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An option for farmers to change traditional rice growing practices for more economic, social and environmental benefits

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An option for farmers to change traditional rice growing practices for more economic, social and environmental benefits

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An option for farmers to change traditional rice growing practices for more economic, social and environmental benefits

  1. 1. PROF. R. K.Ghosh, FAPS, FISWS,RAISWS, FAAPP DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY, FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, BIDHAN CHANDRA KRISHI VISWAVIDYALAYA (BCKV), MOHANPUR, NADIA, WEST BENGAL Email: drraj2015@rediffmail.com Tel: (M)- 919433145340 Research on System of Rice Intensification (SRI)--Results & Experiences, BCKV
  2. 2. For SRI Research through Sponsoring Adhoc Project, “Improvement of productivity of land through diversity and activity of soil organisms in various agro ecosystem of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in West Bengal” Principal Investigator: Prof. R.K.Ghosh, Agronomy, BCKV THANKS TO Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and Allied Trusts (SDTT) Eruchshaw Building; 5th Floor, (Opposite ICICI Bank), 249, DN Road, Mumbai And SRI SECRETARIAT
  3. 3. WHY SRI RICE BMP WITH AVAILBLE RESOURCES Food Security Increase productivity by minimizing production loss in gradual decreasing per capita land Climate Change Change of Biodiversity: Emission of Green House Gases Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Carbon Di Oxide (CO2), Carbon Mono Oxide (CO) etc. from transplanted puddled rice field Improve Farmers’ Thinking Soil & Plant health by diversification of crops, use of more OM increase soil microflora & balance nutrition reduces pest attack
  4. 4. Major Questions for SRI Research If Methane GHG is more in Traditional Puddle Rice then using lesser water in SRI (wet & dry method) what is the fate of Nitrous oxide GHG in rice soil ? Whether more organic manure can reduce the nitrous oxide in SRI by more mineralization ? (e.g. Sodamide (NaNH2) can reduce nitrous oxide to Azides liberating Ammonia N2O + 2NaNH2 NaN3 + NH3 + NaOH ) Whether soil has the capacity to produce 25-30 t ha-1 biomass (if grain yield is 10-15 t ha-1) - what about the nutrient & microflora status ? What about the yield of other crops grown in this field ?? If more balanced nutrition (more Organic) Pest attack is lesser – what percent reduction of pests?  In Summer paddy 15 days old seedling (winter) it is difficult for single transplanting – Lack of skilled
