Sensation And Perception B1

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Sensation And Perception B1

  1. 1. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
  2. 2. SENSATION IT IS AN EXPERIENCE WHEN OUR SENSE ORGANS ARE STIMULATED
  3. 3. TWO ELEMENTS : STIMULUS RECEPTOR
  4. 5. STIMULUS SENSE ORGANS SENSES RECEPTORS LIGHTWAVES EYES VISION, SEEING RETINA SOUNDWAVES EARS AUDITION, HEARING COCHLEA AIR MOLECULES NOSE OLFACTORY SMELLING HAIR CELLS LOCATED IN THE UPPER PART OF THE NOSE CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES FROM FOOD TONGUE GUSTATION TASTING TASTE BUDS PAIN, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE TEXTURE SKIN TACTILE TOUCH OUTERMOSE LAYER-DEAD CELLS MIDDLE LAYER-HAIR FOLLICLES
  5. 6. TRANSDUCTION ADAPTATION SENSATION AND PERCEPTION A process in which a sense organ changes or transforms physical energy into electrical signals that become neural impulses, which may be sent to the brain for processing. It refers to the decreasing response of sense organs; Sensation is not usually noticed because the brain immediately changes sensation into perception
  6. 7. perception Interpretation of transformed sensory experience Into neural impulse
  7. 10. The eyes receive the light waves, which are forms of electromagnetic Energy. These vary in wavelengths
  8. 11. Visible spectrum is one particular segment of electromagnetic energy we can see because these waves are the right length to stimulate receptors in the eye.
  9. 12. <ul><li>Three coats of the eye: </li></ul><ul><li>Sclerotic Coat – the outermost covering </li></ul><ul><li>of the eye serves as the the protective layer. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choroid Coat (Vasculat) – rich in blood </li></ul><ul><li>vessels and contains the Color of the eye. </li></ul>
  10. 13.   
  11. 14. The Light Sensitive Cells are called: Rods – shaped like cylinders and sensitive only to light and during “twilight vision”
  12. 15. Cones- are concial or tapered in shape and most sensitive to color and to light of normal intensity.
  13. 17. Cornea- rounded, transparent, covering over the front of your eye.
  14. 18. Lens-transparent, oval structure attached to muscles that adjust focu sing .
  15. 19. Pupil Round opening at the front of your eye that allows light waves to pass into the eye interior.
  16. 20. iris Circular muscle that surrounds the pupil and controls the size of the pupil. It contains the pigment that gives color
  17. 21. Vitreous humor Contains fluid which are refracted, keeping the round form of the Eyeball.
  18. 22. Blindspot Area where nerve fibers from all over the eye converge to form an optic nerve.
  19. 23. Optic nerve CARRIES THE IMPULSES TO THE BRAIN.
  20. 24. VISUAL DEFECTS NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA) EYEBALL IS TOO LONG AND OBJECTS ARE FOCUSED AT A POINT SLIGHTLY IN FRONT OF THE RETINA.
  21. 25. VISUAL DEFECTS FARSIGHTEDNESS (HYPEROPIA) EYEBALL IS TOO SHORT AND OBJECTS ARE FOCUSED AT A POINT SLIGHTLY BEHIND THE RETINA.
  22. 26. VISUAL DEFECTS OLDSIGHTEDNESS (PRESBYOPIA) A CONDITION BROUGHT BY THE HARDENING OF THE LENS BECAUSE OF AGE.
