Integration and extension of a plastic-
mulching/water-saving technique for rice
production with higher yield and better
r...
Outline
□ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture
四川和四川农业的概况
□ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving
t...
Outline
□ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture
四川和四川农业的概况
□ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving
t...
Sichuan
Location of Sichuan in China
Engineering works of Dujiangyan irrigation system,
Sichuan Province
Irrigated area: 200, 000 ha in 1949,
expanded to 670, ...
四川省丘陵区流进长江的泥沙量为 6 亿多吨 / 年
Runoff from red soils in Sichuan province to the
Yangtze River can be up to 600 million t/yr
2007年末四川省稻田和旱坡地的相对面积
Lowland paddy
soils
2.08 M ha
Upland soils
1.96 M ha 52.9%47.1%
2007年末四川省大于25度坡地占旱坡地的比例
19.1% = 0.36 ...
Village
2002 2003
Area
(Mu)
Grain
yield
(kg/Mu)
Production
(t/yr)
Area
(Mu)
Grain yield
(kg/Mu)
Production
(t/yr)
Xinsheng...
Heaven on Earth?
天府之国?
地下水硝酸 含量随 的 化盐 时间 变
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
7003月5日
5月5日
7月5日
9月5日
11月5日
1月5日
3月5日
5月5日
7月5日
9月5日
11月5日
1月5日
3月5日
5月5日
7...
1. Shortage of labor 劳动力短缺乏
2 . Low-temperature stress 低温冷浸
3 . Shortage of irrigation water 灌溉水无保
障
4 . Degradation of so...
Sichuan labor ‘army’ in countryside
川军: 389,961 部队
Children
Women
The elderly
Lodging of paddy rice due to overuse of N fertilizer
Fushun 2002 (waiting for water
before transplanting)
Zhongjiang 2001 (irrigating
by hand before transplanting)
Seasonal wa...
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Dr y year Nor mal year Wet year
Yield(kg/mu)
Relationship between yield and precipitation in Ziy...
• Higher crop yield and more efficient resource use are crucial
to Sichuan sustainable agriculture 作物生产实现高产高效是
四川农业可持续发展的必...
Outline
□ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture
四川和四川农业的概况
□ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving
t...
Upland soils
Paddy soils
Serious Mn deficiency in wheat has occurred
in soils with rice-wheat rotation, but no Mn
deficien...
Comparison of Mn contents in plough soil of
alluvial paddy soils with alluvial soils *
Soil Site pH Exc-
Mn
(ppm)
Active-
...
水
肥
状
况
对
锰
移
动
和
水
稻
吸
锰
影
响
的
模
拟
土
柱
试
验
Effects of water and fertilization status on
Mn movement and Mn uptake by rice...
理处
Treatment
淹水无肥
CK
淹水化肥
NPK
淹水有机无
机肥
NPKM
湿 有机无润
机肥
NPKM/WGray
alluvial soil
61.3
±25.6
31.8
±18.0
37.8
±10.7
5.9
±2.2
G...
Rice plastic-mulch water-saving techniques
consist of such techniques as:
□Plastic mulching for rice planting 水稻覆膜栽培技术
□Up...
Plastic mulching
(PM)
Straw mulching
(SM)
Traditional flooding
(TF)
PM TF SM
Soiltemperature(C0
)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
14:00
16:00
18:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
1...
Plastic mulching can controlled weeds in paddy field
Plas-
tic
mulch
地膜
覆盖
Straw
mulching
秸秆覆盖
Results seen in
Jianyang 2006
在不同覆盖方式下氮肥对水稻产量的影响
200. 0
300. 0
400. 0
500. 0
600. 0
700. 0
800. 0
0 4 8 12 16
施氮水平(kg/ mu)
产量(kg/mu) 盖膜
盖草
裸地
PM
SM
Bare...
 
N r at e( kg/ mu) 4 8 12 16
AE (kg/kg)
盖膜 PM 28. 7 23. 4 19. 4 15. 3
盖草 SM 9. 4 4. 4 10. 1 6. 0
裸地 Bar e soi l 5. 3 9. 6...
2001 年 SRI 进入四川
Norman Uphoff 教授
Yuan Longping 院士
SiChuan 四川
Ren Guanjun 副院
长
马达加斯加
水稻
21t/ha
SRI
What is SRI?
