Unit 7


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Unit 7

  1. 1. Material de apoyo para los alumnos de 4ºESO de la Sección Bilingüe UNIT 7 CAPITALISM AND IMPERIALISM
  2. 2. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY: THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR • After the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, there were no wars between the European powers. • However, relationships between these nations were characterised by increasing tension. • At the same time, many countries were increasing their production of arms and military equipment.
  3. 3. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE 1871 - 1914 THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR The German unification process made Germany the most powerful country in Europe.
  4. 4. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY: THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War Second French Empire opposed the German expansion through Europe and declared the war to the Kingdom of Prussia, aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member. Prussia won the war and it brought about changes in Europe. France had to surrender the region of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. Napoleon III's Empire finished during the war, and the Third Republic was established in France.
  5. 5. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY: THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR • • German Confederation became a political union as well after the war, as Bismarck wished. Bismark then established the Second Reich, or German Empire, with Wilhem I as its kaiser. King Wilhelm I Chancellor Bismarck
  6. 6. GERMANY´S FOREIGN POLICY • Germany´s foreign policy became especially important during this period in two phases: The Bismarkian system The policies of Wilhem II
  7. 7. THE BISMARKIAN SYSTEM German Chancellor Otto von Bismark established a system of alliances with Austria, Russia and Italy in order to reach to objectives:  The isolation of France.  The balance in the Balcans.
  8. 8. Part of the Austrian Empire Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, part of presentday Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, part of Ukraine Part of the Russian Empire Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, part of Ukraine Part of the Ottoman Empire Turkey Independent countries Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Swithzerland.
  9. 9. THE BISMARKIAN SYSTEM The isolation of France • France´s main objective during this period was to recover the region of Alsace-Lorraine, which it had lost to Germany in 1871. • Bismark used his alliances to prevent conflict in Europe, including a possible war with France over Alsace-Lorraine.
  10. 10. THE BISMARKIAN SYSTEM The balance in the Balcans • Bismark knew that Austria and Russia wanted to control the Balcans and that these tensions could be the origin of a European conflict.
  11. 11. THE POLICIES OF WILHELM II • Kaiser Wilhlem I died and Wilhelm II took the throne.
  12. 12. THE POLICIES OF WILHELM II • Wilhelm II wanted a more agressive foreign policy in Europe, so in 1890 he dismissed Bismark and abandoned his system of alliances. • Then, Wilhem II began a policy of expansionism known as Weltpolitik (world politics). • This policy created tension between Germany and other European countries, especially in unstable regions such as Morocco and the Balkan Peninsula.
  13. 13. • Do exercise 3 on pager 141.
  15. 15. FINANCE CAPITALISM Industrial capitalism Industrial production had been the most important economic activity. Finance capitalism Late-19th-century Europe Activities related to the movement and management of money became the most important source of business profit.
  16. 16. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • Why did the finance capitalism emerge in Europe? Industrial innovations Financial innovations Technological innovations Organisational innovations Finance capitalism
  17. 17. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • ENERGY • New sources of energy were discovered that supplemented and even replaced coal and gas. New sources of energy ELECTRICITY OIL
  18. 18. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • 1867: Bergès designed a hidroelectric generator to produce electricity for factories. • Video hidroelectric power plant This led to the construction of large hydroelectric power plants and the installation of electric cables to provide homes and factories with electricity.
  19. 19. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • 1879: Edison invented the electric light bulb, which soon replaced gas lights in factories, streets and people´s homes.
  20. 20. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • OIL • New processes were discovered to refine oil and produce new fuels => kerosene and petrol.
  21. 21. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • TECHNOLOGY • Improved versions of the Bessemer converter • This made it cheaper to produce steel for railways, cars, industrial machinery and very tall buildings known as skyscrapers.
  22. 22. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • TECHNOLOGY • Stainless steel • It is used to make precision instruments. • New types of fibres, such as artificial silk. • It revolutionated the textile industry.
  23. 23. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • NEW INDUSTRIES • Electrical technology became an important industry, dedicated to the production of equipment such as generators, engines, wires, lamps and light bulbs. • Some German companies were established during this period.
