SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Secondary metabolite production

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.

Secondary metabolite production

1 of 46
Download to read offline
SECONDARY METABOLITE
PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
 Higher plants synthesize a wide variety of low
molecular weight compounds in addition to the
essential primary metabolites. These are called
secondary metabolites
 These secondary metabolites offer protection against
pests,they act as attractatnts and as the plant’s own
hormones
WHY SECONDARY METABOLITES
 Chemically warfare to protect plants from the attacks
by predators, pathogens, or competitors
 Attract pollinators are seed dispersal agent
 Important for abiotic stress
 Medicine
 Industrial additives
CLASSIFICATION OF SECONDARY
METABOLITES
 They are classified on the basis of
 1)chemical structure
 2)chemical composition
 3)solubility in various solvents
 4)pathways by which they are synthsized
 A simple classification of secondary metabolites
includes three main groups
 1)the terpenes- made from mevalonic acid,
composed almost entirely of carbon and hygrogen
 2) phenolics – made from simple sugars,
containing benzene rings, hydrogen and oxygen
 3) nitrogen-containing compounds – extremely
diverse, may also contain sulphur
ALKALOIDS
 Most are derived from a few common amino acids
(i.e..tyrosine , tryptophan , ornithine or argenine and
lysine
 Compounds have a ring structure and a nitrogen
residue
 Indole alkaloids is the largest group in this family ,
derived from tryptophan
 Widely used as medicine

Recommended

Production of secondary metabolites
Production of secondary metabolitesProduction of secondary metabolites
Production of secondary metabolitesShivam Sharma
 
Production of secondary metabolite
Production of secondary metaboliteProduction of secondary metabolite
Production of secondary metaboliteAbhishek Indurkar
 
Cell suspension culture
Cell suspension cultureCell suspension culture
Cell suspension cultureAnushi Jain
 
Secondary metabolites (1)
Secondary metabolites (1)Secondary metabolites (1)
Secondary metabolites (1)PRIYA KUMARI
 
Haploid Production - Techniques, Application & Problem
Haploid Production - Techniques, Application & Problem Haploid Production - Techniques, Application & Problem
Haploid Production - Techniques, Application & Problem ANUGYA JAISWAL
 
Organogenesis, in plant tissue culture
Organogenesis, in plant tissue cultureOrganogenesis, in plant tissue culture
Organogenesis, in plant tissue cultureKAUSHAL SAHU
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Single cell culture
Single cell cultureSingle cell culture
Single cell culturePraveen Garg
 
Cellular totipotency in plants
Cellular totipotency in plantsCellular totipotency in plants
Cellular totipotency in plantsRicha Khatiwada
 
Somaclonal variation
Somaclonal variationSomaclonal variation
Somaclonal variationRakesh Kumar
 
Meristem culture
Meristem cultureMeristem culture
Meristem cultureSuman Rawte
 
plant tissue culture medium
plant tissue culture medium plant tissue culture medium
plant tissue culture medium KAUSHAL SAHU
 
Protoplast isolation,culture & fusion
Protoplast isolation,culture & fusionProtoplast isolation,culture & fusion
Protoplast isolation,culture & fusionAnishaMukherjee5
 
application of plant tissue culture
application of plant tissue cultureapplication of plant tissue culture
application of plant tissue cultureruman siddiqui
 

What's hot (20)

Somaclonal Variation and Its Crop Improvement
Somaclonal Variation and Its Crop ImprovementSomaclonal Variation and Its Crop Improvement
Somaclonal Variation and Its Crop Improvement
 
Single cell culture
Single cell cultureSingle cell culture
Single cell culture
 
Callus culture
Callus cultureCallus culture
Callus culture
 
Cellular totipotency in plants
Cellular totipotency in plantsCellular totipotency in plants
Cellular totipotency in plants
 
Plant Tissue Culture, Methods and Applications
Plant Tissue Culture, Methods and ApplicationsPlant Tissue Culture, Methods and Applications
Plant Tissue Culture, Methods and Applications
 
Artificial seed
Artificial seedArtificial seed
Artificial seed
 
Callus culture - Plant Tissue Culture
Callus culture - Plant Tissue CultureCallus culture - Plant Tissue Culture
Callus culture - Plant Tissue Culture
 
Somaclonal variation
Somaclonal variationSomaclonal variation
Somaclonal variation
 
