The biosphere and the ecosphere CONTENTS RESOURCES
CONTENTS Components The biosphere The ecosphere Ecosystems Trophic levels Habitats Ecological niche Transmission of matter and energy Cycle of matter Flow of energy Adaptations of living beings Adaptations to terrestrial ecosystems Adaptations to aquatic ecosystems Trophic dynamics Food web Food chain Relationships among organisms Biotic relations Self-regulation of population The biosphere and the ecosphere Trophic pyramids Trophic pyramids
RESOURCES HOME The biosphere The ecosphere Ecosystems Habitats Ecological niche Trophic levels Cycle of matter Flow of energy Food chain Trophic pyramids Food web Biotic relations Self-regulation of population Adaptations to terrestrial ecosystems Adaptations to aquatic ecosystems Links Food chains
The biosphere The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth.
The ecosphere The large-scale ecosystems of the world
Habitats A habitat is the physical place where a species lives.
Ecological niche herbivores insectivores They occupy different ecological niches. They share the same habitat. They occupy different ecological niches. This is the function a particular species has in an ecosystem.
Trophic pyramids Number pyramid Biomass pyramid Energy pyramid energy stored at each trophic level at a certain time number of individuals at each trophic level unit of area or volume producers primary consumers secondary consumers tertiary consumers tertiary consumers producers primary consumers secondary consumers amount of organic matter unit of area or volume producers primary consumers tertiary consumers solar energy heat heat heat heat secondary consumers
Flow of energy Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Decomposers solar energy Released energy (heat) A one-way flow of energy
Cycle of matter Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Inorganic matter Decomposers A closed cycle of matter
Self-regulation of population SEE PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM Number of individuals Carrying capacity (equilibrium population size) (K) 1 2 3 4 Time Settlement period 1 Exponential growth 2 K limits growth and the population stabilises. 3 Number of individuals fluctuates around K. 4
Self-regulation of population GO BACK rabbit lynx YEAR Number of individuals 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Adaptations to terrestrial ecosystems Abiotic factor Adaptations of living things humidity light temperature large leaves height nocturnal activity spines stomata scales substances exoskeleton homeotherms poikilotherms
Adaptations to aquatic ecosystems Abiotic factor Adaptations of living things light water movement pressure bioluminescense pigments shape round shape ways fish swim fixed to surfaces shelter flat body shape hydrodynamic shape swim bladder
Links Food chains revision, activity and quiz http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/revision_bites/food_chains.shtml Food chains http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/fooodchains.htm Energy flow quiz http://www.bcscience.com/bc10/pgs/quiz_section2.1.htm Food webs interactive activity http:// www.gould.edu.au/foodwebs/kids_web.htm Food chain reaction game http://www.ecokidsonline.com/pub/eco_info/topics/frogs/chain_reaction/play_chainreaction.html Food puzzle chain http:// www.zephyrus.co.uk/foodpuzzlechain.html Ecosystems and resources http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ecosystems/ecosystemsresourcesrev1.shtml Fun with food webs interactive activity http:// www.harcourtschool.com/activity/food/food_menu.html Food chain: Play the Quiz http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngexplorer/0309/quickflicks/