SPACE – DEFINITIONSpace is a prime ingredient in the designer’spalette and the quintessential element ininterior design.Through the volume of space we not onlymove; we see forms, hear sounds, feel gentlebreezes and the warmth of the sun, and smellthe fragrances of flowers in bloom.Space inherits the sensual and aestheticcharacteristics of the elements in its field.Space is not a material substance like stoneand wood.It is inherently formless and diffuse. Universalspace has no defining borders.Once an element is placed in itsfield, however, a visual relationship isestablished.Space is formed by our perception of theserelationships.
ARCHITECTURAL SPACEThe geometric elements—point, line, plane, and volume—canbe arranged to articulate and define space. In architecture,these fundamental elements become linear columns andbeams, planar walls, floors, and roofs.• A column marks a point in space and makes it visible in threedimensions.• Two columns define a spatial membrane through which wecan pass.• When supporting a beam, the columns delineate the edges ofa transparent plane.• A wall, an opaque plane, marks off a portion of amorphousspace and separates here from there.• A floor defines a field of space with territorial boundaries.• A roof provides shelter for the volume of space beneath it. Inarchitectural design, these elements are organized to give abuilding form, differentiate between inside and outside, anddefine the boundaries of interior space.
ARCHITECTURAL SPACE Column Two columns Columns and beamWall Floor Roof Defining Space
EXTERIOR SPACEA building’s form, scale, and spatial organization are the designer’sresponse to a number of conditions—functional planningrequirements, technical aspects of structure and construction, economicrealities, and expressive qualities of image and style.In addition, the architecture of a building should address the physicalcontext of its site and the exterior space.A building can be related to its site in several ways. It can merge with itssetting or dominate it. It can surround and capture a portion of exterior space.One of its faces can be made to address a feature of its site or define anedge of exterior space.In each case, due consideration should be given to the potentialrelationship between interior and exterior space, as defined by the natureof a building’s exterior walls.Selecting and developing sites to reduce site disturbance, storm waterrunoff, heat island effects, and light pollution contribute to sustainabledesign.
Buildings…Dominating Merging Surrounding Exterior Walls Fronting Defining an edge
Interior space – spatial qualities: form, scale, outlookUpon entering a building, we sense shelter and enclosure.This perception is due to the bounding floor, wall, and ceiling planes of interiorspace.These are the architectural elements that define the physical limits of rooms.They enclose space, articulate its boundaries, and separate it from adjoininginterior spaces and the outside.Floors, walls, and ceilings do more than mark off a simple quantity of space.Their form, configuration, and pattern of window and door openings also imbuethe defined space with certain spatial or architectural qualities.We use terms such as grand hall, loft space, sun room, and alcove not simplyto describe how large or small a space is, but also to characterize its scale andproportion, its quality of light, the nature of its enclosing surfaces, and the way itrelates to adjacent spaces.Spatial Qualities- Entrances mark the transitionForm from here to there.ScaleLight
Spatial Qualities- Form Scale Light OutlookForm Scale Light Outlook
Spatial Qualities-FormThe design of interior spaces requires, therefore, an understanding of howthey are formed by the building systems of structure and enclosure.With this understanding, the interior designer can effectively elect to workwith, continue, or even offer a counterpoint to the essential qualities of anarchitectural space. Continuation Contrast CounterpointThe basic shell … modified architecturally or through interior design
Structural Systems A building’s structural system is formed according to the geometry of its materials and the way they reactRoof structure to the forces applied to them. Rafters This structural form and geometry, in turn, influence the Columns dimensions, proportion, and arrangementBearing wall of the interior spaces within the building volume.Floor structure superstructure is the vertical extension of Beams the foundation system and consists of the columns, beams, and load-bearing walls that support the floor and roof structures. The foundation system is the substructure that forms the base of a building, anchors it firmly to the ground, and supports theFoundation wall building elements and spaces above. Types:Footing Linear Structural Systems Planar Structural Systems Volumetric Structural Systems
STRUCTURING SPACE Enclosure System Roof • The building envelope consists of exterior walls, windows, doors, and roof, which protect and shelter interior spaces from the exterior environment.Exterior Doors and windows •walls Interior walls, partitions, and Partition ceilings subdivide and define interior space. Many of these components are nonstructural in nature and carry no loads other than their own weight.
VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSA volumetric structural system consists of athree-dimensional mass. The mass of the Three-dimensionalmaterial occupies the void of space. space Out of the mass is carved the volume ofinterior space.At a small scale, stone and clay masonry units Three-dimensionalcan be seen to be volumetric structural formelements. At a larger scale, any building that enclosesinterior space can be viewed as a three-dimensional structure that must havestrength in width, length, and depth.Composite systems combine linear, planar,and volumetric elements into three-dimensional compositions of form and space.Walt Disney Concert Hall,Los Angeles, California,Frank Gehry, 2003
SHAPING INTERIOR SPACE WITH INTERIOR DESIGN ELEMNETSAlthough a building’s structural system sets upthe basic form and pattern of its interior spaces, Ceilingsthese spaces are ultimately structured by the Partitionselements of interior design.The term ―structure‖ is not used here in thesense of physical support. It refers to theselection and arrangement of interior elements Furnituresuch that their visual relationships define andorganize the interior space of a room.Non-load-bearing partitions and suspendedceilings are often used to define or modify spacewithin the structural framework or shell of abuilding.The color, texture, and pattern of wall, floor, andceiling surfaces affect our perception of theirrelative positions in space and our awareness ofthe room’s dimensions, scale, and proportion.
Structuring Space with Interior Design ElementsFurniture groupings A dominant element Artificial lighting Daylighting Individual and group activities
SHAPING INTERIOR SPACEWithin a large space, the form and arrangement offurnishings can divide areas, provide a sense ofenclosure, and define spatial patterns.Lighting, and the light and dark patterns it creates,can call our attention to one area of a room,deemphasize others, and thereby create divisionsof space. Color, texture, and patternEven the acoustic nature of a room’s surfaces canaffect the apparent boundaries of a space. Soft,absorbent surfaces muffle sounds and candiminish our awareness of the physical dimensionsof a room. Communication Hard surfaces that reflect sounds within a roomhelp to define its physical boundaries. Echoes cansuggest a large volume.Finally, space is structured by the way we use it.The nature of our activities and the rituals wedevelop in performing them influence how we plan, Movementarrange, and organize interior space.
SPATIAL FORMInterior spaces are formed first by a building’sstructural system, further defined by wall andceiling planes, and related to other spaces bywindows and doorways.Every building has a recognizable pattern of theseelements and systems.Each pattern has an inherent geometry that moldsor carves out a volume of space into its likeness.It is useful to be able to read this figure-groundrelationship between the form of space-definingelements and that of the space defined.Either the structure or the space can dominate thisrelationship. Whichever appears to dominate, we should beable to perceive the other as an equal partner inthe relationship.
It is equally useful to see the alternatingfigure ground dominance occurring as interiordesign elements, such as tables and chairs,are introduced and arranged within an interiorspace.When a chair is placed in a room, it not onlyoccupies space, it also creates a spatialrelationship between itself and thesurrounding enclosure.We should see more than the form of thechair. We should also recognize the form ofthe space surrounding the chair after it hasfilled some of the void.As more elements are introduced into thepattern, the spatial relationships multiply.The elements begin to organize into sets orgroups, each of which not only occupiesspace but also defines and articulates thespatial form.
SPATIAL DIMENSIONS-ScaleThe dimensions of interior space, like spatialform, are directly related to the nature of abuilding’s structural system—the strength of itsmaterials and the size and spacing of its members.The dimensions of a space, in turn, determine aroom’s proportion and scale and influence the wayit is used.One horizontal dimension of space, its width, hastraditionally been limited by the materials andtechniques used to span it.Today, given the necessary economicresources, almost any architectural structure istechnically possible.Wood or steel beams and concrete slabs can spanup to 30 feet (9 m). Wood or steel trusses can span even farther, up to100 feet (30 m) or more.