  24. 24. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • NEW INDUSTRIES • New food industries, which preserved perishable food in metal tins, also developed. • The chemical industry started producing a variety of goods, such as: • Perfume • Medicines • Dynamite
  25. 25. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • FINANCE AND INVESTMENT How did they obtain finance? • Business owners needed enormous amounts of capital to establish, maintain and expand their industrial operations. Request a loan from a bank, in exchange for interest. Banks made direct investments in industry. Businessmen could form a companyu and sell shares to investors, who received a part of the profits. Investors could buy and sell shares in different companies at the stock exchange.
  26. 26. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • NEW BUSINESS STRUCTURES • Objective: to reduce competition New business structures Cartels Trusts Holding companies
  28. 28. CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS • NEW BUSINESS STRUCTURES • Some companies aquired monopolies over certain products or services by elimitating their competition. • In some cases, governments gave monopolies to companies in return for money or a share of the company´s profits.
  29. 29. •Homework •Page 145 •Exercises 8, 9, 10, 11.
  30. 30. THE CONSECUENCES OF FINANCE CAPITALISM • CONSUMERISM • A new culture of consumerism developed, as people demanded more manufactured goods. • Businesses also started to use advertising to increase sales and profits.
  31. 31. THE CONSECUENCES OF FINANCE CAPITALISM • ECONOMIC INSTABILITY • In periods of economic crisis, there was less demand for goods. • This reduced business profits, resulting in: • factory closures • high unemployment • social conflict
  32. 32. THE CONSECUENCES OF FINANCE CAPITALISM • INTERNATIONAL TRADE • Improvements to transport systems: • New roads • New railways • Modern vehicles: cars, lorries and steamships. • These developments facilitated the expansion of international trade.
  33. 33. THE CONSECUENCES OF FINANCE CAPITALISM • TRADE IMBALANCES • Industrialised countries bought raw materials in less developed countries and colonies at low prices. • They used raw materials to make manufactured goods. • Then, they sold these goods in less developed countries and colonies at high prices. • This is the beginning of the wide development gap between developed and less developed countries.
  34. 34. THE CONSECUENCES OF FINANCE CAPITALISM • INCREASED INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIVITY • Factories began to use the assembly-line system of production. • This improved productivity and provided more of the new manufactured goods which consumers demanded. Video of an example of assembly line.
  37. 37. THE TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY WORLD ECONOMY • In the late 19th century, the process of industrialisation continued in the European countries. It also spread to other countries around the world. USA GERMANY THE WORLD´S BIGGESTS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCERS JAPAN
  38. 38. THE TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY WORLD ECONOMY • GERMANY • Europe´s leading industrial producer. • Iron and steel industry. • The electrical and chemical industries.
  39. 39. THE TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY WORLD ECONOMY • THE UNITED STATES • Rapid industrialisation in the second half of the 19th century. • Increased immigration from Europe: • Provided work-force for industry. • Westward expansion towards the Pacific: • Construction of a transcontinental railway system.
  40. 40. THE TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY WORLD ECONOMY • JAPAN • The Japanese government: • Built its own factories. • Established banks. • Introduced measures to increase the country´s exports.
  41. 41. THE TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY WORLD ECONOMY • What happened to Great Britain? • Great Britain ceased to be the world´s leading industrial power because its factories were outdated and it did not invest in new industries.
  42. 42. THE TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY WORLD ECONOMY • What happened to Spain? • The most industrialised areas continued to be: • Cataluña => textile industry. • País Vasco => the iron and steel industry, and ship-building. • Foreign businessmen also continued to control some industries, such as Rio Tinto mines in Huelva.
  44. 44. IMPERIALISM • What does Imperialism mean? • Domination of one country or people by another, usually involving direct control; also known as colonialism. Films related to Imperialism
  45. 45. IMPERIALISM • PROCESS • During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of developed countries took control of other regions and lands all over the world. • These lands became colonies and formed part of the various colonial empires. Colony: a conquered territory occupied by a settlement from the ruling state. Ruling state: the country that conquers a territory.