超稀植 Super-sparse cultivation with wide spacing
单苗 Single seedlings per hill (in original version;
this has be...
处理 糙米率(%) 精米率(%) 整精米率(%) 长宽比 垩白米率(%) 垩白度(级)
1苗 81.65 64.21 55.42 2.51 18.50 6.85
2苗 80.51 63.94 46.60 2.58 27.50 10.59
3苗 ...
Crop development with
transplanting at 6-leaf stage
Crop develop-
ment with
transplanting at
4-leaf stage
不同移栽期对水稻氮肥效应的影响
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 4 8 12 16
施氮水平(kg/mu)
产量(kg/mu)
2叶期
4叶期
6叶期
Yield
(kg/mu)
N rate (kg N/mu)
E...
Effects of transplanting stages on N use efficiency
by rice at different N applied rates
不同施氮水平下移栽期对水稻氮肥利用率的影响
N r at e( k...
Three seedlings,
one at each angle
of a triangle
三苗三角
Three seedlings
planted together
三苗丛栽
Tool to dig holes for spacing the rice seedling transplanting
Rice seedling transplanting
Water management
Date Site Cultivar Yield
(kg/mu)
Persons to harvest and
identify yield
8 Sep.2003 Yanggong,
Jianyang
Chuanxiang-
you 2
507...
2006年响水村采用和未采用农户水稻产量的差异
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
会员户 非会员户
产量(kg/mu)
Farmers using
our techniques
未采用户Farmers not usin...
Traditional
cultivation
Plastic mulching
cultivation
2006
Date Site Farmer Organized
Institute
Responsible
experts
Yield
(kg/mu)
08.8.03 大安区牛佛镇红旗村 曾元帅 四川省农科院 谭中和 , 徐富贤等 678.6
08.8....
Irrigation times and cost reduction by adapting the
rice plastic-mulching water-saving techniques
采用与未采用覆膜技术农户的灌水次数与灌水开支
T...
Nutrient input reduction by adapting the rice
plastic-mulching water-saving techniques
采用与未采用覆膜技术农户的养分投入量 (kg/mu)
Type of
...
Reduction of labor numbers by adapting the rice
plastic-mulching water-saving techniques (days/mu)
采用与未采用覆膜技术农户的用工量 ( 个 /m...
2009 年 8 月
被四川省科技 、 和粮食局厅 农业厅
定审 为
首批全省粮食丰产主体技术
2007 年 4 月
被四川省科技 、厅 农业厅
和水利厅
定审 为
首批全省现代农业
节水抗旱重点推广
技术One of the first ‘k...
Outline
□ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture
四川和四川农业的概况
□ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving
t...
The current situation of China agricultural extension
我国 推广的 状农业 现
• Imperfect agriculture promotion network
推广网络“线断、网破、人散...
Association
协 会
Farmer
农 民
Experts
专 家
technical guidance
guide
指
导
service
服
务
agricultural
technicians
from County 县乡农
技...
Experts: Best source of technology diffusion
专家:最佳的技术传播源
• Technology: solve the problem of technological discontinuity
in...
We love this game!
Technician: Essential bridge for
technology diffusion
农技员:不可或缺的传播桥梁
• Familiar with the situation of rural
people
熟悉下面情况
•...
• Widest coverage
覆盖面最大
• Closest to farmers
离农民最近
• Most authority
带动性最强
• Lowest cost
成本也最低
Outstanding Villager: the on...
Association (cooperative) :
a mandatory organization to improve efficiency
协会(合作社):提高效率的必要组织
• Form farmers’ organizations...
优势互补,各得其所
Advantage between the two sides can make up
each other, and both sides can get what they want
Core Villager
核心农户...
Innovation of methods and mechanisms
方法和机制的创新
• Restore the dominant position of farmers
还农民主体地位
• Integrated extension
综合...
Farmer-centered
必须以农民为中心
Improve communications & interaction
加强交流互动
Farmers need to join in
the extension effort
参与式推广
Fa...
这种开会形式很
好,多让大家参
加
这次会议是历史从来
未有过的明确、开朗
表达自己的意见
这次开会很好
,方式很民主
,合作社大有
希望
会议开得很好,
气氛热烈,效果
很好
这次会义开得好
,建义经后桶一
房治
We got very po...