  5. 5. ACTIVE SCIENTISTS / RESEARCHERS & NGOs INVOLVED IN SRI RESEARCH DURING 2011-14 Prof. R.K.Ghosh – Agronomy, BCKV, West Bengal Dr. P.K.Patra – Soil Science & Ag. Chemistry, BCKV, West Bengal Dr. M. Dhara & Mr. M.K.Bhowmik- RRS, Chinsurah, Govt. of West Bengal Prof. A. Chakraborty & Dr. K.K.mandal- RRS, Sekhampur, Birbhum,BCKV Dr. K.Pramanick- PSB,Viswa Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal Mr. S. Pal & Mr. G. Banerjee- Rajarhat Prasari, Kolkata Mr. P. Mishra & Mr. A. Chanda- Ambuja Cement Foundation, Howrah Ms. S. Sentharagai, Research Scholar, Agronomy, BCKV Ms. Diana Shamurailatpam- Sr. Research Fellow, Agronomy, BCKV Ms. Dipsikha Chakrabarty- Research Scholar, Soil Sci. & Ag. Chemistry, BCKV
  6. 6. Major objectives of SRI Research 1. To conduct & Spread SRI in Rice growing districts of West Bengal 2. To find out proper ecosafe weed management – Yield & Soil microflora study Effect of botanicals, mechanical, chemical & physical methods on weed biomass & soil health (As SRI needs lesser water, weeds are more & control is a problem) 3. To find out INM ratio (IN-N + OR- N) ; Effect on soil health improvement & To find out infestation of plant pests (weed, insect, disease & nematodes) In more organic manure plot in comparison to more inorganic fertilizer plot 4. To find out water saving amount without affecting yield and to find out the effect on green house gas emissions (CO,CO2, N2O, Methane etc.) in SRI SRI needs lesser water so lesser methane expecting than TTR but more nitrous oxide also expecting in SRI than TTR 5. Nutrient x Water interaction – Whether more organic manures (neem cake/ vermicompost etc. ) can reduce nitrous oxide emission in SRI plots where lesser water is applying – Studies on Nitrogen mineralization – microflora density
  7. 7. BCKV SRI RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL SITES 2011-12 (Starting Year) – 6 Locations On Station Trial (2 Locations) BCKV Research Farm, Mohanpur, Nadia RRS, Chinsurah, Government of West Bengal On Farm Trial ( 04 Locations) Nadia – Chandamari and Fulkalmi (BCKV) On Farm Co Centres 24 Parganas (South) – Gosaba (Rajarhat Prasari) Howrah – Uluberia (Ambuja Cement Foundation)
  8. 8. BCKV SRI RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL SITES 2012-13 – 13 Locations On Station Trial (3 Locations) BCKV Research Farm, Mohanpur, Nadia RRS, Sekhampur Farm, Birbhum, BCKV RRS, Chinsurah, Government of West Bengal On Farm Trial ( 10 Locations) Hooghly – Gurap and Radhanagar Burdwan – Amarpur and Raina Nadia – Chandamari and Fulkalmi Paschim Medinipur - Bhobla, Mangrul Purba Medinipur – Khanru Radhanagar, Raur On Farm Co Centres 24 Parganas (South) – Gosaba (Rajarhat Prasari) Howrah – Uluberia (Ambuja Cement Foundation)
  9. 9. BCKV SRI RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL SITES 2013-14 – 15 Locations On Station Trial (4 Locations) BCKV Research Farm, Mohanpur, Nadia RRS, Sekhampur Farm, Birbhum, BCKV RRS, Chinsurah, Government of West Bengal PSB, Visva – Bharati University, Sriniketan On Farm Trial ( 11 Locations) Hooghly – Gurap and Radhanagar Burdwan – Amarpur and Raina Nadia – Chandamari and Fulkalmi Paschim Medinipur - Bhobla, Mangrul Purba Medinipur – Khanru Radhanagar, Raur 24 Parganas (North)- Bajitpur, Bagda On Farm Co Centres 24 Parganas (South) – Gosaba (Rajarhat Prasari) Howrah – Uluberia (Ambuja Cement Foundation)