  51. 51. THE CAUSES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION THE ROLE OF THE COLONIES Colonies provided industrialised countries with cheap RAW MATERIALS. Colonies also provided NEW MARKETS where industrialised countries could sell the manufactured goods which they produced at home.
  52. 52. THE CAUSES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION COLONIES Raw materials IMPERIAL POWERS IMPERIAL POWERS Sell the produts to the colonies Manufactured products COLONIES New markets
  53. 53. THE CAUSES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION Advantages por the imperial powers. A symbol of international prestige. More powerful in international terms.
  54. 54. THE CAUSES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION • RESULT OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION: • The colonial powers competed with one another for control of strategic locations around the world.
  55. 55. THE CAUSES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION • THE IMPORTANCE OF THE COLONIES FOR THE EUROPEAN POPULATION: • Colonies were an attractive destination for European emigrants: • High population growth in Europe. • High unemployment due to machines in factories. • Many working-class emigrated to the colonies to look for work and better living standards. • Some governments encouraged emigration to reduce social conflict.
  56. 56. THE CONSECUENCES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION • Colonies were controlled by a minority that imposed European culture. • Native people had second-class status • Ratial segregation was common.
  57. 57. THE CONSECUENCES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION • Rivalry between the imperial powers was one of the causes of the First World War.
  58. 58. THE CONSECUENCES OF IMPERIAL EXPANSION • The world economy became extremely imbalanced because the wealthy nations controlled industry and trade, and exploited less developed countries.
  60. 60. AN UNEQUAL SOCIETY Upper and middle class Working class
  61. 61. THE CONSUMER SOCIETY • The consumer society was based on the acquisition of manufactured goods. Consumerism Advertising New luxury items Tourism Cinemas
  62. 62. THE CONSUMER SOCIETY • ADVERTISING • Businesses used posters and various types of printed advertisements in newspapers and magazines to inform customers about their products and increase their sales. Date: 1890´s. Print shows a well dressed young woman, wearing hat, white gloves, and pearls, holding up a glass of Coca-Cola, seated at a table on which is a vase of roses, the "Drink Coca-Cola" sign, and a paper giving the location of the "Home Office [of the] Coca-Cola Co." as well as branch locations.
  63. 63. THE CONSUMER SOCIETY • NEW LUXURY ITEMS • Members of the upper class demonstrated their wealth by buying expensive new luxury products, such as telephones and cars. Model: threeboxer with Blake transmitter Made by: Charles Williams From: circa 1880
  64. 64. THE CONSUMER SOCIETY • TOURISM • Tourism became a new form of leisure. • Members of the upper class used their leisure time to travel, go to spas at the weekends and visit the country or seaside in summer.
  65. 65. THE CONSUMER SOCIETY • CINEMAS • The invention of cinematographic technology led to the establishment of cinemas in cities around the world. Video: The first film in History
  66. 66. SOCIAL INEQUALITIES • 1880-1914 • Many workers participated in protests and strikes. • The number of workers´associations and trade unions increased during this period. • New Socialist and Communist parties were founded to defend workers´rights in the political sphere.
  67. 67. THE SPANISH SOCIETY • In Spain, the enormous differences in wealth between the upper and lower classes also led to the establishment of political parties that defended workers´ rights and trade unions. PSOE, 1879 FTRE, 1881 UGT, 1888 CNT, 1910
  68. 68. THE SPANISH SOCIETY Source: http://www.slideshare.net/rrobrady/unit-7-capitalism-and-imperialism-4-bil?from_search=1
  69. 69. THE SPANISH SOCIETY • After the Disaster of `98, a new movement known as Regenerationism was promoted by intellectuals, such as Joaquín Costa. • They wanted to renew Spanish society and improve the lives of working-class people.
  70. 70. THE SPANISH SOCIETY • Rural credit unions were created to help farmers buy seeds, fertilizer and farm equipment. • Catholic workingmen´s associations helped factory workers to provide for their families.
  71. 71. THE SPANISH SOCIETY • The Anarchist movement found support among workers on the large agricultural estates in Andalucía and industrial workers in Cataluña. • Anarchists used violent tactics. • The government repressed their organisations. Atentado anarquista en el Liceo de Barcelona. 1893.