Field trials of village experts
土专家的田间试验
receptive
容易接受
Drought-resistance,
water-saving
抗旱保湿
Keep soil warm,
increase til...
From single technology promotiom to
integrated extension
从单一技术推广到综合推广
• Synthesis of techniques: organic wholeness needs
i...
Single-technology promotion PK
Comprehensive agriculture promotion
单一的技术推广 pk 综合的农业推广
• Single-technology promotion 单一的技术推...
Support education of children left
behind 支教留守儿童
Promote farmers' cooperation
推动农民合作
Concern about life for the elderly
关注...
February 2011: creation of 4
interest-based research groups
1. 粮油小组 (grain and
oilseeds )
2. 蔬菜小组 (vegetables )
3. 果树小组 (f...
合作社老年协
会和 女 会妇 协
展丰富多彩开
的文化活动
Elders’ Association
Association of Women
• Cultivating modern farmers
培养现代农民(农民问题、基础):
农民是三农的主体,也是根基,没有现代农民做支撑的现
代农业只能是空中楼阁。
不能为了片面追求农业高效而只注重企业和资本,忽略了
农民,特别是留守的弱势农...
Two local experts from
Xiangshui village who
worked in Zigong and
Neijiang in March 2008
Extension area in Yanjiang,
Ziyang City
2010: 10,700 ha (160,000
亩 )
2009: 10,000 ha (150,000
亩 )
2008: 7,000 ha (100,000
...
Local meeting for
demonstration of
water-saving
technique for
Sichuan province
Thank you !
 Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better r...
 Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better r...
 Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better r...
 Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better r...
 Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better r...
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Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better resource use in southwestern China.

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Presented by:
Lu Shihua,
Soil and Fertilizer Institute,
Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Chengdu, CHINA

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
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Integration and extension of a plastic-mulching water-saving technique for rice production with higher yeild and better resource use in southwestern China.

  1. 1. Integration and extension of a plastic- mulching/water-saving technique for rice production with higher yield and better resource use in southwestern China Lu Shihua Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Chengdu, CHINA
  2. 2. Outline □ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture 四川和四川农业的概况 □ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的集成 □ Extension of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的推广
  3. 3. Outline □ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture 四川和四川农业的概况 □ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的集成 □ Extension of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的推广
  4. 4. Sichuan Location of Sichuan in China
  5. 5. Engineering works of Dujiangyan irrigation system, Sichuan Province Irrigated area: 200, 000 ha in 1949, expanded to 670, 000 ha by 1998 Heaven on Earth 天府之国
  6. 6. 四川省丘陵区流进长江的泥沙量为 6 亿多吨 / 年 Runoff from red soils in Sichuan province to the Yangtze River can be up to 600 million t/yr
  7. 7. 2007年末四川省稻田和旱坡地的相对面积 Lowland paddy soils 2.08 M ha Upland soils 1.96 M ha 52.9%47.1% 2007年末四川省大于25度坡地占旱坡地的比例 19.1% = 0.36 M ha Relative area of upland and paddy soils in Sichuan by the year 2007 Proportion of upland soils with slope > 25 o in Sichuan by the year 2007
  8. 8. Village 2002 2003 Area (Mu) Grain yield (kg/Mu) Production (t/yr) Area (Mu) Grain yield (kg/Mu) Production (t/yr) Xinsheng 新胜 620 480 298 583 350 204 Yanggon g 阳公 414 400 166 414 268 111 Wangu 万古 485 450 218 490 350 172 Sum 合计 1519 448 682 1487 328 487 Area and yield in three villages of Jianyang City, Sichuan Note: 1 Mu = 1/15 ha; 1 ha = 15 Mu
  9. 9. Heaven on Earth? 天府之国?
