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Water management in sri

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Water management in sri

  1. 1. Scarcity of water is acute in the world’s ‘rice bowls’ 1/3rd of the world’s population lives with water scarcity & this proportion will double by 2050
  2. 2. Amod K. Thakur Senior Scientist Directorate of Water Management (ICAR) Bhubaneswar Effects under SRI
  3. 3. Most of the research findings on optimum water provision for paddy rice presently reported in the literature may not apply to SRI rice crops - because its plants have profuse, longer-lived, and healthier root systems which are in contrast with the degraded and truncated root systems of flooded rice plants.
  4. 4. Objective To investigate the impact of continuous versus alternate flooding of paddy fields on the resulting grain yield, root growth, and water productivity achieved under two alternative crop management systems, namely, SRI and a conventional transplanting system (CTS) of rice production?
  5. 5. Cultivation Practices Water management treatments Per hill Per unit area Root dry weight (g /hill) Exudate amount (g /hill) Rate (g /hill/ h) Root dry weight (g/ m2) Exudate amount (g/ m2) Rate (g /m2 /h) CTS CF 6.1 ef 2.5 fg 0.10 f 306.0 e 125.7 e 5.2 de 1-DAD 8.5 d 3.4 e 0.14 d 426.5 b 170.8 b 7.1 b 3-DAD 6.7 e 2.9 f 0.12 e 334.0 d 143.7 cd 6.0 c 5-DAD 6.7 e 2.8 f 0.12 e 333.2 d 138.0 d 5.8 cd 7-DAD 5.5 f 2.1 g 0.09 f 274.5 f 107.0 f 4.5 f Av. 6.7 2.7 0.11 334.8 137.0 5.7 SRI CF 14.7 b 4.9 c 0.20 c 367.5 c 122.6 e 5.1 ef 1-DAD 17.9 a 6.2 b 0.26 b 447.2 ab 154.3 c 6.4 c 3-DAD 17.6 a 7.8 a 0.32 a 439.6 ab 194.8 a 8.1 a 5-DAD 18.5 a 5.8 b 0.24 b 462.7 a 144.6 cd 6.0 c 7-DAD 13.4 c 4.3 d 0.18 c 334.7 d 108.3 f 4.5 f Av. 16.4 5.8 0.24 410.4 144.9 6.0 Analysis of variance Cultivation practice (CP) ** ** ** ** * * Water management (W) ** ** ** ** ** ** CP ×W ** ** ** ** ** **
  6. 6. As more water stress was imposed, grain yield reduced in both methods, but the reduction in grain yield was found to be greater in conventional TP than SRI. Deeper and greater root growth under SRI, which enables the plant to extract water from deeper soil zones -50.0 -40.0 -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 CF 1 DAD 3 DAD 5 DAD 7 DAD ChangeingrainyieldoverCF(%) Water Management Treatments CTS SRI
  7. 7. Cultivation Practices Water managemen t treatments Per hill Per unit area Effective tiller (%) Tiller (No. /hill) Panicle (No. /hill) Tiller (No. /m2) Panicle (No. /m2) CTS CF 8.0 b 6.1 c 399.2 cd 281.0 g 70.5 d 1-DAD 8.2 b 6.5 c 404.0 c 316.0 d 78.4 b 3-DAD 8.2 b 6.3 c 409.8 abc 319.7 d 78.1 b 5-DAD 8.5 b 5.8 c 417.8 ab 294.3 ef 70.5 d 7-DAD 7.3 b 5.2 c 365.2 e 255.5 h 70.0 d Av. 8.0 6.0 399.2 293.3 73.5 SRI CF 15.3 a 12.2 b 385.5 de 302.8 e 78.5 b 1-DAD 16.8 a 14.2 a 420.5 ab 355.0 b 84.5 a 3-DAD 17.2 a 14.7 a 430.8 a 370.0 a 85.9 a 5-DAD 16.0 a 13.7 a 402.3 c 341.0 c 85.0 a 7-DAD 15.2 a 11.0 b 376.2 de 287.0 fg 76.5 c Av. 16.1 13.1 403.1 331.2 82.1 Analysis of variance Cultivation practice (CP) ** ** ns ** ** Water management (W) ns ** ** ** **
