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Secondary metabolites

  1. 1. Secondary Metabolites By Prabhu Thirusangu, Molecular Biomedicine Laboratory, Sahyadri Science College Kuvempu University
  2. 2. 2 • Primary metabolites: Molecules that are essential for growth and development of an organism. Examples: 1.Carbohydrates 2.Proteins 3.Lipids 4.Nucleic acids 5.Hormones • Secondary metabolites: molecules that are not essential for growth and development of an organism. Metabolites
  3. 3. 3 Secondary metabolites are derived from primary metabolites
  4. 4. 4 Why secondary metabolites? • are biosynthetically derived from primary metabolites. They are more limited in distribution being found usually in specifi c families. • Chemical warfare to protect plants from the attacks by predators, pathogens, or competitors • Attract pollinators or seed dispersal agents • Important for abiotic stresses • Medicine • Industrial additives
  5. 5. 5 • Possibly over 250,000 secondary metabolites in plants • Classified based on common biosynthetic pathw ays where a chemical is derived. • Four major classes: Alkaloids, glycosides, phen olics, terpenoids Secondary metabolites
  6. 6. 6 Alkaloids • Most are derived from a few common amino acids (i.e., tyrosine, tryptophan, ornithine or argenine, and lysine) • Compounds have a ring structure and a nitro gen residue. • Indole alkaloids is the largest group in this fa mily, derived from tryptophan • Widely used as medicine
  7. 7. 7 Terpenoids • Terpenes are generally polymers of 5-carbon unit called isoprene • Give scent, flavors, colors, medicine... • Three plant hormones are derived from the terpen oid pathway.
  9. 9. WHAT ARE ALKALOIDS? • These are commonly applied to basic nitrogenous comp ounds of plant origin that are physiologically active. • Organic nitrogenous compounds with a limited distribut ion in native nature.
  10. 10. Characteristics: • They are bitter in taste. • Derived from amino acids.The amino acids that are most often serve as alkaloidal precursors are: phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, h istidine, anthranilic acid, lysine and ornithine. • Alkaloids form double salts with compounds of mercury, gold, platin um and other heavy metals. These salts are obtained as precipitate w hich are microcrystals.
  11. 11. • Insoluble or sparingly soluble in water, but the salts formed on reaction with acids are usually freely soluble. • Most are crystalline solids although a few are a morphous.
  12. 12. • Free alkaloids are usually soluble in polar solvents like ether, chloroform • Some alkaloids are liquid because of lacking of ox ygen in their molecules. (e.g coniine, nicotine, spa rtenine)
  13. 13. Sources and Occurrence of Alkaloids • Alkaloids can occur in plant kingdoms; among the angiospe rms, • Leguminosae, • Papaveraceae, • Ranunculaceae, • Rubiaceae, • Solanaceae, • Berberidaceae are outstanding alkaloid-yielding plants.