  10. 10. 地下水硝酸 含量随 的 化盐 时间 变 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 7003月5日 5月5日 7月5日 9月5日 11月5日 1月5日 3月5日 5月5日 7月5日 9月5日 11月5日 1月5日 3月5日 5月5日 7月5日 9月5日 11月5日 时 间 硝酸盐含量(mgkg-1 ) 刘文忠 张九成 何志金 罗国红 罗国昌 余昌林 李登贵 成都市温江区天府镇 (1999- 2001) Threshold concentration by WHO Dynamics of nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater in Tianhu Town, Wenjiang, Sichuan Date
  11. 11. 1. Shortage of labor 劳动力短缺乏 2 . Low-temperature stress 低温冷浸 3 . Shortage of irrigation water 灌溉水无保 障 4 . Degradation of soil fertility 土壤肥力退 化 5 . Overuse and misuse of fertilizer 施肥盲 目 6 . Damage by pests and weeds 病虫草害 7 . Irrational cultivation techniques 栽培技术落后 8 . Other problems 其它问题
  12. 12. Sichuan labor ‘army’ in countryside 川军: 389,961 部队 Children Women The elderly
  13. 13. Lodging of paddy rice due to overuse of N fertilizer
  14. 14. Fushun 2002 (waiting for water before transplanting) Zhongjiang 2001 (irrigating by hand before transplanting) Seasonal water shortages in Sichuan
  15. 15. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Dr y year Nor mal year Wet year Yield(kg/mu) Relationship between yield and precipitation in Ziyang City, Sichuan province
  16. 16. • Higher crop yield and more efficient resource use are crucial to Sichuan sustainable agriculture 作物生产实现高产高效是 四川农业可持续发展的必由之路; • Integrated management of soil-plant systems is the main way to realize higher yield and more efficient resource use 对土壤 - 作物体系的综合管理是实现高产高效的根本途径。 How to solve the agricultural problems in Sichuan? How to manage soil-plant systems in integrated way? 如何进行土壤 - 作物体系的综合管理?
  17. 17. Outline □ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture 四川和四川农业的概况 □ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的集成 □ Extension of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的推广
  18. 18. Upland soils Paddy soils Serious Mn deficiency in wheat has occurred in soils with rice-wheat rotation, but no Mn deficiency in wheat in upland soils nearby
  19. 19. Comparison of Mn contents in plough soil of alluvial paddy soils with alluvial soils * Soil Site pH Exc- Mn (ppm) Active- Mn (ppm) DTPA- Mn (ppm) Total Mn (ppm) Exc- Mn /Active- Mn (%) Actice- Mn/Total Mn (%) Alluvial paddy soil Yuantong 崇州元通 8.42 1.08 2.96 0.59 211 36.5 1.4 Alluvial soil 8.37 3.07 69.9 4.08 381 4.4 18.8 Alluvial paddy soil Yuantong 崇州元通 8.40 1.12 3.11 0.69 217 36.0 1.4 Alluvial soil 8.35 1.18 69.1 4.84 395 2.7 17.5 Alluvial paddy soil Angu 乐山安谷 7.33 1.76 7.54 1.12 473 23.3 1.6 Alluvial soil 8.16 2.46 93.8 5.01 596 2.6 15.7 Alluvial paddy soil Angu 乐山安谷 8.00 1.44 8.42 1.68 455 17.1 1.8 Alluvial soil 8.17 2.70 96.7 6.74 569 2.8 17.0 * Each paired samples were collected from the same site: paddy soil vs. upland soil
  20. 20. 水 肥 状 况 对 锰 移 动 和 水 稻 吸 锰 影 响 的 模 拟 土 柱 试 验 Effects of water and fertilization status on Mn movement and Mn uptake by rice using soil column experiment
  21. 21. 理处 Treatment 淹水无肥 CK 淹水化肥 NPK 淹水有机无 机肥 NPKM 湿 有机无润 机肥 NPKM/WGray alluvial soil 61.3 ±25.6 31.8 ±18.0 37.8 ±10.7 5.9 ±2.2 Gray-brown alluvial soil 19.4 ±10.4 11.4 ±9.6 15.0 ±5.3 0.7 ±0.3 (Liu, Lu, Zhang et al., 1999) Effects of water and fertilization status on Mn leaching (mg/column) during rice season