  10. 10. FOR Final Outcome in SRI Research Nutrient balance sheet after 3 years of SRI Research Recording of Scientific data related to GHG CO, CO2, N2O and Methane in SRI & Traditional TR Evaluation of Bioefficacy & Phytotoxicity of newly identified bio-pesticides along with organic herbicides Pests surveillance in Nutrient Management plots to record whether more organic plots showing lesser pests attack than Traditional TR Microflora status in Nutrient and Weed Management plots after 3 years of SRI Research Calculation of Water saving & cost On Farm Acceptance of SRI – Farmers’ View – Problem facing – Percent Farmer accepting SRI in a location Integrated efforts of Government, SAUs, NGOs & Farmers
  11. 11. SRI BMP AGRONOMIC PRACTICES Seed Treatment- Seeds (@ 8 kg ha-1) were treated with salt water @ 160 g salt litre-1 of water. Then Collected 100% pure bold seeds & washed in fresh water. This was followed by Treatment with Trichoderma viridi @ 4 g kg-1 of paddy seed and then making a paste of Biofertlizer @ 250 g kg-1 of paddy seed. Kept this seed paste overnight and then these were sown in nursery after sprouting in Dapag method OM used in Nursery and Ash + Sand were also used after germination 15-18 days old seedlings were transplanted in the puddled field
  12. 12. Remove weeds in seed bed Application of Neem Cake Application of Compost+BF
  13. 13. Transplanting Sand seed bed Field seed bed
  14. 14. Transplanting in less water 8 DAT
  15. 15. FINAL LAND PREPARATION Use NC 2 t + COMPOST 3 t + SSP 60 kg + MOP 15 kg + Biofertlizers 1 kg ha-1 BUT NO NITROGEN Nitrogen has no need for rice plant now but can enhance the weed growth Thus N (25 kg urea ha-1) were applied at 12-15 DAT after the rice root establishment in new field and this will improve the growth of the rice plant which can suppress the weeds
  16. 16. 25 kg Urea and 15 kg MOP ha-1 each applied at Active Tillering, PI & Flowering Urea/ MOP mix with double amount dry soil and apply in moist soil only (not in stagnant water / dry field) Diversification of Crops – Dhaincha with Rice (Brown manuring) / Grow legume crops – Senji, Gram, Cowpea, Azolla, Lentil etc. More carbon  Use balance nutrients by applying more organic manures and biofertilizers Fertilizer Top Dressing
  17. 17. Experimental Results
  18. 18. Experimental Results (Summer 2012 & 2013) WEED MANAGEMENT T1 - Weedy check T2 - 3 Mechanical Weeding by Rotary weeder at 15, 25 and 40DAT T3 - 2 Mechanical Weeding by Rotary weeder at 20 and 40 DAT T4 - 1 Hand Weeding at 25 DAT + 2 Mechanical Weeding at 15 and 40 DAT T5 - Pretilachlor 50 EC @ 500g ha-1at 1DAT + 2 MW 15 and 40 DAT T6- Mixture of Calotropis leaves, Parthenium leaves and Teak leaves 5% extract + 0.5% Tween 80 at 1 DAT + 2 MW at 15 and 40 DAT No. of Panicle, , Weed Dry weight , WCE , HEI & WPMI and Grain yield of SRI Weed management at BCKV Treatme nt No. of