structure space frameLonger roof spans are possible with space framesand a variety of curved structures, such as domes,suspension systems, and membranes supported byair pressure.Within the bounds of structural necessity, the widthof an interior space should be established by therequirements of those who use the space and theirneed to set boundaries for themselves and theiractivities.Building designers have traditionally developed membrane for tensile structuresspatialrelationships by sketching and model building.Computer aided design (CAD) and buildinginformation management (BIM) software systems arechanging the way that building designers work.These computer technologies allow designers tobuild interactive three-dimensional computer models frame supported domeof buildings, and to coordinate building systems as tensile structure
SQUARE SPACESThe other horizontal dimension of space, itslength, is limited by desire and circumstance.Together with width, the length of a spacedetermines the proportion of a room’s planshape.A square room, where the length of the spaceequals its width, is static in quality and oftenformal in character. Pyramids, domes, and similar roof formThe equality of the four sides focuses our can emphasize the centrality of squareattention in on the room’s center. spaces.This centrality can be enhanced oremphasized by covering the space with apyramidal or dome structure.To deemphasize the centrality of a squareroom, the form of the ceiling can be madeasymmetrical, or one or more of the wallplanes can be treated differently from theothers.The placement of architectural elements, suchas windows and stairways, can deemphasizethe centrality of square spaces.
Rectangular space Square rooms are rare and distinctive. More often, aroom will have a length greater than its width.A rectangular space, normally spanned across itswidth, is eminently flexible.Its character and usefulness are determined not only by 1:1 1:2 1:3Its proportion of width to length, but also by theconfiguration of its ceiling, the pattern of its windowsand doorways, and its relationship to adjacent spaces.When the length of a space is greater than twice itswidth, it tends to dominate and control the room’slayout and use.Given sufficient width, the space can be divided into anumber of separate but related areas.A space whose length greatly exceeds its widthencourages movement along its long dimension.This characteristic of linear spaces makes themsuitable for use as gallery spaces or as connectors ofother spaces.Horizontal dimensions alone do not determine theultimate qualities and usefulness of a space. They onlysuggest opportunities for development.
Both square and rectangular spaces can be altered byaddition or subtraction, or by merging with adjacent spaces.These modifications can be used to create an alcove space orto reflect an adjoining element or site feature. Extension Addition Subtraction Merging Altering Space
Curvilinear spacesThe nature of building materials and the techniquesused to assemble them have establishedrectangular spaces as the norm.Curvilinear spaces are exceptional and usuallyreserved for special circumstances.The simplest curvilinear space is a circular one. It iscompact and self-centering. The radius of the curvature of aAlthough it creates a focus on its center, a circularspace also relates to the surrounding space equally wall depends on the scale andin all directions. flexibility of the material used toIt has no front, back, or sides, unless these are build it.defined by other elements. An elliptical space is more dynamic, having twocenters and unequal axes.Other curvilinear spaces can be seen astransformations of circular or elliptical spaces thathave been combined in an overlapping manner.The use of three-dimensional computer modeling isincreasing the ease of designing complex curves.
Circle Ellipse Freeform Furnishings may be placed as freestanding objects within a Circular space serving ascurvilinear space or be integrated an organizing element within the curved forms.Walls curving to respond toan exterior condition
THE VERTICAL DIMENSION OF SPACE(HEIGHT OF SPACE)The third dimension of interior space, its height, isestablished by the ceiling plane.This vertical dimension is as influential as thehorizontal dimensions of a space in forming thespatial quality of a room.While our perception of a room’s horizontaldimensions is often distorted by the foreshorteningof perspective, we can more accurately sense therelationship between theheight of a space and our own body height.A measurable change in the height of a ceilingseems to have a greater effect on our impression ofa space than a similar changein its width or length. Varying the ceiling height can have a powerful effect on the perceived scale of a space.
