U03 Interaction

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U03 Interaction

  1. 1. Interaction and coordination CONTENTS RESOURCES
  2. 2. CONTENTS Interaction in animals Elements of interaction Plants Stimuli Tropism Nastic movement Hormones in plants Receptors Receptors and the 5 senses Types Coordination in animals The coordination systems Interaction in unicellular organisms Characteristics Motor system Invertebrates Vertebrates INTERACTION AND COORDINATION Stimuli Types detected by animals The nervous system Invertebrates Vertebrates How it works The endocrine system Endocrine glands Responsive organs How they work
  3. 3. RESOURCES Motor responses in vertebrates Interaction in animals Types of stimuli detected by animals Types of receptors in animals Receptors and the five senses The nervous system in invertebrates The nervous system in vertebrates How the nervous system works The endocrine system Types of stimuli detected by plants Tropism Nastic movements Hormones in plants Interaction in unicellular organisms The coordination systems How the responsive organs work Motor responses in invertebrates Links Nervous system
  4. 4. Interaction in animals 1 2 3 Elements of interaction 1. Stimuli <ul><li>physical </li></ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul><ul><li>biotic </li></ul><ul><li>internal </li></ul><ul><li>external </li></ul>2. Receptors sense organs 3. Coordination systems <ul><li>nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>endocrine system </li></ul>4. Responsive organs (effectors) <ul><li>muscles </li></ul><ul><li>glands </li></ul>1. CLICK HERE 2. CLICK HERE 3. CLICK HERE
  5. 5. hunger Interaction in animals 1 insect Elements of interaction 1. Stimuli <ul><li>internal </li></ul>hunger <ul><li>external </li></ul>insect 2. Receptor eyes: the sense of sight GO BACK
  6. 6. responsive organs nervous centres information Interaction in animals 2 Elements of interaction 3. Coordination systems nervous centres 4. Responsive organs (effectors) <ul><li>muscles </li></ul><ul><li>glands </li></ul>GO BACK
  7. 7. hunger satiation 3 Interaction in animals Elements of interaction 3. Coordination systems <ul><li>nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>endocrine system </li></ul>GO BACK
  8. 8. Types of stimuli detected by animals Physical Biotic Chemical temperature pressure light sound other organisms salts pollutants water
  9. 9. Receptors and the five senses in mammals STIMULUS RECEPTOR SENSE light eyes sight sound ears hearing smell nose smell taste tongue (taste buds) taste touch skin touch
  10. 10. Types of receptors in animals classified by stimulus <ul><li>Mechanoreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>touch </li></ul><ul><li>pressure </li></ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul><ul><li>movement </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>temperature change </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>chemical substances in </li></ul><ul><li>the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Photoreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>light </li></ul>taste buds in the mouth olfactory cells in the nose compound eyes lateral line facial pits skin eyes ocellus feathered antennae
  11. 11. Endocrine system Nervous system The coordination systems IN ANIMALS IN PLANTS neurons endocrine glands Production of chemical substances SEE COMPARISION OF SYSTEMS
  12. 12. The coordination systems Characteristics Nervous system Endocrine system Mode of transport nerves blood Means of transmission nerve impulses hormones Speed of response rapid slow Duration of reponse rapid long Functions which it regulates and coordinates Functions which require rapid responses, such as locomotion Functions which require maintained responses such as growth, development, metabolism GO BACK
  13. 13. Nervous system in invertebrates Nerve nets nerve net jellyfish polyps NEXT
  14. 14. Nervous system in invertebrates Ganglia system grasshopper brain nerve cord ganglia
  15. 15. Nervous system in vertebrates brain nerves spinal cord
  16. 16. How the nervous system works 2 3 responsive organs (effectors) 1 brain information response stimulus nerve impulses
  17. 17. The endocrine system Endocrine glands pituitary gland adrenal gland testes pancreas thyroid and parathyroid gland thyroid and parathyroid glands pituitary gland pancreas adrenal gland ovaries
  18. 18. stimulus How the responsive organs work Motor response: movement muscles Motor system Endocrine response: release of hormones glands Endocrine system
  19. 19. Motor responses in vertebrates Skeletal system: Bones support the body and act as levers during movement. Muscular system: Muscles cover the skeleton and produce movement by contracting. skull ribs spinal column limbs or legs
  20. 20. fast moving animals Motor responses in invertebrates Animals fixed to a surface and slow moving animals have hard shells. hard shells moult light, flexible exoskeletons at the joints
  21. 21. Types of stimuli detected by plants light gravity mechanical (touch, wind...) chemical temperature moisture
  22. 22. Tropism Phototropism Geotropism Thigmotropism Hydrotropism permanent responses CLICK TO SEE ANIMATION
  23. 23. Tropisms Phototropism Geotropism Thigmotropism Hydrotropism permanent responses GO BACK
  24. 24. Nastic movements These flowers open at dusk and close during the day. Carnivorous plants close their leaves when an insect lands on them. Tulips open and close according to the temperature. Mimosa leaves retract when touched. Temporary responses
  25. 25. Hormones in plants hormone production flowering plant growth ripening of fruit falling leaves Hormones control growth and development.
  26. 26. Interaction in unicelluar organisms Types of stimuli physical stimuli chemical stimuli light temperature pressure chemical substances Types of responses static dynamic <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>lack of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>dry conditions </li></ul><ul><li>extreme temperatures </li></ul>encystment (formation of cysts) ameboid movement vibratile movement contractile movement
  27. 27. Links The effect of stimuli on the behaviour of an organism http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0068.html Nervous system http:// faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html Tropism and tropism quiz http://virtualastronaut.tietronix.com/textonly/act25/text-plants.html Invertebrate nervous system http:// faculty.washington.edu/chudler/invert.html Plant growth and hormones http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPLANTHORM.html Plant responses http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/cat-removed/u3aos23.html

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