panicle plant-1 2012 2013 Weed Dry weight (g m-2 ) WCE (%) 40 DAT 2012 2013 2012 2013 Grain Yield (t ha-1) HEI WPMI 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 T1 15.00 22.00 7.12 9.47 - 3.10 3.12 - - - - T2 18.50 23.75 5.66 20.51 7.21 23.87 4.20 4.27 0.44 0.48 1.70 1.80 T3 20.25 24.50 2.65 62.78 3.10 67.26 5.10 5.30 1.73 2.14 4.42 5.19 T4 24.25 30.50 0.93 86.94 1.79 81.10 5.80 5.93 6.67 4.83 14.33 10.06 T5 22.25 29.00 1.81 83.43 2.89 69.48 5.45 5.70 2.98 2.71 6.92 5.99 T6 20.50 27.50 3.03 57.44 4.22 55.44 5.33 5.63 1.69 1.81 4.04 4.05 CD 5% 1.35 1.44 0.25 0.40
  19. 19. Effect of different weed management treatments on root biomass of transplanted SRI paddy at 30, 45 and 60 DAT during summer 2012 & 2013 and Net Production value (NPV) (mean of 2012 @ 2013) Treatments Root biomass (g m-2) 30 DAT 45 DAT 60 DAT NPV Mean Mean Mean T1- WC 112.0 114.2 115.0 0.71 T2- 2MW 116.9 119.1 126.1 1.02 T3- 3MW 118.7 120.4 129.9 1.35 T4- 1HW+ 2MW 124.8 126.9 136.8 1.53 T5- CC+2MW 124.1 127.8 135.9 1.55 T6- BC+2MW 123.6 126.1 134.5 1.62
  20. 20. Cyperus difformis in summer transplanted paddy at BCKV Field
  21. 21. Infestation of Echinochloa spp. in summer SRI (On Farm, Nadia)
  22. 22. Ludwigia octovalvis & Alternanthera spp. in summer transplanted SRI at On farm Hooghly
  23. 23. Preparation of 10% aqua’s extract Collect green leaf / plant part / root part / deciduous leaf part / stem Part Dry these plant parts under shade condition Dried up plant parts grind 100 g powder placed into the glass container Add 900 ml distilled water Soaked overnight Boil this for two hrs. at 600 C After proper boiling the plant parts are separated by filter paper & Collect the extract Preparation spray solution Add 0. 25% non ionic surfactant e.g. Tween- 80, Tween- 20, S -145 etc. L-1 water It is ready to spray @ 100 ml litre-1
  24. 24. RAW Extracts
  25. 25. Bamboo root and Bamboo Leaves powder Preparation of bamboo aqueous leaf extract Cucumber Leaves
  26. 26. Calotropis hexen Calotropis methanol Parthenium hexen Parthenium methanol Tectona hexen Tectona methanol Preparation of Bioherbicides at BCKV, India
  27. 27. Tectona grandis (Segun) Salicyclic acid Bambusa vulgaris (Bamboo) Rutin Tricin Luteoalin Calotropis procera (Akanda) Calotropin Parthenium hysterophorus (Wild carrot / Gajar gash) Sesquiterpene lactones A: Germacranolides B: Heliangolides C+D: Guaianolides E: Pseudoguaianolides F: Hypocretenolides G: Eudesmanolide Phenol Parthenin
  28. 28. Weeders help to supply Oxygen
  29. 29. Spraying of chemical Pretilachlor 30.7 % on SRI at 1 DAT
  30. 30. Achievements Botanicals and Chemical herbicides followed by two mechanical (Paddy Weeder) weeding at 20 & 40 DAT yielded 79.0 % & 76.0 % more than Control Plot, respectively. These two treatments were at par with HW + 2 MW (88.0%). Average NPV of Botanicals were 3.14 & 3.77 %, more than HW and Chemicals, respectively & and over the control by 54.1 %.