Meristem culture
Meristem cultureMeristem culture
Meristem culture
 
Somatic embryogenesis
Somatic embryogenesisSomatic embryogenesis
Somatic embryogenesis
 
plant tissue culture medium
plant tissue culture medium plant tissue culture medium
plant tissue culture medium
 
Hairy root culture
Hairy root culture Hairy root culture
Hairy root culture
 
somatic hybridization
somatic hybridizationsomatic hybridization
somatic hybridization
 
SYNTHETIC SEED.pptx
SYNTHETIC SEED.pptxSYNTHETIC SEED.pptx
SYNTHETIC SEED.pptx
 
Protoplast fusion
Protoplast fusionProtoplast fusion
Protoplast fusion
 
Micropropagation
Micropropagation Micropropagation
Micropropagation
 
Secondary metabolites
Secondary metabolitesSecondary metabolites
Secondary metabolites
 
Protoplast isolation,culture & fusion
Protoplast isolation,culture & fusionProtoplast isolation,culture & fusion
Protoplast isolation,culture & fusion
 
application of plant tissue culture
application of plant tissue cultureapplication of plant tissue culture
application of plant tissue culture
 
Gene transfer in plants
Gene transfer in plantsGene transfer in plants
Gene transfer in plants
 

Similar to Secondary metabolite production

Influence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite production
Influence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite productionInfluence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite production
Influence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite productionChetanChauhan123
 
Metabolites from plant cell culture
Metabolites from plant cell cultureMetabolites from plant cell culture
Metabolites from plant cell cultureMohit Kohli
 
Assignment of plant tissue culture
Assignment of plant tissue culture Assignment of plant tissue culture
Assignment of plant tissue culture manpreet chahal
 
AN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONS
AN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONSAN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONS
AN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONSSupriya Sankranthi
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticssajjad mughal
 
Plant disease and defense mechanisms
Plant disease and defense mechanismsPlant disease and defense mechanisms
Plant disease and defense mechanismsmildred66
 
secondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sir
secondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sirsecondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sir
secondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU SirKAUSHAL SAHU
 
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants Ahmed Fathy
 
5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx
5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx
5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptxHarshadaa bafna
 
Pesticide metabolism
Pesticide metabolismPesticide metabolism
Pesticide metabolismFrancis Matu
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsSushmita Pradhan
 
Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01
Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01
Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01rahulsharma3736
 
Microbes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymer
Microbes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymerMicrobes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymer
Microbes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymervarshajayasankar2
 
Plant phenolic compounds
Plant phenolic compoundsPlant phenolic compounds
Plant phenolic compoundsMisbah Khan
 
Antibacterial activity of Isolated Phytochemicals
Antibacterial activity of Isolated PhytochemicalsAntibacterial activity of Isolated Phytochemicals
Antibacterial activity of Isolated Phytochemicalsmaninder1991
 

Similar to Secondary metabolite production (20)

Secondary metabolites in plant defense
Secondary metabolites in plant defenseSecondary metabolites in plant defense
Secondary metabolites in plant defense
 
phytoHormones.pptx
phytoHormones.pptxphytoHormones.pptx
phytoHormones.pptx
 
LEC -1.pptx
LEC -1.pptxLEC -1.pptx
LEC -1.pptx
 
Influence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite production
Influence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite productionInfluence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite production
Influence of bio regulator on secondary metabolite production
 
Metabolites from plant cell culture
Metabolites from plant cell cultureMetabolites from plant cell culture
Metabolites from plant cell culture
 
Assignment of plant tissue culture
Assignment of plant tissue culture Assignment of plant tissue culture
Assignment of plant tissue culture
 
AN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONS
AN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONSAN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONS
AN INTRODUCTION TOPLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES :ITS APPLICATIONS
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
 
Plant disease and defense mechanisms
Plant disease and defense mechanismsPlant disease and defense mechanisms
Plant disease and defense mechanisms
 
secondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sir
secondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sirsecondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sir
secondary metabolites of plant by K. K. SAHU Sir
 
Phytoalexins
PhytoalexinsPhytoalexins
Phytoalexins
 
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
 
5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx
5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx
5. Production of enzyme in biotechnolgy.pptx
 
Pesticide metabolism
Pesticide metabolismPesticide metabolism
Pesticide metabolism
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
 
Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01
Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01
Biodegradationofxenobiotics 150429005441-conversion-gate01
 