  23. 27. VISUAL DEFECTS ASTIGAMTISM THE CORNEA BECOMES IRREGULAR, CAUSING DISTORTION ON THE IMAGE ON THE RETINA. CLEAR VISION IN ONE EYE BUT UNFOCUSED IN THE OTHER
  24. 28. VISUAL DEFECTS DIPLOPIA (DOUBLE VISION) CAUSED BY MUSCULAR IMBALANCE, WHICH PERMITS LIGHT REFLECTED FROM ONE POINT TO FALL ON THE CORRESPONDING RECEPTORS IN THE TWO RETINA.
  25. 29. VISUAL DEFECTS COLOR BLIND THE INABILITY TO DISTINGUISH TWO OR MORE COLOR SHADES IN THE COLOR SYSTEM .
  26. 30. VISUAL DEFECTS 1, MONOCHROMATS TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS. THE PERSON SEES THE WORLD LIKE BLACK AND WHITE MOVIES .
  27. 31. VISUAL DEFECTS 2. DICHROMATS TROUBLE DISTINGUISHING RED FROM GREEN BECAUSE SUFFERERS HAVE ONLY TWO CONES .
  28. 33. SOUNDWAVES THE STIMULUS FOR AUDITION The human ear is divided into three parts: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear.
  29. 34. The outer ear includes the visible part of the ear that is attached to the side of the head and the ear canal.
  30. 35. The eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear, which is an air-filled cavity. Inside this cavity are tiny bones that vibrate when sound waves pass through them. These bones help send sound into the inner ear.
  31. 36. THE THREE BONSES ARE: THE MALLEUS - HAMMER THE INCUS - ANVIL THE STAPES – STIRRUP
  32. 37. The inner ear contains an organ that helps you keep your balance and another organ that passes sound waves to the brain.
  33. 38. TYMPANIC MEMBRANE- DIVIDES THE OUTER EAR FROM THE MIDDLE EAR. THIS IS KNOWN AS THE EARDRUM
  34. 39. THE INNER EAR CONTAINS TWO MAIN STRUCTURES THAT ARE SEATED IN BONY CAVITIES: THE COCHLEA WHICH
  35. 40. IS INVOLVED IN HEARING AND VESTIBULAR SYSTEM WHICH IS INVOLVED IN BALANCE.
  36. 42. NOSE
  37. 44. OLFACTION IS CALLED A CHEMICAL SENSE. UPPER PART OF THE NOSE HAS A SMALL AREA THAT CONTAINS RECEPTOR CELLS FOR OLFACTION.
  38. 45. OLFACTORY CELLS – RECEPTORS FOR SMELL WHICH ARE LOCATED INTO ONE-INCH SQUARE PATCHES OF TISSUE IN THE UPPERMOST PART OF THE NASAL PASSAGE.
  39. 46. OLFACTORY CELLS ARE COVERED WITH MUCUS, A THICK GLUEY FILM INTO WHICH VOLATILE MOLECULES DISSOLVE.
  40. 47. TONGUE
  41. 48. STIMULI ARE CHEMICALS CARRIED BY THE FOOD WE INTAKE RECEIVED BY RECEPTORS CALLED TASTE BUDS.
  42. 50. AS YOU TAKE FOOD, ITS CHEMICALS WHICH ARE STIMULI FOR TASTE, BREAK DOWN INTO MOLECULES AND MIX IT WITH SALIVA AND RUN DOWN INTO NARROW TRENCHES ON THE SURFACE OF THE TONGUE. ONCE INSIDE THE TRENCHES, THE MOLECULES STIMULATE THE TASTE BUDS.
  43. 51. TASTE BUDS, SHAPED LIKE IMMATURE ONIONS- RECEPTORS FOR TASTE. CHEMICALS DISSOLVED IN THE SALIVA ACTIVATE THE TASTE BUDS WHICH PRODUCES NERVE IMPULSES
  44. 52. SKIN BODY’S LARGEST ORGAN.
  45. 53. THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE SKIN IS A THIN FILM OF DEAD CELLS CONTAINING RECEPTORS.
  46. 54. IMMEDIATELY BELOW THE DEAD LAYERS ARE THE FIRST RECEPTORS, WHICK LOOK LIKE GROUPS OF THREAD-LIKE EXTENSIONS
  47. 55. IN THE MIDDLE AND FATTY LAYERS OF THE SKIN ARE VARIETIES OF RECEPTORS WITH DIFFERENT SHAPES AND FUNCTIONS.
  48. 56. STIMULI OF SKIN ARE: PRESSURE TEMPERATURE PAIN TEXTURE

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