  31. 31. Weed Management Recommendation: a) Use of Dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata) two months before puddling & incorporation of 40-45 days dhaincha) or Glyphosate + Oxyfluorfen mixture @ 2 g litre-1 water at one month ago of puddling b) Use of aqueous extracts of botanicals (Akand + Parthenium + Segun leave powder) @ 100 ml litre-1 or Environment safer green labeled herbicide Pretilachlor 30.7% EC @ 500 g ha-1 (3 ml litre-1 Rifit /Erase N) at 1-2 DAT c) Use of paddy weeder at 20 & 40 DAT d) Diversification of Crops- More legume crops in cropping sequence / crop rotation
  32. 32. Experimental Results NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT T1– Farmers’ common practice T2 – 100% Nutrient from Chemical source T3 - 25% Nutrient N from Organic source + 75% from chemical source + PK same as T2 T4 – 50% Nutrient N from Organic source + 50% from chemical source + PK same as T2 T5 – 50% Nutrient N from chemical source + Green manuring (Dhaincha) + Rest Nutrient N from other Organic source No. of panicles during summer 2012 & 2013 Treatment No. of panicles plant-1 2012 2013 Mean % change from FP T1 18.0 24.25 21.13 T2 17.0 24.25 20.63 -2.37 T3 16.0 24.10 20.05 -2.98 T4 25.0 23.06 24.03 13.72 T5 19.0 23.09 21.05 - 1.75 CD 5% 1.35 1.44
  33. 33. Treatment Grain Yield (t ha-1) Straw Yield ( tha-1) 2012 2013 Mean % from FP 2012 2013 Mean T1 4.3 6.58 5.44 5.2 7.43 6.36 T2 4.1 6.16 5.13 - 5.69 5.0 8.77 6.89 T3 4.2 6.49 5.35 - 1.65 5.2 8.54 6.87 T4 5.2 6.7 5.95 9.38 6.5 8.32 7.41 T5 4.9 6.73 5.82 6.98 5.5 7.53 6.52 CD 5% 0.1 0.28 0.1 0.62 Biological Yield during summer 2012 & 2013
  34. 34. Treatm ent Panicle length (cm) Grain panicle-1 Grain yield t ha-1 (% Change from N2) Straw yield (t ha-1) Insect & disease pest infestation at 55 DAT (m-2) Weed density at 55 DAT (m-2) N1 22.8 185 4.61 (3.7) 5.20 15.00 36.67 N 2 21.5 178 4.31 6.14 11.67 27.33 N 3 20.6 182 4.54 (5.3) 5.98 11.67 28.67 N 4 21.9 185 4.69 (12.9) 5.82 14.33 25.00 N 5 19.9 172 4.64 (10.0) 5.27 10.33 17.00 LSD (P=0.0 5) 2.49 10.21 0.196 0.434 Panicle length & number of grains panicle, grain & straw yield of paddy and pest infestation of SRI summer 2014 in nutrient management at BCKV
  35. 35. Name of the centre No. of tiller m-2 Leaf Chlorophyll content (%) Temperature (0C) Soil Canopy BCKV, Nadia 440 48.0 34 42 RRS,Chinsurah, Hooghly 420 RRS,Sekhampur, Birbhum 400 43.0 37 43 Visva- Bharati, Sriniketan 380 51.2 28 31 Raina, Burdwan 340 46.0 46 48 Gurap, Hooghly 340 47.0 32 41 Gosaba, 24 Parganas(South) 400 48.4 38 45 Uluberia, Howrah 400 47.5 37 46 Fulkalmi, Nadia 420 38.0 32 47 Purba Medinipur 380 34.0 39 51 Paschim Medinipur 400 48.9 41 50 No. of Tillers, Chlorophyll content in leaf & Temperature in Summer SRI 2014