Microbes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymer
Microbes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymerMicrobes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymer
Microbes in production of enzymes, antibiotics and biopolymer
 
Bioactive...034
Bioactive...034Bioactive...034
Bioactive...034
 
Plant phenolic compounds
Plant phenolic compoundsPlant phenolic compounds
Plant phenolic compounds
 
Antibacterial activity of Isolated Phytochemicals
Antibacterial activity of Isolated PhytochemicalsAntibacterial activity of Isolated Phytochemicals
Antibacterial activity of Isolated Phytochemicals
 

Recently uploaded

Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptxQuality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptxDeviSky1
 
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon MimasA recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon MimasSérgio Sacani
 
Analytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdf
Analytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdfAnalytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdf
Analytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdfMollyWinterbottom
 
transgenics_17b.pptx
transgenics_17b.pptxtransgenics_17b.pptx
transgenics_17b.pptxridhi124788
 
Oral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.ppt
Oral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.pptOral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.ppt
Oral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.pptSOUMYAADRDEPTOFDENTA1
 
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisFrom Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisMarkus Roggen
 
Carpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdf
Carpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdfCarpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdf
Carpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdfMsm_mo
 
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...Sérgio Sacani
 
Age dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptx
Age dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptxAge dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptx
Age dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptxElise. Baugh
 
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptxDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptxNavanidhan.M
 
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...dkNET
 
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeGaia Science Pte Ltd
 
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binaryA seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binarySérgio Sacani
 
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its typesPROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its typeseshasmalik27
 
6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.
6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.
6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.ssuser4d911a
 
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsxROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsxAnkitChoudhary955647
 
Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...
Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...
Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...SIANI
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptxQuality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
 
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon MimasA recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
 
Analytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdf
Analytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdfAnalytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdf
Analytical Coursework - Molly Winterbottom.pdf
 
transgenics_17b.pptx
transgenics_17b.pptxtransgenics_17b.pptx
transgenics_17b.pptx
 
LC MS.pptx
LC MS.pptxLC MS.pptx
LC MS.pptx
 
Oral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.ppt
Oral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.pptOral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.ppt
Oral histology : BDS- 1st year Dental-Pulp-Ppt.ppt
 
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisFrom Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
 
Sujay NPAP Part One.pdf
Sujay NPAP Part One.pdfSujay NPAP Part One.pdf
Sujay NPAP Part One.pdf
 
Carpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdf
Carpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdfCarpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdf
Carpal tunnel Syndrom Wesam Aljabali -1.pdf
 
ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...
ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...
ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...
 
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
 
Age dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptx
Age dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptxAge dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptx
Age dependent lactation dynamics in northern elephant seals-2.pptx
 
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptxDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
 
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
 
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
 
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binaryA seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
 
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its typesPROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
 
6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.
6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.
6129093.ppt plasmodium parasite zoology.
 
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsxROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
 
Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...
Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...
Fair and just food systems enabling local midstream businesses? What does it ...
 

