Sleep and dreams a1


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Sleep and dreams a1

  1. 1. Consciousness and Altered States
  2. 2. Consciousness refers to different level of one’s thoughts and feelings. Includes: *Creating images on one’s mind *Following one’s thought processes *Having unique emotional experiences
  3. 3. Continuum of Consciousness Refers to a wide range of experiences, from being acutely aware and alert to being totally unaware and unresponsive. It ranges from controlled processes to unconsciousness.
  4. 4. Different States: a. CONTROLLED PROCESSES activities that require full awareness, alertness and concentration to reach some goal. Example: Using a cellular phone increase the chances of having a collision by 25%.
  5. 5. b. Automatic Processes Activities that require little awareness, take minimal attention, and do not interfere with other ongoing activities. Example: Eating while reading.
  6. 6. c. Daydreaming Often occurs during automatic processes is an activity that requires a low level of awareness, and involves fantasizing while awake. d. Altered States Result from any number of procedures such as medication, psychoactive drugs, hypnosis, or sleep deprivation, to produce an awareness that differs from normal consciousness.
  7. 7. e. Sleep and Dreaming Sleep consists of five different stages that involve different levels of awareness, as well as different levels of physiological arousal. The deepest state of sleep borders on unconsciousness. Dreaming is a unique state of consciousness in which we are asleep but experience a variety of astonishing visual, auditory, and tactile images, often connected in strange ways and often color. People blind from birth have only auditory and tactile dreams.
  8. 8. f. Unconscious according to Freud’s theory, when we are faced with very threatening wishes or desires, especially if they are sexual or aggressive, we automatically defend our self-esteem by placing these psychologically threatening thoughts into mental place called the unconscious, from which these thoughts cannot be voluntarily recalled. the cognitive unconscious consists of mental and emotional processes that we are unaware of but that bias and influence our conscious feelings, thoughts and behavior.
  9. 9. The World of Sleep Stages of Sleep Refer to distinctive changes in electrical activity of the brain and accompanying physiological responses of the body that occur as you pass through different phases of sleep.
  10. 10. Alpha Stage before entering sleep, you briefly pass though a relaxed and drowsy state. *Stage 1 the lightest stage of sleep, a transition from wakefulness to sleep and lasts 1-7 minutes. In it, you gradually lose responsiveness to stimuli and experience drifting thoughts and images. *Stage 2 marks the beginning of what we know asleep.
  11. 11. *Stage 3 and 4 about 30-45 minutes after drifting into sleep, you pass through stage 3 and then enter stage 4 which is often considered as the deepest sleep because it is the most difficult from which to be awakened. During stage 4, heart rate, respiration, temperature, and blood flow to the brain are reduced, and there is marked secretion of GH (growth hormone), which controls metabolism, physical growth, and brain development.
  12. 12. *REM Sleep makes up 20% of sleep time. It stands for rapid eye movement’ because your eyes move rapidly back and forth behind closed lids. During REM, your body is physiologically aroused, but all your voluntary muscles are paralyzed, called paradoxical sleep. REM sleep is highly associated with dreaming.
  13. 13. Why do we Sleep? We usually spend one- third day asleep. The most obvious question is, why do we sleep? We will look into two theories that try to answer this question:
  14. 14. Repair Theory -suggests that activities during the day deplete key factors in our brain or body that are replenished or repaired by sleep. The repair theory says that sleep is primarily a restorative process. Adaptive Theory -suggests that sleep evolved because it prevented early humans and animals from wasting energy and exposing themselves to the dangers of nocturnal predators.
  15. 15. Two Major Effects of Sleep Deprivation: 1.Effects on the Body Sleep deprivation, even for 11 days, has minimal effect’s on person’s heart rate, blood pressure, and hormone secretions. However, sleep deprivation does affect our immune system, which is the body’s defense against viruses, infections, other toxic agents. Researchers conclude that for most people, sleep deprivation could mean vulnerability to some viral or bacterial infection.
  16. 16. 2. Effects on the Nervous System Sleep deprivation has consistently been shown to interfere with tasks that require vigilance and concentration. Sleep deprivation causes irritability and unhappiness. Thus, depending on its extent, sleep deprivation can interfere with performance and causes moodiness.
  17. 17. Dream Interpretation Freud and Dreams Freud’s theory of dreams says that we have a ‘censor’ that protects us from realizing threatening and unconscious desires or wishes, especially those involving sex and aggression. To protect us from having threatening thoughts, the ‘censor’ transform our secret, guilt-ridden, and anxiety- provoking desires into harmless symbols that appear in our dreams and do not disturb our sleep or conscious thoughts.
  18. 18. Extension of Waking Life Many therapist believe that dreams are extension of waking life. The theory that dreams are extensions of waking life means that our dreams reflect the same thoughts, fears, concerns, and emotions present when awake.
  19. 19. Activation –Synthesis Theory According to J. Alan Hobson and Robert McCarley, dreaming represents the random and meaningless activity of nerve cells in the brain. An area in the brain, called the ‘pons’, sends millions of random nerve impulses to the cortex. In turn, the cortex tries to make sense of the random signals by creating feelings, imagined movements, perceptions, changing scenes, and meaningless images that we define as dreams.
  20. 20. However, Hobson has somewhat revised this theory later on. He acknowledged that dreams may have deep personal significance. He now believes that images and feelings that our cortex imposes on millions of incoming neural signals reflect our past memories, bodily states, strong hopes and fears, and our own personal view of the world.
  21. 21. Typical Dreams have the following Characteristics: • they have several characters • they involve motions such as running and walking • they are more likely to take place indoors than out • they are filled with visual sensations but rarely include sensations of taste, smell or pain
  22. 22. • they seem bizarre because they disregard physical laws by flying or falling without injury • they may be recurrent • they frequently involve emotions of anxiety or fear than joy or hapiness • they rarely involve sexual encounters and are almost never about sexual intercourse • rarely can we dream about something we intend to • they are usually in color in sighted people and are auditory or tactile in blind people
  23. 23. Chiara Angela Clapero Zainal Abdulah Charmaine Elah Matavia Lesondato
  24. 24. Thank you for Listening! Have a Nice day!=)