3 biosphere


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3 biosphere

  1. 1. The Biosphere! Chapter 3
  2. 2. 3-1 What is Ecology? <ul><li>Study of the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Coined by Earnest Haeckel in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>planet, life, water, land, air and part of the atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Study of the interactions between a particular organization and its surroundings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of individuals that belong to the same species living in the same area. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of different populations within a defined area. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of organisms that live in a particular place with nonliving; or physical environment. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Biome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earth </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ecological Methods of Study <ul><li>Tools and techniques for studying the living world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 3-2 Energy Flow <ul><li>Producers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight is the main source of energy for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the ultimate producer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Flow <ul><li>Autotrophs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without the presence of light this process is used to release energy from inorganic molecules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Flow <ul><li>Consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detritivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Feeding Relationships <ul><li>Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From sun or inorganic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then to various heterotrouphs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Feeding Relationships <ul><li>Relationships between producers and consumers is based on who eats whom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Webs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Food Chains <ul><li>Transfer of energy by eating and being eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae Zooplankton Small fish Squid Sharks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pg. 69 in book </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Food Web <ul><li>A network of interconnecting food chains. </li></ul>Quaternary, tertiary, and secondary consumers Tertiary and Secondary consumers Secondary and Primary consumers Producers (plants) Primary consumers.
  15. 15. Food Web <ul><li>Figure 3-8 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Trophic Level <ul><li>Each step in a food chain or food web </li></ul>A aquatic food chain A terrestrial food chain Quaternary conusumers Trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Hawk Snake Mouse Grasshopper Plant Phytoplankton Zooplankton Herring Tuna Killer whale
  17. 17. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass Pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Numbers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat. </li></ul>100% Producers 10% First Level Consumers 1% Second Level Consumers 0.1% Third Level Consumers
  19. 19. Biomass Pyramid <ul><li>Amount of living organic matter in each trophic level. </li></ul>5000g of Grain 500g of chicken 50g of Human Tissue
  20. 20. Pyramid of Numbers <ul><li>Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. </li></ul>5000 Flowers and Grasses 50 Rabbits and Mice 5 Snakes 1 Hawk
  21. 21. 3-3 Cycles of Matter <ul><li>Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Biogeochemical Cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed from one organization to another and from one part of the biosphere to another </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Water Cycle <ul><li>Evaporation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid to atmospheric gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transpiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation from leaves; from liquid water to water gas </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Water Cycle Condensation Seepage Runoff Precipitation Root Uptake Transpiration Evaporation
  24. 24. Nutrient Cycles <ul><li>Carbon Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul>
  25. 25. Carbon Cycle <ul><li>Carbon plays a major role in live. </li></ul><ul><li>4 major processes to move carbon through this cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geochemical processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed biogeochemical processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human activities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Carbon Cycle CO 2 in atmosphere Photosynthesis Cellular respiration Burning of fossil fuels and wood Carbon compounds in water Detritus Primary consumers Higher-level consumers Decomposition
  27. 27. Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids which are the building blocks for proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria convert ammonia to nitrates and nitrites. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>It is essential to living organisms because it forms part of DNA and RNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Released as rocks and sediments break down. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Nutrient Limitations <ul><li>Factors that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting Nutrient: a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly </li></ul>