Late 613.4 547.7 12.0 Jiangxi Early 498.6 482.1 3.4 Zhejiang Single 615.7 594.4 3.6 Early 516.6 427.0 21.0 Late 445.0 406.1 9.6 Mean 584.4 530.9 9.6
  66. 80. Thank you

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