  22. 22. Rice plastic-mulch water-saving techniques consist of such techniques as: □Plastic mulching for rice planting 水稻覆膜栽培技术 □Upland rice nursery 水稻旱育秧技术 □Early rice seedling transplanting 水稻小苗移栽技术 □Rice triangle cultivation technique 水稻三角形栽培技术 □Integrated nutrient management for rice 水稻推荐施肥技术 □Furrow irrigation for rice 水稻厢沟灌溉技术
  23. 23. Plastic mulching (PM) Straw mulching (SM) Traditional flooding (TF)
  24. 24. PM TF SM
  25. 25. Soiltemperature(C0 ) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 Early tillering Middle tillering Late tillering A: Soil surface (0 cm depth) B: Soil subsurface (10 cm depth) 10:00 9:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00Time of day (hour:minute) 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 PM SM TF Effect of cultivation systems on soil temperature
  26. 26. Plastic mulching can controlled weeds in paddy field
  27. 27. Plas- tic mulch 地膜 覆盖 Straw mulching 秸秆覆盖 Results seen in Jianyang 2006
  28. 28. 在不同覆盖方式下氮肥对水稻产量的影响 200. 0 300. 0 400. 0 500. 0 600. 0 700. 0 800. 0 0 4 8 12 16 施氮水平(kg/ mu) 产量(kg/mu) 盖膜 盖草 裸地 PM SM Bare soil Yield (kg/mu) N rate (kg N/mu) Effect of N levels on rice yield under different mulching styles
  29. 29.   N r at e( kg/ mu) 4 8 12 16 AE (kg/kg) 盖膜 PM 28. 7 23. 4 19. 4 15. 3 盖草 SM 9. 4 4. 4 10. 1 6. 0 裸地 Bar e soi l 5. 3 9. 6 6. 0 6. 1 Recovery rate (%) 盖膜 PM 32. 8 11. 6 17. 0 16. 1 盖草 SM - 1. 0 - 6. 3 1. 7 4. 4 裸地 Bar e soi l 3. 2 8. 3 5. 8 8. 7 Effect of mulching styles on nitrogen use efficiency at various N rates 不同施氮水平下覆盖方式对水稻氮肥利用率的影响
  30. 30. 2001 年 SRI 进入四川 Norman Uphoff 教授 Yuan Longping 院士 SiChuan 四川 Ren Guanjun 副院 长 马达加斯加 水稻 21t/ha SRI
  31. 31. What is SRI? 超稀植 Super-sparse cultivation with wide spacing 单苗 Single seedlings per hill (in original version; this has been modified for Sichuan conditions) 幼苗早栽 Young seedling cultivation 摆栽 Careful planting cultivation 有机肥 Organic fertilization emphasized 中耕 Intercultivation (middle tillage) for weed control, also for aerating the soil
  32. 32. 处理 糙米率(%) 精米率(%) 整精米率(%) 长宽比 垩白米率(%) 垩白度(级) 1苗 81.65 64.21 55.42 2.51 18.50 6.85 2苗 80.51 63.94 46.60 2.58 27.50 10.59 3苗 80.75 63.22 48.70 2.55 38.50 15.40 4苗 79.48 62.29 45.20 2.48 42.50 16.58 Effects of transplantion seedlings in single hole on rice quality of Xianyou 1 Effects of different transplantion densities on rice quality of Gangyou 22 处理 糙米率(%) 精米率(%) 整精米率(%) 长宽比 垩白米率(%) 垩白度(级) 20cm*20cm 81.12 66.36 56.30 2.26 83.83 39.11 30cm*30cm 79.88 65.91 57.13 2.24 79.67 38.11 40cm*40cm 79.47 65.58 56.72 2.22 78.00 36.93 50cm*50cm 79.96 66.71 58.79 2.25 70.00 30.17 Main results of 2001
  33. 33. Crop development with transplanting at 6-leaf stage Crop develop- ment with transplanting at 4-leaf stage
  34. 34. 不同移栽期对水稻氮肥效应的影响 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 4 8 12 16 施氮水平(kg/mu) 产量(kg/mu) 2叶期 4叶期 6叶期 Yield (kg/mu) N rate (kg N/mu) Effect of N levels on rice yield under different transplanting stages (at 2-leaf, 4-leaf, and 6-leaf stages)
  35. 35. Effects of transplanting stages on N use efficiency by rice at different N applied rates 不同施氮水平下移栽期对水稻氮肥利用率的影响 N r at e( kg N/ mu) 4 8 12 16 Agronomic Efficiency (kg/kg) 2- l eaf st age 37. 0 19. 5 15. 6 12. 4 4- l eaf st age 30. 7 15. 1 15. 3 15. 7 6- l eaf st age 28. 7 12. 9 12. 7 15. 4 Recovery rate (%) 2- l eaf st age 65. 8 44. 5 27. 2 23. 8 4- l eaf st age 54. 4 34. 5 26. 4 29. 2 6- l eaf st age 38. 7 14. 2 21. 3 21. 8