Secondary metabolite production

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Higher plants synthesize a wide variety of low molecular weight compounds in addition to the essential primary metabolites. These are called secondary metabolites  These secondary metabolites offer protection against pests,they act as attractatnts and as the plant’s own hormones
  • 3. WHY SECONDARY METABOLITES  Chemically warfare to protect plants from the attacks by predators, pathogens, or competitors  Attract pollinators are seed dispersal agent  Important for abiotic stress  Medicine  Industrial additives
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES  They are classified on the basis of  1)chemical structure  2)chemical composition  3)solubility in various solvents  4)pathways by which they are synthsized
  • 5.  A simple classification of secondary metabolites includes three main groups  1)the terpenes- made from mevalonic acid, composed almost entirely of carbon and hygrogen  2) phenolics – made from simple sugars, containing benzene rings, hydrogen and oxygen  3) nitrogen-containing compounds – extremely diverse, may also contain sulphur
  • 6. ALKALOIDS  Most are derived from a few common amino acids (i.e..tyrosine , tryptophan , ornithine or argenine and lysine  Compounds have a ring structure and a nitrogen residue  Indole alkaloids is the largest group in this family , derived from tryptophan  Widely used as medicine
  • 7. CHARACTERISTICS  They are bitter in taste.  Derived from amino acids.The amino acids that are most often serve as alkaloidal precursors are: phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, anthranilic acid, lysine and ornithine.  Alkaloids form double salts with compounds of mercury, gold, platinum and other heavy metals. These salts are obtained as precipitate which are microcrystals.
  • 8.  Insoluble or sparingly soluble in water, but the salts formed on reaction with acids are usually freely soluble.  Most are crystalline solids although a few are amorphous.
  • 9.  Free alkaloids are usually soluble in polar solvents like ether, chloroform  Some alkaloids are liquid because of lacking of oxygen in their molecules. (e.g coniine, nicotine, spartenine)
  • 10. Sources and Occurrence of Alkaloids  Alkaloids can occur in plant kingdoms; among the angiosperms,  Leguminosae,  Papaveraceae,  Ranunculaceae,  Rubiaceae,  Solanaceae,  Berberidaceae are outstanding alkaloid-yielding plants.
  • 11. Uses of Alkaloids in Plants:  Poisonous agents which protect plants against insects and herbivores  End products of detoxification reactions representing a metabolic locking-up of compounds otherwise harmful to the plants.  For regulatory growth factors  Reserve substance capable of supplying nitrogen or other elements necessary to the plant’s economy
  • 12. TERPENES  Terpenes are natural products that are structurally related to isoprene  Isopropene  (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) H2C C CH3 CH CH2 OR
  • 13. 1. The number of C atoms is a multiple of 5, C5 C10 C15 C20 C25 C30 C35 C40 2. Each group of 5 C is an isoprene subunit 3. They can be saturated or unsaturated 4. Many contain O atoms as well.
  • 14. PHENOLICS • Derived from aromatic amino acids, such as phenylalanine, tyrosin, and trytophan. • All contain structures derived from phenol • Some examples:  Coumarins: antimicrobial agents, feeding deterrents, and germination inhibitors.  Lignin: abundant in secondary cell wall, rigid and resistant to extraction or many degradation reagents  Anthocyanins  Flavones  Flavnols  Phenols are present in every plant they attract pollinators to the plant and even impact how these plants act with one another.  .
  • 15. GLYCOSIDES • Compounds that contain a carbonhydrate and a noncarbohydrate • Glycosides are present in vacuoles in inactive form • Glucosinolates: found primarily in the mustard family to give the pungent taste  There are four type of linkages present between glycone and aglycone:  C-linkage/glycosidic bond,  O-linkage/glycosidic bond  N-linkage/glycosidic bond  S-linkage/glycosidic bond
  • 16. Sources and effects of major secondary metabolites carotenoids are organic pigments occuring in plants and are mostly found in red orange and yellow fruits and vegetables . they have antioxidative effects and prevents cancer They boost the immune system and reduce the risk of heart attacks
  • 17. PHYTOSTEROLS Found in- sunflower seeds ,sesame,nuts and soy beans Protect against colon cancerand low cholestrol level
  • 18. SAPONINS Flavour additives found in- legumes and spinach Boost the immune system Lower the cholestrol level in blood Reduce the risk of intestinal cancer
  • 19. FLAVONOIDS Organic pigment Gives plant red violet or blue colour Inhibit the growth of bacteria and viruses Protect the cells against the damage of freeradicals Influence blood coagulation
  • 20. SULPHIDES Contain sulphur Belongs to the lily family onions ,leeks, asparagus, garlic Inhibit the growth of bacteria Lower cholestrol levels Preventive efect against cancer
  • 21. CURCUMIN •Extracted from turmeric. •Coloring and medicinal uses •Wound healing •Antiulcer •Anti inflammatory •Antimicrobial & antiviral •Hepatoprotective •Antioxidant •No toxicity.