  73. 73. MODERNISM • Modernism or Art Nouveau • It was an artistic response to industrial objects and industrial architecture, which Modernists found unattractive. Art Nouveau in Vienna. Art Nouveau in Paris. Art Nouveau in British cities. Casa Milá by Gaudí. Barcelona.
  74. 74. MODERNISM • Modernist architectures designed all the elements of their buildings, including the interior decoration and furniture.
  75. 75. MODERNISM • Modernist decoration was inspired by natural forms, with curved lines and motifs that included leaves and flowers. Tessel House in Brussels, by Victor Horta. Majolikahaus, by Otto Wagner. Vienna. A main entrance of a house in Paris.
  76. 76. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/rrobrady/unit-7-capitalism-andimperialism-4-bil?from_search=1
  77. 77. MODERNISM IN SPAIN • In Spain, the most important Modernist architec was Antoni Gaudí. Video: Some of the best Gaudí´s works in Barcelona
  78. 78. MODERNISM IN SPAIN • Gaudí´s projects typically featured undulating shapes built with concrete and covered with hexagonal tiles in a variety of colours.
  79. 79. El Capricho de Gaudí. Comillas (Cantabria)
  80. 80. HOMEWORK • EXERCISES 27 and 28 on page 155. • EXERCISE 11 on page 157. • Museo de Art Nouveau y Art Deco en la Casa Lis de Salamanca: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vM308sRipQE
  82. 82. IMPRESSIONISM • What is Impressionism? • 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. • Impressionism is considered to be the beginning of modern art: • Impressionists artists rejected and moved away from classical models. Video about the Impressionist
  83. 83. IMPRESSIONISM • It was an experimental style: • Artists tried to create an «impression» in the minds of people who saw their work.
  84. 84. IMPRESSIONISM • Impressionist painters were interested in depicting light and the ways in which it illuminated different objects. • They usually worked outside to take advantage of natural light. Study of a Figure Outdoors: Woman with a Parasol, facing left. By Claude Monet.
  85. 85. IMPRESSIONISM • Some artists painted the same scene at different times of day. Rouen Cathedral was performed by Claude Monet between 1892 and 1894. It is a series of 31 paintings that show the facade of gothic cathedral of Rouen during the day and in different weather conditions.
  86. 86. IMPRESSIONISM • Impressionists typically used pure, unmixed colours.
  87. 87. IMPRESSIONISM • Impressionists applied paint in thick, overlapping layers with fast, loose brush-strokes.
  88. 88. IMPRESSIONISM • Impressionists paintings usually featured: • Landscapes • Scenes of everyday life, susch as people dancing or walking on the beach. Apple Blossoms, Eragny - Camille Pissarro. Le Moulin de la Galette. Renoir.
  89. 89. IMPRESSIONISM Impression: sunrise (Claude Monet. 1872)
  93. 93. Rodin Rodin was a sculptor who abandoned classical proportionality and emphasised the depiction of emotion. The Kiss The thinker
  94. 94. IMPRESSIONISM • Rodin The burghers of Calais
  95. 95. POST-IMPRESSIONISM • Impressionism was followed by PostImpressionism. • Artists experimented more freely to create their won personal styles. • They were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour. • The most famous painters were: Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cezánne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Seurat and Signac.
  96. 96. POST-IMPRESSIONISM • Paul Cezanne • He began using geometric shapes such as cubes and cylinders to represent objects.
  97. 97. POST-IMPRESSIONISM Van Gogh He was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a farreaching influence on 20th-century art. The Sunflowers Starring night
  98. 98. POST-IMPRESSIONISM • Van Gogh
  99. 99. POST-IMPRESSIONISM • Paul Gaugin
  100. 100. POINTILLISM • Pointillism is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are applied in patterns to form an image. Detalle de La Parade (1889).
  101. 101. POINTILLISM Seurat Bathers at Asnières
  102. 102. Prof. Isabel Aguña Bilingual Project • Fuentes: • Libro History 4ºESO. Oxford Education. • http://www.slideshare.net/rrobrady/unit-7-capitalism-and-imperialism-4-bil?from_search=1 • Imágenes obtenidas de Google.