  36. 36. Three seedlings, one at each angle of a triangle 三苗三角 Three seedlings planted together 三苗丛栽
  37. 37. Tool to dig holes for spacing the rice seedling transplanting
  38. 38. Rice seedling transplanting
  39. 39. Water management
  40. 40. Date Site Cultivar Yield (kg/mu) Persons to harvest and identify yield 8 Sep.2003 Yanggong, Jianyang Chuanxiang- you 2 507.7 (7.6 t/ha) Ma Jun, Zhu Bo et al. 4 Sep. 2005 Guilin, Jianyang Chuanxiang- you 9838 694.0 (10.5 t/ha) Tian Yanhua, Tan Zhonghe et al. 21 Aug 2006 Xiangshui, Yanjiang ? 610.6 (9.2 t/ha) Tian Yanhua, Tan Zhonghe et al. 24 Aug 2007 Tangjiatian, Lezhi ? 745.4 (11.2 t/ha) Zhang Hongsun, Tan Zhonghe et al. 13 Aug 2007 Machaocun, Anju ? 661.3 (9.9 t/ha) Tan Zhonghe, Hong Yikui et al. 24 Aug 2007 Qingsan, Anzhu ? 607.1 (9.1 t/ha) Zhang Hongsun, Tan Zhonghe et al. 4 Sep. 2007 Fenghuang, Jianyang Chuanxiang- you9838 780.7 (11.7 t/ha) Tian Yanhua, Tan Zhonghe et al. Effect of rice plastic-mulching water-saving techniques on rice yield in Sichuan Hilly regions (2003-2007)
  41. 41. 2006年响水村采用和未采用农户水稻产量的差异 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 会员户 非会员户 产量(kg/mu) Farmers using our techniques 未采用户Farmers not using our techniques Yield (kg/mu) 9 t/ha 5 t/ha Yield differences between farmers adapting and not adapting our technologies
  42. 42. Traditional cultivation Plastic mulching cultivation 2006
  43. 43. Date Site Farmer Organized Institute Responsible experts Yield (kg/mu) 08.8.03 大安区牛佛镇红旗村 曾元帅 四川省农科院 谭中和 , 徐富贤等 678.6 08.8.13 宜宾县厥溪镇大坪村 牟修言 宜宾市科技局 谭中和 , 樊雄伟等 564.3 08.8.14 内江市中区全安镇吼冲 村 陈大远 内江市科技局 谭中和 , 樊雄伟等 729.4 08.8.19 仁寿县珠家乡黑虎村 廖列兵 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 石勇等 760.3 08.9.01 雁江区雁江镇响水村村 李俊清 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 马均等 780.1 08.9.01 雁江区雁江镇响水村村 陈生富 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 马均等 767.7 08.9.01 雁江区雁江镇响水村村 杨 华 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 马均等 668.0 08.9.11 什邡市湔氐镇中和村 赵道华 四川省农科院 李跃建 , 陶龙兴等 640.0 08.9.19 简阳市东溪镇凤凰村 刘子杰 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 马均等 787.7 08.9.19 简阳市东溪镇凤凰村 李同映 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 马均等 694.9 08.9.19 简阳市东溪镇凤凰村 张兴福 四川省科技厅 谭中和 , 马均等 632.9 平均 700.4 Effect of rice plastic-mulching water-saving techniques on rice yields in Sichuan hilly regions (2008) Average yield: 10.5 t/ha Yield range: 8.0-11.7 t/ha
  44. 44. Irrigation times and cost reduction by adapting the rice plastic-mulching water-saving techniques 采用与未采用覆膜技术农户的灌水次数与灌水开支 Type of Farmer Irrigation no. of times Irrigation cost (Yuan/mu) Farmers using the techniques (after adaptation) 0.31 3.85 Farmers using the techniques (before adaptation) 1.92 21.54 Farmers not using the techniques 3.17 37.33
  45. 45. Nutrient input reduction by adapting the rice plastic-mulching water-saving techniques 采用与未采用覆膜技术农户的养分投入量 (kg/mu) Type of Farmer N P2O5 K2O Farmers using the techniques (after adaptation) 7.07 3.70 1.22 Farmers using the techniques (before adaptation) 12.02 5.43 0.10 Farmers not using the techniques 12.65 2.96 0.96