  36. 36. Name of the centre Nitrogen Phosphorus Potash 2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014 BCKV, Nadia 242.5 264.3 282.6 29.1 30.9 50.5 190.3 249.1 271.2 RRS,Chinsurah, Hooghly soil sample analysed by the Institute RRS,Sekhampur, Birbhum 254.4 212.7 234.2 26.9 11.22 26.0 205.5 201.0 235.6 Visva- Bharati, Sriniketan 226.8 24.6 214.0 Raina, Burdwan 261.8 164.8 - 14.7 36.2 - 204.2 229.4 - Gurap, Hooghly - 259.5 - - 13.9 - - 245.43 - Gosaba, 24 Parganas(South) 161.2 204.8 264.4 25.9 27.5 34.10 180.5 195.7 214.6 Uluberia, Howrah 242.2 271.2 278.7 28.7 29.5 32.8 203.5 214.6 231.8 Fulkalmi, Nadia 237.2 212.2 226.0 19.1 12.6 24.4 205.7 225.0 234.0 Purba Medinipur 241.5 237.7 27.4 21.5 245.0 236.9 Paschim Medinipur 267.2 291.0 26.9 28.7 237.8 254.6 Nadia Chandamari 277.2 215.0 11.77 31.5 286.0 210.8 Nutrient Balance (kg ha-1)
  37. 37. Influence of treatments on soil microflora (CFU x 10 4/5 /6 g-1 soil) 2012- 2013 Locations Actinomycetes Fungi Bacteria Initial Harvesting Initial Harvesting Initial Harvesting BCKV 95.39 177.69 23.77 29.02 49.45 92.18 Fulkalmi 93.73 108.41 18.22 24.65 45.90 65.89 Chandamari 94.75 95.56 20.67 25.78 46.28 65.54 Burdwan 95.09 90.00 22.35 22.09 44.49 60.43 Hooghly 95.75 91.45 22.47 21.54 46.07 56.08 Medinipur 95.51 154.00 22.50 27.17 45.76 71.99 Howrah 95.35 166.56 22.36 27.87 45.21 80.35 Gosaba 94.94 174.18 22.78 35.56 41.64 84.41 Fungi (CFU x 104) Actinomycetes (CFU x 105) Bacteria (CFU x 106)
  38. 38. Achievements INM of 50 % OM + 50% INORG-N + PK & NC Recorded  Lesser pests  Compared to RDF produced 12.9% more grain yield  Same plots since 2012 recorded gradual increase in soil nutrient & microflora
  39. 39. Experimental Results (Summer 2012 & 13) WATER MANAGEMENT T1 - Farmers’ common practices (3-5 cm of standing water throughout the crop cycle) T2 - 2-3 cm of standing water throughout the crop cycle T3 - Irrigation at Soil hair crake stage T4 - Irrigation at Soil hair crake stage during vegetative phase + 2- 3 cm of standing water at PI and Flowering stage only Growth and Yield parameters and Biological yield of SRI Water management (Mean data of 2012 & 2013) Treatment Plant height (cm) No. of tiller plant-1 Panicle length (cm) No. of grain panicle-1 Yield (t ha-1) Grain Straw T1 90 15 23.0 190 3.3 4.2 T2 95 15 25.5 194 4.1 5.3 T3 85 14 26.0 210 3.1 4.0 T4 105 22 29.5 315 4.3 5.7
  40. 40. Treatments No. of tillers plant-1 Panicle length (cm) Grain yield (t ha-1) Stover yield (t ha-1) SRI 22.22 25.88 4.95 8.21 Hair crack 17.67 25.58 3.85 7.11 2 - 3 cm 19.67 25.42 4.23 7.49 3 - 5 cm 18.50 25.21 4.14 7.39 S.Em(±) 1.08 - 208.66 2.55 CD (P= 0.05) 3.27 NS 628.98 0.769 Growth and Yield parameters and Biological yield of SRI Water management during 2014
  41. 41. Irrigation Water delivered (minutes)- 2014 Date of sowing: 06/02/2014 ; Date of Transplanting: 19/02/2014 Date of Harvesting (expected): 26/05/2014 Date SRI Hair crack 2 - 3 cm 3 - 5 cm 18/02/2014 37 47 38 45 21/02/2014 0 0 35 43 24/02/2014 28 45 30 40 27/02/2014 22 0 37 42 02/03/2014 35 44 36 43 04/03/2014 0 0 28 39 07/03/2014 30 51 33 41 10/03/2014 48 15 52 62 13/03/2014 49 0 55 65 16/03/2014 56 55 56 70 18/03/2014 32 0 54 66 21/03/2014 42 51 49 60 24/03/2014 48 29 51 64 27/03/2014 45 0 49 63 31/03/2014 42 33 46 58Contd.
