Similarities and diversities of culture


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Similarities and diversities of culture

  1. 1. Wissler (1923) identifies eleven broad areas of social life which constitute the universal patterns of culture.
  2. 2. Murdock (1945) listed about eighty- eight of universal patterns of culture, a number of common elements. These are: •Age grading •Sports •Body adornment •Calendar •Cleanliness •Training
  3. 3. Durkheim (1947) initiated three basic schemes for comparative studies of culture in order to find out the similarities and the differences in culture. These are as follows: • comparative technique • study of specific differences in societies • specific similarities among societies
  4. 4. Factors That Account For Diversities Or Differences in Culture • While all peoples have their respective cultures, there are observable differences in their cultural ways, practices, beliefs, norms and values and other cultural aspects.
  5. 5. The following account for cultural difference: • 1. Cultural Variability There are differences in culture because people devise different solutions to the problems of existence. People make choices to satisfy their varied needs. While some people stick to their traditional and conservative values and ways of doing things, others who are more enterprising and change- oriented seek new ways of satisfying their needs and interests through inventions, innovations, and advanced technologies.
  6. 6. 2. Cultural Relativity Differences in culture also arise due to differences in beliefs, values, norms, and standards that societies use for interpreting the same or similar cultural trait. Standards of behavior must be understood within a society’s cultural context.
  7. 7. 3. Environmental Differences People live in different kinds of environment. According to Huxley – (1965), among the factors that give rise to cultural differences are the kind of one’s environment, the available human and natural resources, the extent of exposure to other people from whom they can borrow ideas and their cultural heritage.
  8. 8. 4. Human ingenuity and ability to absorb and expand new culture • Although human beings are similarly endowed with the same biological make-up, some people appear to be more adaptive, integrative, creative and responsive to their natural and social environments. Some people are more inventive: they are risk-takers and trail blazers with pioneering spirits, adventures, and innovators.
  9. 9. END OF THE REPORT of Chapter 5 • The reporters Dolores Angoy Angelo Orquiza Ihvy Pearl Rara