CEILINGSHigh ceilings are often associated withfeelings of loftiness or grandeur. Lowceilings may connote cave like cozinessand intimacy.However, our perception of the scale of aspace is affected not by the height of the The roof structure canceiling alone, but by its relationship to the sometimes be leftwidth and length of the space as well. exposed, givingA ceiling defined by the floor plane of the texture, pattern, and depth toroom above it is typically flat. the ceiling plane.A ceiling created by a roof structure canreflect its form and the manner in which itspans the space.Shed, gable, and vaulted ceiling formsgive direction to space, while domed andpyramidal ceilings emphasize the centerof a space.Lowering part of a ceiling can fosterintimacy, modify acoustics, or add visual Pyramids and domes emphasizetexture. Interior soffits, canopies, and the centrality of a space.clouds can be used to partially lower aceiling at its
SPATIAL TRANSITIONSHow interior spaces are related to oneanother is determined not only by theirrelative position in a building’s spatial Openings within Wall Planespattern, but also by the nature of the spacesthat connect them and the boundaries theyhave in common.Floor, wall, and ceiling planes serve todefine and isolate a portion of space.Of these, the wall plane, beingperpendicular to our normal line of sight,has the greatest effect as a spatialboundary. CommunicationIt limits our visual field and serves as abarrier to our movement. Access Openings created within the wall plane forwindows and doorways reestablish contact Day lightingwith the surrounding spaces from which the and viewsroom was originally cut.
DOORWAYSDoorways provide physical access from one spaceto another. When closed, they shut a room off fromadjacent spaces.When open, they establish visual, spatial, andacoustical links between spaces.Large open door ways erode the integrity of aroom’s enclosure and strengthen its connectionwith adjacent spaces or the outdoors.The thickness of the wall separating two spaces isexposed at a doorway. Doorway locations affect ourThis depth determines the degree of separation we patterns of movementsense as we pass through the doorway from one and activities within a room.space to another.The scale and treatment of the doorway itself canalso provide visual clues to the nature of the spacebeing entered.The number and location of doorways along aroom’s perimeter affect our pattern of movementwithin the space, and the ways we may arrange itsfurnishings and organize our activities.The widths of door openings affect the ease ofmovement
The number and location of doorwaysalong a room’s perimeter affect ourpattern of movement within the space,and the ways we may arrange itsfurnishings and organize our activities.The widths of door openings affect theease of movement for people andfurnishings.A 36-inch (914-mm) wide doorway isreduced to about 32 inches (813 mm)when the thickness of the open doorand that of its hardware are taken intoconsideration.Clear openings of less than 32 inches(813 mm) become barriers to standardwheelchairs, affecting accessibility,visitability, and aging-in-place.
WINDOWSWindows let light and air into the interiorspaces of buildings and provide views ofthe outdoors, or from one space toanother. Day lighting Framing viewsTheir size and placement, relative to thewall plane in which they occur, also affectthe degree of separation between aninterior space and the exteriorenvironment. Degree of enclosure …or transparencyViews to the outside and natural ventilationare important elements in sustainabledesign.Windows framed within a wall plane attractour attention with their brightness andoutlook but maintain the enclosure Thin frame Thick frameprovided by the wall.Large windows and glass walls attempt, atleast visually, to merge indoor and outdoor Interior windows …Connecting spacesspace.
The visual treatment of the window frames in each case can eitheremphasize or minimize the perceived limits of interior space.Interior windows can, in a similar manner, visually expand a room beyondits physical boundaries and allow it to become an integral part of thesurrounding interior space.
STAIRWAYSStairways are also importantforms of spatial transitionsbetween rooms. Exterior entranceAn exterior set of stepsleading to a building’sentrance can serve to Public approach Private accessseparate private domain frompublic passage and enhancethe act of entry into atransitional space such as aporch or terrace. Inviting landings OverlooksEntrances without stepssupport visitability and aging-in-place. Ascent Descent
The manner in which they perform thisfunction shapes our movement in space—how we approach a stairway, the pace and … Defining an edgestyle of our ascent and descent, and whatwe have an opportunity to do along the way. Filling spaceWide, shallow steps can serve as aninvitation, while a narrow, steep stairway As sculpturemay lead to more private places.Landings that interrupt a flight of steps canallow a stairway to change direction and giveus room for pause, rest, and outlook.The space a stairway occupies can beconsiderable, but its form can be fit into aninterior in several ways.It can fill and provide a focus for a space, runalong one of its edges, or wrap around aroom. It can be woven into the boundaries of aspace or be extended into a series ofterraces.