  42. 42. 03/04/2014 47 20 47 60 05/04/2014 43 0 45 55 08/04/2014 39 44 42 54 11/04/2014 0 0 31 38 14/04/2014 37 35 33 39 17/04/2014 48 59 46 61 19/04/2014 44 0 40 55 22/04/2014 42 36 41 56 25/04/2014 40 0 44 53 28/04/2014 36 50 37 40 01/05/2014 38 0 33 41 05/05/2014 0 56 35 38 07/05/2014 45 0 40 56 10/05/2014 48 51 35 50 12/05/2014 30 0 53 78 15/05/2014 48 65 49 70 18/05/2014 47 0 43 60 Total Minutes 1146 786 1343 1705 Total hours 19.1 13.1 22.38 28.41
  43. 43. Observations T1-SRI (2-3 cm WS at AT, PI & F +HC) T2 - Only Hair crack (HC) T3 – Only 2-3 cm WS T4 - FP (3 - 5 cm WS) Total water (lit 100 m-2) 68,760 47,160 80,580 1,02,300 Total Rainfall lit.ha-1 received 887.0 litre ha-1 Total Water mL ha-1 (withoutsubsidy) 6.88 4.72 8.06 10.23 Water savings (%) 32.78 53.90 21.23 - Total Grain Yield (kg ha-1) 3,750.00 3,347.22 3,027.78 3,138.89 Water in litre kg-1 paddy yield 1833.84 1409.2 2661.6 3259.4 Water use, Paddy grain yield litre -1 of water use in summer SRI 2014 in water management experiment at BCKV
  44. 44. 25 55 DAT 25 55 DAT 25 55 DAT 25 55 DAT CH4 - Methane (kg ha-1) 25 32 20 27 35 42 40 46 N2O- Nitrous Oxide (kg ha-1) 16 25 16 37 15 23 17 21 CO (%) 0.92 0.95 0.90 0.94 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.99 CO2 (ppm) 394 395 390 393 392 396 398 399 T1-SRI (2-3 cm WS at AT, PI & F +HC) T2 - Only Hair crack (HC) T3 – Only 2-3 cm WS T4 - FP (3 - 5 cm WS) GHG Carbon monooxide, Carbon dioxide, Methane and Nitrous oxide emission O2 - 20.9% is common in all locations
  45. 45. SRI Water in dry and wet alternative but moist soil
  46. 46. Water is removed after 70 % grains matured or get hardened
  47. 47. Achievements 2-3 cm water at AT, PI, & F + rest at hair crack stage Recorded  More water saving  More Yield  Lesser Methane emission but more Nitrous oxide – needs to be reduced by more OM
  48. 48. Nutrient Management (Boro) Pest intensity No. of effective tillers m-2 100% INF High 384 100% OM Low 356 50% INF + 50% OM Moderate 402 25% IN + 75 % OM Moderate 396 Rice Research Station (RRS), GOVT. WB 2012 & 2013 Variety : Satabdi (IET 4786) Date of sowing : 08.01.2012; 11.01.2013 Date of transplanting : 25.01.2012; 30.01.2013 Date of harvesting : 09.05.2012; 10.05.2013 M. K. Bhowmick, M. C. Dhara, R. K. Ghosh and B. Duary (2014). Productivity improvement through weed management under the system of rice intensification in West Bengal. Programme and Abstracts. International Conference on “Environmental Biology and Ecological Modelling (ICEBEM 2014)”, February 24-26, 2014, Department of Zoology (Centre for Advanced Studies), Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, India. pp. 85-86.
  49. 49. RRS Sekhampur, BCKV, Birbhum 2012 & 2013 Nutrient management Weed Management
  50. 50. The highest grain yield could be obtained with the T3 which was 13.6% more than the T1 treatment. An added advantage of the T3 treatment was the saving of precious water. About 405 mm of water could be saved in the T3 treatment. T1 – Farmer’s practice- maintaining 3-4cm water depth during the entire growth and maturity period. T2 – 2-3 cm water depth during the entire growth and maturity period. T3 – Contingent irrigation following hair cracks in the soil surface till maturity period. T4- Same as T3 but maintaining 2-3 cm water depth after panicle emergence stage till maturity period. Water management
  51. 51. Visva Bharati, Sriniketan, Birbhum, Treatments No. of tiller plant- 1 Dry weight (g) of plants hill -1 Weed dry weight (m-2) Water management Ws 14 2.15 4.17 Wadw 20 2.26 4.81 Weed management WC 13 2.30 6.84 3 MW 19 2.30 3.21 PEC+2MW 20 2.01 3.18 Nutrient management NM1 20 2.43 5.17 NM2 17 2.24 5.79 NM3 15 1.95 5.37 Components Ws +WC+NM3 Wadw + herbicide + NM3 CO2 (ppm) 712 712 O2 (%) 20.90 20.90 N2O (ppm) 91.4 81.5 CH4 (kg ha-1) 56 54 Soil temperature (oC) 28 31
  52. 52. Package of SRI for On Farm under BCKV Crop rotation having at least one legume crop Seed Management- Local farmer preferred Good seed with seed treatment (Salt water fb Trichoderma fb biofertilizer) Nutrient Management- PK & Neem cake at basal and for nitrogen 50 % organic at basal & 50% inorganic in 3-4 splits Water Management- Maintaining of moist soil as far as possible. At PI & Flowering keep 2-3 cm water Weed Pest Management- Annual planning needed i) Use of mixture of Glyphosate 71 SG + Oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC @ 2 g litre-1water during fallow period in between two crops and sow crops 3 weeks after application of this herbicide. ii) Use of PE safer green labeled organic botanical or chemical selective herbicides in field crops followed by two mechanical weeding (paddy weeder) at 20 & 40 DAT Other Pest Management- For insects & diseases farmers may use ITK or any safer green labeled chemical pesticides.