  • 23. PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES IN CULTURES/BIOREACTORS  1)choice of explants  any part of the plant can be used  dicotelydons are rather amenable for callus tissue induction  procured explants are sterilized prior to culture by using ethanol
  • 24. 2)NUTIENT CULTURE MEDIA  To induce callus from an explant and to cultivate the callus and cells in suspension
  • 25. 3)Callus induction  A callus cell culture is usually sustained on gel medium. Callus induction medium consists of agar and a mixture of macronutrients and micronutrients for the given cell type. There are several types of basal salt mixtures used in plant tissue culture, but most notably modified Murashige and Skoog medium White's medium, and woody plant medium. Vitamins are also provided to enhance growth such as Gamborg B5 vitamins. For plant cells, enrichment with nitrogen phosphorus, and potassium is especially important.
  • 26. SUSPENSION CULTURE  The growth rate of suspension cultured cell is generally faster than that of the solid culture. The former is more desirable, particularly in the production of useful metabolites on a large scale
  • 27. FERMENTORS OR BIOREACTORS  Carboy system-described by tulecke and nickell in 1959,consists of a rubber-stoppered 20 litre carboy fitted with four tubes. Filtered compressed air is employed for oxygen supply, aeration and agitation of the medium  Stirred jar fermetor- used for microbial cultivation  Agitation speed of 50 to 100 rpm
  • 29. HAIRY ROOT CULTURE  It is the culture produced after the infection of explants and cultures by the gram negative soil bacteria Agrobacterium rhizogens  This process take advantage of the naturally occuring hairy root disease in dicotyledons
  • 30.  Agrobacterium recognizes some signal molecules exuded by wonded plant cells and becomes attached to it.  The bacteria contain the Root inducing plasmid ( Ri-plasmid).  The bacteria Genetically trasfer part of the Ri- plasmid called the trasfer DNA (T-DNA) to the plant genome.
  • 31.  The plant cell to proliferate by increasing the rate of cell division ( cytokine expression ) and cell elongation (auxin expression) to produce the hairy roots.  Produce the opines which is a type of unusual amino acids ( octopine, agropine, nopaline, mannopine amd cucumopine) which is used by the bacterium as a carbon , nitrogen and energy source.
  • 32. Induction of hairy root cultures In Vitro  Explants are wounded and then inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes.  Usually two or three days later, the explant can be transferred into solid media with antibiotics, such as cefotaxime , vancomycine or ampicillin to kill or eliminate redundant bacteria.  The hairy roots will be induced within a short period of time, which varies from one week to over a month depending on different plant species.
  • 33.  The decontaminated hairy roots can be subcultured on phytohormone –free medium.
  • 35. Commercial production of secondary metabolites  higher plants contain a variety of metabolic products which are useful as medicines ,food additives,perfumes,etc. however , non-compromising reduction in plant sources,increases in labour cost and other problems in order to obtain these high value added substances from natural plants ,have forced to develop analternative approachtowards the use of plant cell culture for production of these metabolic products .since ptc is not affected by changes in environmental conditions such as climate or natural depredation, improved production is possible
  • 36. PHARMACEUTICALLY IMPORTANT CHEMICALS 1)Morphine alkaloids Codeine is an anlagesic and cough suppressing drug from Papaver somniferum also morphine can be converted into codeine many workers have tried to produce codeine by undifferentiated cells of these plants
  • 37. BERBERINE it is an isoquinoline alkaloid which is produced and distibuted in roots of Coptis japonica and cortex of Phellonderon amurense Berberine chloride is used in treatment of intestinal disorders
  • 38. TORPANE ALKALOIDS Scopolamine and hyoscyamine areused commercially as anesthetic and antispasmodic drugs. Occur in the leaves of members of the family Solanaceace including Duboisia myoporoides Datura leichhartdtti, Scopolia, Atropa,and Hyoscyamus
  • 40. VINCA ALKALOIDS Extracted from Catharanthus roseus Treat leukemias, hodgkin’s disease and antitumor activity
  • 41. GINSENG Roots of Panax ginseng is widely used as tonic Effective for genetic disorders, diabetes and weak circulation Root contains saponins and sapogeninis
  • 43. SAFFRON Made from the stamens of Crocus sativus and used as flavouring agent and colourant Plant contains crocin(yellow pigment), safranal(fragrance), picocrocin(bitter substance) Baked goods, soaps, cheese Medicinal value for stomach ailments
  • 44. SAFFLOWER YELLOW Yellow pigment obtained from the floret of the Carthamus tinctorius Major pigment is carthamin Carthamin is a quinoid form of isocarthamin Used in baked goods and beverages
  • 45. CHEWING GUMS CHICLE Chicle a raw material is obtained from the latex of Achras sapota Chicle contains 60% resin and 15% of rubber Resin consisits of lupeo,α-amyrin andβ- amyrin Rubber consists of cis and trans- 1,4- polyisoprene Synthesized through mevalonic acid pathway
  • 46. TAXOL It is a ditrpene amide Extracted from the bark of wild grown Taxus brevifolia Treats breast and lung cancer