Lec 5


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Lec 5

  1. 1. PARAPHRASING – again!
  2. 2. Dos in Paraphrasing •Rephrase each sentence, one after the other •Simplify sentence structures •Change sentence structures •(passive  active, direct sp. reported sp.) •Use synonyms •Change parts of speech (noun verb, noun adj., adj verb) •Change conjunctions
  3. 3. Don’ts in Paraphrasing • Include minor points, repetitions, examples, quotations, figures of speech and illustrations • Include your opinion • Change technical terms • Change meaning of the original text • Omit author’s essential ideas
  4. 4. Example 1 • Original sentence The state prison has maximum security for incarcerating murderers. • Paraphrased sentence The state prison has the tightest safety measures for imprisoning murderers. • Synonyms maximum  tightest security  safety measures incarcerating  imprisoning
  5. 5. Example 2 • Original sentence This is the suspect who was looked for assiduously by the police officer. • Paraphrased sentence This is the suspect whom the police officer had looked for diligently. • Passive  active Synonym (assiduously  diligently)
  6. 6. Example 3 • Original sentence Nora, Joanna and Sumitra argued vociferously that the priced item should be handed over to the museum. • Paraphrased sentence Nora, Joanna as well as Sumitra argued determinedly that the valuable item should be presented to the museum. • Synonyms & conjunction
  7. 7. Example 4 • Original sentence Adam’s remark did not make much of an impression on Blake. • Paraphrased sentence Adam’s remark did not impress Blake. • Part of speech (Noun  Verb) impress  impression
  8. 8. Example 5 • Original sentence People who busk play music or sing for money in the streets or other public places. • Paraphrased sentence Buskers play music or sing for money in the streets or other public places • Part of speech (verbnoun) buskbuskers
  9. 9. DIY TIME =) Practice 3 & Practice 4 (pg.26 – pg.27)
  10. 10. Answers PRACTICE 3 2. The logging of the rainforest has disastrous effects on the environment (Choo, 2008) 3. According to Nair (2005), the education of undergraduates differs from their education in school because undergraduates are taught by several professors with various expertises.
  11. 11. Answer PRACTICE 4 1. Scientist experiment on animals to determine the safety and effectiveness of new medicine before pilot testing them on small groups of patients, as animals and humans share some common characteristics (Teo, 2006)
  12. 12. Answer PRACTICE 4 2. It is impossible for teenagers to concentrate on a book because they can only pay attention to something for a short while. According to Akmar (2008), this would be because the world presented by the television requires teenagers to concentrate for only half an hour, after which the programme changes.
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUMMARY 1. Contains the main edasi and main pupgnitsor stedali - NO supporting details, NO personal opinions 2. Logically organised and well aparasrdhper relevant points 3. Usually written in senretp etnes
  15. 15. HOW TO SUMMARISE A TEXT 1. Read the rubric 2. Skim the text 3. First reading (to understand the text) 4. Second reading (to identify relevant points) 5. Draw an outline 6. Write the first draft (in your own words) 7. Edit the draft 8. Rewrite the draft
  16. 16. Key words in the Instructions • dricebse – write what something/someone is like • mocapre – write about the similarities • stonatrc– write about the differences • explain asuces – write about the contributing factors • explain fsectfe– write about the outcomes of the influence
  18. 18. A HANGMAN?
  19. 19. MARRY YOU! In our society, a person who wishes to marry cannot completely disregard the customary pattern of courtship. If a man meets a woman on the street and decides he wants to marry her, he could conceivably choose a quicker and more aggressive course of action than the usual dating procedure. He could get on a horse, ride to the woman’s home, carry her up in his arms and gallop away with her. In Sicily, until recently, such a couple would be considered legally “married”, even if the woman had never met the man before and had no intention of marrying him. However, in Malaysia, any man who acts this way would probably have his sanity questioned.
  20. 20. MARRY YOU! - PARAPHRASED Going through the customary courtship is essential in our society if someone intends to get married. However, instead of the usual dating prior to marriage, a man could adopt a faster and more hostile approach. For instance, in Sicily, a man could ride up to a woman’s house, snatch her and force her into marriage. This practice was until recently considered acceptable. However, it would certainly be regarded as illegal in Malaysia. The man could be considered insane and charged for kidnapping.
  21. 21. MARRY YOU! - SUMMARISED The form of courtship varies between cultures. Although forced marriages are deemed illegal in Malaysia, this practice was acceptable in Sicily until recently. Adapted from J. Langan, (2002). Reading and Study Skills. (7th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill
  22. 22. DIY TIME =) Practice 5 Page 30
  23. 23. Answer According to Gradler (2006), tea tree oil has natural healing properties. During World War II, Australia supplied tea-tree oil to their soldiers. Tea-tree oil can can cure skin problems as it contains terpenoids, which have antiseptic and antifungal properties. Terpinen-4-ol is believed to be responsible for the tea-tree oils’s antimicrobial property. However, tea-tree oil should not be taken orally because it can cause serious health problems.