  53. 53. On-Farm Achievements  Increase of Locations 2011- 6--- 2014- 15  An average of on-farm yield increase in SRI was 5.7% (2011-12) , 14.50 % (2012- 13) and 15.5% (2013-14) than the Traditional TR. Gradual increase  Some Centre not maintain same field  Farmers are not fully satisfied because of unavailability of skilled labour, mechanical paddy weeder & good marketing facility with proper value of rice  Needs paid Coordinator and more Awareness to improve Farmers Thinking
  54. 54. Measuring GHG N2O, CO,CO2and Methane in SRI Paddy at BCKV Farm, Nadia
  55. 55. Visiting of SDTT & SRI Secretariat Expert at BCKV Farm, Nadia during summer 2014 Use of “V” Notch in Water management experiment at BCKV Farm, Nadia during summer 2014
  56. 56. On Station Research on SRI at BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia (2014)
  57. 57. Farmers visit at BCKV Farm in summer 2014
  58. 58. Coordinators meet at BCKV during summer 2014
  59. 59. On Station Research Visva Bharati, Sriniketan Summer 2014
  60. 60. On Station Research RRS, Sekhampur, Birbhum (2013)
  61. 61. Kalinagar, Uluberia, Howrah - Training 2012 On Farm SRI experimental Plots 2014
  62. 62. Gosaba, 24 Parganas (South) Summer 2014 Summer 2013
  63. 63. Bajitpur, 24 Parganas (North) Summer 2014
  64. 64. Paschim Medinipur Summer 2014
  65. 65. Purba Medinipur Summer 2014
  66. 66. On Farm SRI experimental Plots Chandamari, Nadia Summer 2012
  67. 67. Fulkalmi, Nadia Summer 2014
  68. 68. Gurap, Hooghly Summer 2013 Raina & Amarpur, Burdwan Summer 2013
  69. 69. SRI Workshop, BCKV, December 2012
  70. 70. SRI Workshop, BCKV, March 2012 SRI kharif Meeting, BCKV June 2012
  71. 71. System of Intensification – Rice
  72. 72. System of Rice Intensification Symposium Organized by Banglar SRI at Kolkata on April, 2010
  73. 73. Felicitation to Farmer
  74. 74. CONCLUSION 1. Regarding Weed management Final result is already obtained Annual Planning + BC /CC with 2 MW 2. Regarding Nutrient Management  Nutrient balance & Pest surveillance and N- Mineralization 2 years more study is required 3. Regarding Water management and GHG 2 years more study is required 4. On Farm Confirmation- Centres will be restricted (only same plot SRI locations) with more careful paid coordinator
  75. 75. Nutrient x Water interaction : Whether more organic manures (neem cake/ vermicompost etc.) and water management -can reduce nitrous oxide emission in SRI plots where lesser water is applied –Influence nitrogen mineralization to ensure enough N to meet plant demand as well as reduce nitrous oxide emission –Activity of microorganisms and nutrient turnover -can mitigate toxicity of Arsenic and some other heavy metals in the produce and contamination of the food chain Further research is needed for conclusive results
  76. 76. SRI Happy Farmers

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