  14. 14. Uses of Alkaloids in Plants: • Poisonous agents which protect plants against insects and herbivores • End products of detoxification reactions representing a metab olic locking-up of compounds otherwise harmful to the plants . • For regulatory growth factors • Reserve substance capable of supplying nitrogen or other ele ments necessary to the plant’s economy
  15. 15. Naming for alkaloids • From the generic name or the genus of the p lant yielding them (e.g vinblastine and vincristi ne. atropine) • The specific name or species of the plant yie lding alkaloids ( e.g belladonnine)
  16. 16. • From their physiologic activity (e.g emetine, morphine) • From the discoverer (e.g pelletierine) ~ All names of alkaloids should end in “-ine”. ~ A prefix or suffix is added to the name of a principal alkaloid from the same source. (quinine, quinidine, hydroquinine)
  17. 17. Pharmacologic action of Alkaloids: • Analgesic (morphine, codeine) • Narcotics (strychnine, brucine which are central stimulant) • Anti malarial ( quinine) • Anti pyretic • Anti cancer (vincristine) • Mydriatics (atropine) • Anti inflammatory • Miotics (physostigmine, pilocarpine) • Ephedrine (rises in blood pressure, bronchodilator) • Reserpine (produce fall in excessive hypertension)
  18. 18. TYPES OF ALKALOIDS Alkaloids True Alkaloids Proto Alkaloids Pseudo Alkaloids
  19. 19. True or hetero cyclic alkaloids • Pyridine- Piperidine alkaloids • pyrrole & pyrrolidine alkaloids • Tropane alkaloids • Quinoline alkaloids • Isoquinoline alkaloids • Indole alkaloids • Imidazole alkaloids • Norlupinane alkaloids • Steroid alkaloids • Purine alkaloids
  21. 21. • Pyrrolizidine Derivatives e.g. senecionine, seneciphylline
  22. 22. Piperidine & pyridine derivative s Areca Arecoline Hydrobromide Lobeline Nicotine N H
  23. 23.  TROPANE DERIVATIVES e.g. Atropine hyoscine cocaine Hyoscyamine Scopolamine Coca
  24. 24.  QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES e.g. Quinine, quinidine, cinchonine CINCHONA BARK
  25. 25. Quinine • Dia-stereo-isomer of quinidine • It occurs as white, odourless, bulky crystals or as a crystalline powder. • It darkens when exposed to light and effloresces i n dry air. • It is freely soluble in alcohol, ether and chlorofor m but slightly soluble in water.
  26. 26. Uses • Antimalarial • For treating of chloroquinine resistant falciparum mal aria combination with pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine or tetracycline or clindamycin. • It has a skeletal muscle relaxant effect. • It is widely used for the prevention and treatment of n octurnal recumbency leg cramps.
  27. 27.  ISOQUINOLINE DERIVATIVES e.g. Morphine, codeine, berberine, emetine
  29. 29.  INDOLE DERIVATIVES e.g. ergometrine, ergotamine, reserpine, vincristine, vinblastine
  30. 30. IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES e.g. Pilocarpine, isopilocarpine
  31. 31.  NOR LUPINANE DERIVATIVES e.g. Cytisine, lupanine N
  32. 32.  PURINE DERIVATIVES e.g. Theophylline, caffeine, theobromine
  33. 33.  STEROIDAL DERIVATIVES e.g. protoveratrine, solanidine
  34. 34. PSEUDO ALKALOIDS  DITERPENES e.g. Aconitine, aconine, hypoaconitine PROTO OR NON HETERO CYCLIC ALKALOIDS  ALKYLAMINES e.g. Ephedrine,pseudoephedrine, colchicine
  35. 35. • C17H19NO3 • a component of blackpepper (Piper nigrum) • has been used in various traditional medicin e preparations • an insecticide. has various effects on human drug met abolizing enzymes, and is marketed und er the brand name, Bioperine, PIPERINE
  36. 36. Quinine, 1. molecular formula C20H24N2O2 2. is a white crystalline quinoline alkaloid. 3. Quinine is extremely bitter, and also possesses anti pyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. 4. has strong anti malarial properties, 5. quinine in therapeutic doses can cause various side- effects, e.g. nausea, vomiting and cinchonism, and i n some patients pulmonary oedema. 6. It may also cause paralysis if accidentally injected int o a nerve. 7. Non-medicinal uses of quinine include its uses as a f lavouring agent in tonic water and bitter lemon.
  38. 38. Vinca alkaloids The Vinca alkaloids are a subset of drugs that are deriv ed from the periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus. N N OH C2H5 H3 COOC N N R OAc OH COOCH3 H H MeO Vinblastine R=-CH3 Vincristine R=-CHO
  39. 39. VINCRISTINE Periwinkle Structure
  40. 40. Serpentine • Molecular Formula: C21H22N2O3 • Isolated from Rauwolfia serpentina • To treat High blood pressure • to treat insect stings and the bites of venomous reptiles
  41. 41. Terpenoids Isoprene: Farnesol: Chlorophyll: β-Carotene
  42. 42. TERPENES The chemist Leopold Ruzicka ( born 1887) showed that many compounds found in nature were formed from multiples of five carbons arranged in the same pattern as an isoprene molecule (obtained by pyrolysis of natural rubber). He called these compounds “terpenes”. C C C C C . isoprene natural rubber D isoprene unit head tail C C C C C
  43. 43. The Biological Isoprene Unit • The isoprene units in terpenes do not come from isoprene. • They come from isopentenyl pyrophosphate. • Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (5 carbons) comes from acetate (2 carbons) via mevalonate (6 carbons).