  46. 46. Reduction of labor numbers by adapting the rice plastic-mulching water-saving techniques (days/mu) 采用与未采用覆膜技术农户的用工量 ( 个 /mu) 统计 Type of Farmer Trans- planting Manage- ment Weeding Harvest- ing Total Farmers using the techniques (after adaptation) 6.8 0.8 0.5 3.6 11.7 Farmers using the techniques (before adaptation) 6.2 4.5 4.5 3.6 18.8 Farmers not using the techniques 6.2 5.2 7.7 4.2 23.2
  47. 47. 2009 年 8 月 被四川省科技 、 和粮食局厅 农业厅 定审 为 首批全省粮食丰产主体技术 2007 年 4 月 被四川省科技 、厅 农业厅 和水利厅 定审 为 首批全省现代农业 节水抗旱重点推广 技术One of the first ‘key’ extension techniques in Sichuan province
  48. 48. Outline □ Introduction on Sichuan and Sichuan agriculture 四川和四川农业的概况 □ Integration of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的集成 □ Extension of rice plastic-mulching/water-saving techniques for high yield and efficient resource use 水稻覆膜节水高产高效技术的推广
  49. 49. The current situation of China agricultural extension 我国 推广的 状农业 现 • Imperfect agriculture promotion network 推广网络“线断、网破、人散” • Research and extension services are isolated from each other 研究与推广相互脱离 • Agricultural extension is out of touch with farmers’ requirements 推广与农民的需求脱节 Misunderstandings about agricultural extension 我国 推广的 区农业 误 • Technology-oriented staff, lack of extension personnel in field 技术至上,见物不见人 • Government-led, ignoring the dominant position of farmers 政府主导,忽视农民的主体地位
  50. 50. Association 协 会 Farmer 农 民 Experts 专 家 technical guidance guide 指 导 service 服 务 agricultural technicians from County 县乡农 技人员 村社能人 技术指 导 Membership fee 会费 effect影 响 cultivation 培 养 家、 技人 、 村能人、 民四位一体专 农 员 农 农 Experts + Farmers’ organization (association/cooperative) + Farmer “ 专家 + 农民组织( 协会,合作社) + 农户” intergrate various advantages of extension modes 集多种推广模式的优势于一体 “ 拉队伍”:整合力量,提高效 率
  51. 51. Experts: Best source of technology diffusion 专家:最佳的技术传播源 • Technology: solve the problem of technological discontinuity in primary agricultural sector 技术性:解决了基层农技部门的技术断层问题 • Authority: easy to mobilize farmers, enhance the effect of technical publicity 权威性:便于发动农民、增强技术宣传效果 • Security: make farmers to have safe feeling, then they would like to accept new technology 安全感:可以使农民有安全感,能很快接受 • Inspiration: easy to change awareness and behavior of farmers 感染力:容易改变农民认识和行为
  52. 52. We love this game!
  53. 53. Technician: Essential bridge for technology diffusion 农技员:不可或缺的传播桥梁 • Familiar with the situation of rural people 熟悉下面情况 • Consolidate experts and farmers 连接中间力量 对接上面专家 • Understanding of local customs 了解风土人情 • With practical experience 具备实践经验
  54. 54. • Widest coverage 覆盖面最大 • Closest to farmers 离农民最近 • Most authority 带动性最强 • Lowest cost 成本也最低 Outstanding Villager: the only full-service person 村社能人:唯一的全程服务人选
  55. 55. Association (cooperative) : a mandatory organization to improve efficiency 协会(合作社):提高效率的必要组织 • Form farmers’ organizations 增强了农民组织化程度:由分到合,质的飞跃,有利 于许多工作的开展; • Enhance farmers’ ability to undertake risks and pressure 承受风险、压力能力增强,并且组织规模越大,这种 能力越强。会员之间的正面作用,促进少部分会员甚 至其他农户转变,极大提高新技术推广效率; • Provide a service platform for farmers 给农村带头人提供服务农民的平台和条件; • Constraints of rules and regulations in the Association 协会章程、制度约束。
  56. 56. 优势互补,各得其所 Advantage between the two sides can make up each other, and both sides can get what they want Core Villager 核心农户 (村社能人) Technician 农技员 Experts 专 家 Association 协会 (合作社) “Dream team” for agricultural extension 农技推广“梦之队”