  8. 8. Cultivation Practices Water management treatments Total water use (mm)a Water productivity (kg /ha-mm) 2009 2010 Mean 2009 2010 Mean CTS CF 1198.4 1211.4 1204.9 a 3.52 3.48 3.50 ef 1-DAD 1162.3 1172.3 1167.3 b 3.73 3.72 3.73 e 3-DAD 1126.4 1145.2 1135.8 c 3.60 3.61 3.60 e 5-DAD 1109.2 1115.2 1112.2 d 3.46 3.43 3.45 f 7-DAD 1087.1 1100.7 1093.9 d 2.10 2.16 2.13 g Av 1132.7 1145.0 1142.8 3.3 3.3 3.3 SRI CF 1035.2 1050.5 1042.9 e 5.31 5.17 5.24 c 1-DAD 1005.6 1015.1 1010.4 f 6.23 6.12 6.17 b 3-DAD 976.2 985.8 981.0 g 6.53 6.41 6.47 a 5-DAD 948.4 955.2 951.8 h 6.11 6.05 6.08 b 7-DAD 935.6 935.3 935.5 h 4.59 4.55 4.57 d Av. 980.2 988.4 984.3 5.8 5.7 5.7 Analysis of variance Cultivation practice (CP) ** ** Water management (W) ** ** CP ×W ns ** 14 % saving of water with SRI compared to CTS
  9. 9. Treatments Treatments for rice crop management Symbols Cropping system Rice crop was grown with conventional method , and all rainwater was harvested and used in the field without any supplemental irrigation C-RW Rice only Rice crop was grown with SRI methods and all rainwater was harvested and used in the field without any supplemental irrigation S-RW Rice only Rice crop was grown with SRI methods, no stagnant water was kept in the field (excess rainwater was drained) and supplemental irrigation was provided as and when required S-IW Rice only Rice crop was grown with SRI methods, no stagnant water was kept in the field (excess rainwater was stored in the refuge) and supplemental irrigation was provided from water conserved in the refuge as and when required S-CW Rice + Fish + Horticultural crops
  10. 10. Rice production system Grain yield (t ha-1) Straw yield (t ha-1) Harvest Index C-RW 2.89 d 5.00 c 0.36 c S-RW 4.41 c 6.38 b 0.41 b S-IW 5.70 b 6.59 ab 0.46 a S-CW 6.16 a 6.81 a 0.47 a
  11. 11. Rice producti on system a Cost of cultivation (CC) (Rs.) Output value (OV) (Rs.) Net profit (Rs.) OV:CC ratio Water used (m3) Net water productivi ty (Rs. m- 3) C-RW 1183.0 1336.0 153.0 1.13 487.6 0.31 S-RW 1155.0 2468.7 1313.7 2.14 487.6 2.69 S-IW 1355.0 3189.2 1834.2 2.35 661.5 2.77 S-CW b 4782.1 14183.0 9401.0 2.97 497.2 18.91 a Area of the each replicated plots was 350 m2. b In S-CW system, out of 350 m2 area- 270 m2 was used for rice cultivation, 35 m2 was refuge area used for fish culture and rest 45 m2 area was under bund used for horticultural crops Economic analysis of different rice production systems
  12. 12. In this increasingly water-scarce world, SRI offers opportunities to reduce rice farmers’ need for water while enhancing their grain production. Total rice production can also be increased by being able to use water saved in one location to irrigate land area in another place, although the amounts and timings of water application always need to be locally determined and adjusted to local soil type, depth of the groundwater table, and environmental conditions. Integrating aquaculture and horticulture with SRI management, utilizing harvested rainwater, increases rice productivity, net water productivity and net income per unit of water used. Integrated SRI has potential to greatly improve water productivity.
  13. 13. Further study on various components of water balance measurements of rice water requirements under SRI is needed. Various water management practices should be optimized under different soil type / varieties / environmental conditions. Comparative studies on SRI’s yield and water productivity performance vis- a`-vis other water-saving rice management systems should also be investigated in the future. Also, research on water management practices during reproductive and ripening stage should be conducted.
  14. 14. Thanks Rice field art in Japan, just using plants

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