What does the term dynamics mean to you? Dynamics means change
Ecosystems need two majorfactors to function as a workingsystem. Matter (stuff) atoms, molecules, materials Energy, the ability to change “stuff”
EXPLAIN ENERGY TRANSFER With your table partner, explain how energy moves through the system pictured.
QUESTIONS: 1) Where does the energyfor an ecosystem originate (start?) 2) Fromwhere does the small fish obtain the energyit needs? 3) Does one small fish fulfill theenergy needs of the larger fish? 4) Do youthink that all of the energy in one stepmakes it to the next level as it is consumed?If not, where might it go?
There are two important laws inscience that govern energy movementin an ecosystem. They are the first andsecond law of thermodynamics. First Law: Energy can not be created or destroyed only transferred from system to system. Second Law: At every energy transfer some energy is transferred from the system as heat energy.
So if energy can’t be created ordestroyed from where does itcome?
IDENTIFY THE NAMES AND ENERGY LEVELS… ACTIVITY
Each energy level in our ecosystem has a name:Producers=Plants/Algae=AutotrophsProducers get their name because they are the first step inan ecosystem, they “produce” food. They transfer sunlightenergy into usable food energy. While they don’t makethe energy they do transfer it from sunlight to food.
Consumers=organisms that cannot make theirown food must eat other organisms. They areknown as consumers, sometimes they are calledheterotrophs. They feed either directly orindirectly on producers for their energy needs. Doyou know some common consumers?
Consumers can be divided up into several subcategoriesincluding: Herbivores,, carnivores, omnivores, detrivores,and decomposers. Can you define and give examples ofeach of these consumers, discuss your ideas with yourtable partner.
Can you define the following and provide anexample of each type of consumer? Herbivores: Carnivore: Omnivores: Detritivores: Decomposers:
Consumer trophic level classifications: Depending on what the organism does for energy it may be referred to as a primary consumer, secondary consumer or tertiary consumer. Primary consumers are almost always herbivore, while secondary and tertiary consumers are usually omnivores or carnivores. Look carefully at the following picture, can you identify all the levels of consumers?
The total number and types oforganisms (biotic factors) in a givenenvironment interacting together areknown as the ___________. Community
TROPHIC LEVELS Tropic levels are the levels of nourishment (energy levels) in a food chain. producer ____________________ is a trophic level. carnivore ____________________ is a trophic level. Etc…Living organisms that transfer energy and recyclenutrients through an ecosystem make up what is knownas the community in an ecosystem.
Energy flow through thecommunity can be represented in several ways: FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS, and ENERGY PYRAMIDS-(Oh my!)
Food Chains: demonstrate anenergy flow or pathway throughthe ecosystem.
Can you and your table partner make a foodchain with 4 energy transfers that could be found in Northbrook?
Food webs: demonstrate thefeeding relationships andbiodiversity of the ecosystem.The food web uses arrows todemonstrate the flow of energythrough the web. Note theincreased complexity in theweb vs. the food chain.
Aquatic Food Web Notice the many different arrows going from the frog. A food web shows what the frog will eat AND what eats the frog.
Energy pyramids: demonstrates the energy/biomass (amount of livingmatter) availabile at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Energy/Biomass pyramid: What do you observe?What happens to the shape of the chart as weget higher? What happens to the number of organisms? Why?
What biotic and abiotic factors do youthink might limit the biomass at eachtrophic level in an ecosystem?
More energy pyramids (note what happens to thenumber/mass of organisms at each level as the energy ispassed through an ecosystem, where does it go?)
Why do you think the number ofsteps in a food chain or levels ina food pyramid is usually limitedto only 4 or 5 steps? (hint: Whatdo you know about energy?)
What did the packaging peanutsrepresent?What did the passing of the peanutsrepresent?What does each student represent?What does dropping the peanuts onthe ground represent?
It is important to remember thatenergy flows in only one direction and does not cycle through the ecosystem.However, nutrients and organic compoundsdo cycle through the ecosystem and are used by living organisms over and over again. What are some cycles that exist on earth in order to circulate nutrients throughout out ecosystem?
Cycles Cycle defined: A As producers, consumers and series of regularly decomposers grow and reoccurring die, they are using life’s events that essential chemicals or nutrients, taking these usually ends up nutrients from and back at the returning them to their original starting reservoirs in the earth’s air, soil, and waters point. over and over again.
Some common cycles include the following:The Water Cycle. (Much more on this one later.)
It is important to remember that matter cycles through an ecosystem,the world has been using the samemolecules over and over again. Thewater that was in a dinosaur some500 million years ago may be in usright now.
It is also important to rememberthat while matter continuallycycles through and ecosystem,energy does not. It mustconstantly be supplied to makethe system run.
Answer the questions in the cycles in Nature activity in your packet.
Adaptation defined: A characteristic or feature of an organism that allows it to survive or improves the likelihood it will survive and reproduce in its environment .
Adaptation is caused by change. Because living organisms are in the process of both acting upon their surroundings and being acted upon, all plants and animals and the places where they live are in the process of becoming something else in order to survive as a species.
Adaptation In the overall story of life, some plants and animals end up with new and successful ways of meeting their needs by solving the problems brought about by the changes that occur in their environment.
2 Types of adaptations: Structural: how the organism is put together (physical features) Some scientists also break these types of adaptations down to include chemical adaptations. Behavioral: how the organism acts. Using response cards, decide whether the following are structural “S” or behavioral “B” adaptations
Conclusion Consider the themes within the ecology unit that we have covered. They have included: abiotic and biotic factors, biodiversity, community, environment, energy, cycles, and change/adaptation. These themes along with the common characteristics of life and the definition of science will be covered on our unit one exam.
The End(actually we are just getting started. )