  57. 57. Innovation of methods and mechanisms 方法和机制的创新 • Restore the dominant position of farmers 还农民主体地位 • Integrated extension 综合推广 • Attention to the quality of farmers 重农民素质 • Develop their markets of agricultural products 开拓农产品市场
  58. 58. Farmer-centered 必须以农民为中心 Improve communications & interaction 加强交流互动 Farmers need to join in the extension effort 参与式推广 Farmers are the subjects of agriculture. Tey need advice, not command like from patriarch 农民是农业的主体 农民不需要家长 只需要参谋
  59. 59. 这种开会形式很 好,多让大家参 加 这次会议是历史从来 未有过的明确、开朗 表达自己的意见 这次开会很好 ,方式很民主 ,合作社大有 希望 会议开得很好, 气氛热烈,效果 很好 这次会义开得好 ,建义经后桶一 房治 We got very positive and valuable feedback from farmers after the meeting
  60. 60. Field trials of village experts 土专家的田间试验 receptive 容易接受 Drought-resistance, water-saving 抗旱保湿 Keep soil warm, increase tillers 增温促蘖 Weed suppression 抑制杂草
  61. 61. From single technology promotiom to integrated extension 从单一技术推广到综合推广 • Synthesis of techniques: organic wholeness needs integrated management 综合技术:有机整体需要综合技术、综合管 理,单一技术无法发挥最佳效果 • Comprehensive development : farmer + rural improvement + agricultural productivity 综合发展:把技术推广放到对农民、农村、 农业更有利的农村发展的事业中去做
  62. 62. Single-technology promotion PK Comprehensive agriculture promotion 单一的技术推广 pk 综合的农业推广 • Single-technology promotion 单一的技术推广 Direct objective: Make farmers learn new technology and know how to use it Indirect objective: Increase farmer's income. But this goal is constrained by markets, resources and policies, so this method is high risky. 直接目标:让农民掌握技术 “授鱼” 外因 治标 间接目标:增加农民收入 市场、资源、政策制约 风险大 • Comprehensive agriculture promotion 综合的农业推广 Direct objective: Improve farmer's general knowledge substantially. Indirect objective: Push forward agriculture development generally. In this way, we can strengthen cohesiveness and have bigger space to improve. 直接目标:提高农民综合素质 “授渔” 内因 治本 间接目标:推动农村综合发展 增强凝聚力,空间大
  63. 63. Support education of children left behind 支教留守儿童 Promote farmers' cooperation 推动农民合作 Concern about life for the elderly 关注留守老人 Aim to develop modern agriculture 发展现代农业 Comprehensive Development 综合发展
  64. 64. February 2011: creation of 4 interest-based research groups 1. 粮油小组 (grain and oilseeds ) 2. 蔬菜小组 (vegetables ) 3. 果树小组 (fruit trees ) 4. 养殖小组 (cultivation)
  65. 65. 合作社老年协 会和 女 会妇 协 展丰富多彩开 的文化活动 Elders’ Association Association of Women
  66. 66. • Cultivating modern farmers 培养现代农民(农民问题、基础): 农民是三农的主体,也是根基,没有现代农民做支撑的现 代农业只能是空中楼阁。 不能为了片面追求农业高效而只注重企业和资本,忽略了 农民,特别是留守的弱势农民 • Developing ecological agriculture 发展生态农业(农业问题、手段):技术推 广、产业化、 生态农业 • Building rural happiness 建设幸福农村(农村问题、目的):水到渠成,建设和谐 、文明、幸福的新农村 Promote integrated development of rural area 推 村 合 展动农 综 发 Larger goal: less difficulties, better results 目 更大、 度更小、效果更好标 难
  67. 67. Two local experts from Xiangshui village who worked in Zigong and Neijiang in March 2008
  68. 68. Extension area in Yanjiang, Ziyang City 2010: 10,700 ha (160,000 亩 ) 2009: 10,000 ha (150,000 亩 ) 2008: 7,000 ha (100,000 亩 ) 2007: 4,000 ha (60,000 亩 ) 2006: <20 ha (280 亩 )
  69. 69. Local meeting for demonstration of water-saving technique for Sichuan province
  70. 70. Thank you !

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