U05 Biosphere Ecosphere

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U05 Biosphere Ecosphere

  1. 1. The biosphere and the ecosphere CONTENTS RESOURCES
  2. 2. CONTENTS Components The biosphere The ecosphere Ecosystems Trophic levels Habitats Ecological niche Transmission of matter and energy Cycle of matter Flow of energy Adaptations of living beings Adaptations to terrestrial ecosystems Adaptations to aquatic ecosystems Trophic dynamics Food web Food chain Relationships among organisms Biotic relations Self-regulation of population The biosphere and the ecosphere Trophic pyramids Trophic pyramids
  3. 3. RESOURCES HOME The biosphere The ecosphere Ecosystems Habitats Ecological niche Trophic levels Cycle of matter Flow of energy Food chain Trophic pyramids Food web Biotic relations Self-regulation of population Adaptations to terrestrial ecosystems Adaptations to aquatic ecosystems Links Food chains
  4. 4. The biosphere The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth.
  5. 5. The ecosphere The large-scale ecosystems of the world
  6. 6. Ecosystems SEE BIOCENOSIS SEE BIOTOPE
  7. 7. Biocenosis Ecosystems All the living beings which inhabit a natural area and the relationship between them: an ecological comunity. GO BACK
  8. 8. Ecosystems Biotope The physical environment of the ecosystem and its characteristics. GO BACK
  9. 9. Trophic levels Producers Consumers Decomposers Primary Secondary Tertiary fungi bacteria
  10. 10. Habitats A habitat is the physical place where a species lives.
  11. 11. Ecological niche herbivores insectivores They occupy different ecological niches. They share the same habitat. They occupy different ecological niches. This is the function a particular species has in an ecosystem.
  12. 12. A food web
  13. 13. Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer Tertiary consumer A food chain
  14. 14. Trophic pyramids Number pyramid Biomass pyramid Energy pyramid energy stored at each trophic level at a certain time number of individuals at each trophic level unit of area or volume producers primary consumers secondary consumers tertiary consumers tertiary consumers producers primary consumers secondary consumers amount of organic matter unit of area or volume producers primary consumers tertiary consumers solar energy heat heat heat heat secondary consumers
  15. 15. Flow of energy Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Decomposers solar energy Released energy (heat) A one-way flow of energy
  16. 16. Cycle of matter Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Inorganic matter Decomposers A closed cycle of matter
  17. 17. Biotic relations INTRASPECIFIC RELATIONS INTERSPECIFIC RELATIONS Gregarious Familial Colonial Social Mutualism Commensalism Depredation Inquilinism Parasitism
  18. 18. Self-regulation of population SEE PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM Number of individuals Carrying capacity (equilibrium population size) (K) 1 2 3 4 Time Settlement period 1 Exponential growth 2 K limits growth and the population stabilises. 3 Number of individuals fluctuates around K. 4
  19. 19. Self-regulation of population GO BACK rabbit lynx YEAR Number of individuals 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
  20. 20. Adaptations to terrestrial ecosystems Abiotic factor Adaptations of living things humidity light temperature large leaves height nocturnal activity spines stomata scales substances exoskeleton homeotherms poikilotherms
  21. 21. Adaptations to aquatic ecosystems Abiotic factor Adaptations of living things light water movement pressure bioluminescense pigments shape round shape ways fish swim fixed to surfaces shelter flat body shape hydrodynamic shape swim bladder
  22. 22. Links Food chains revision, activity and quiz http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/revision_bites/food_chains.shtml Food chains http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/fooodchains.htm Energy flow quiz http://www.bcscience.com/bc10/pgs/quiz_section2.1.htm Food webs interactive activity http:// www.gould.edu.au/foodwebs/kids_web.htm Food chain reaction game http://www.ecokidsonline.com/pub/eco_info/topics/frogs/chain_reaction/play_chainreaction.html Food puzzle chain http:// www.zephyrus.co.uk/foodpuzzlechain.html Ecosystems and resources http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ecosystems/ecosystemsresourcesrev1.shtml Fun with food webs interactive activity http:// www.harcourtschool.com/activity/food/food_menu.html Food chain: Play the Quiz http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngexplorer/0309/quickflicks/

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