  44. 44. Terpenes • Terpenes are natural products that are structurally related to isoprene. H2C C CH3 CH CH2 or Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene)
  45. 45. The Biological Isoprene Unit CH3COH O 3 HOCCH2CCH2CH2OH CH3 OH O Mevalonic acid H2C CCH2CH2OPOPOH CH3 O O Isopentenyl pyrophosphate
  46. 46. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate H2C CCH2CH2OPOPOH CH3 O O Isopentenyl pyrophosphate or OPP
  47. 47. Isopentenyl and Dimethylallyl Pyrophosphate Isopentenyl pyrophosphate is interconvertible with 2-methylallyl pyrophosphate. OPPOPP • Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate has a leaving group (pyrophosphate) at an allylic carbon; it is reactive toward nucleophilic substitution at this position. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate
  48. 48. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation • The key process involves the double bond of isopentenyl pyrophosphate acting as a nucleophile toward the allylic carbon of dimethylallyl pyroph osphate. + OPP OPP
  49. 49. After C—C Bond Formation... + OPP • The carbocation can lose a proton to give a double bond.
  50. 50. After C—C Bond Formation... + OPP OPP • The carbocatio n can lose a pro ton to give a do uble bond. H– +
  51. 51. After C—C Bond Formation... OPP • This compound is called geranyl pyrophosphate. I t can undergo hydrolysis of its pyrophosphate to gi ve geraniol (rose oil).
  52. 52. OPP OH Geraniol H2O After C—C Bond Formation...
  53. 53. From 10 Carbons to 15 + OPP OPP Geranyl pyrophosphate + OPP
  54. 54. From 10 Carbons to 15 + OPP H– + OPP
  55. 55. From 10 Carbons to 15 OPP • This compound is called farnesyl pyrophosphate . • Hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate ester gives the alcohol farnesol.
  56. 56. Cyclization • Rings form by intramolecular carbon-carbon b ond formation. OPP OPP + E double b ond Z double b ond
  57. 57. CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES 58 TYPE OF NUMBER OF ISOPRENE TERPENE CARBON ATOMS UNITS hemiterpene terpene sesquiterpene diterpene triterpene tetraterpene C5 C10 C15 C20 C30 C40 one two three four six eight hemi = half di = two Sesqui = one and a half tri = three tetra = four NOTE:
  58. 58. • Hemiterpenes consist of a single isoprene unit. Isoprene itself is considered the only hemiterpene, but oxygen-containing derivatives such as prenol and iso valeric acid are hemiterpenoids. • Monoterpenes consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. Examples of monoterpenes are: geraniol,limonene and terpineol. • Sesquiterpenes consist of three isoprene units and have the molecular formula C15H24. Examples of sesquiterpenes are: humulene,farnesenes, farnesol. • Diterpenes are composed of four isoprene units and have the molecular formu la C20H32. They derive from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Examples of diterp enes are cafestol, kahweol, cembrene and taxadiene (precursor of taxol). CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES
  59. 59. • Sesterterpenes, terpenes having 25 carbons and five isoprene units, are rare relative to the other sizes, example: geranylfarnesol. • Triterpenes consist of six isoprene units and have the molecular form ula C30H48. The linear triterpene squalene, the major constituent of shar k liver oil, is derived from the reductive coupling of two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate. Squalene is then processed biosynthetically to generate either lanosterol or cycloartenol , the structural precursors to all the steroids. • Sesquarterpenes are composed of seven isoprene units and have the molecular formula C35H56. Sesquarterpenes are typically microbial in their origin. Examples of sesquarterpenes are ferrugicadiol and tetrapre nylcurcumene. CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES
  60. 60. • Tetraterpenes contain eight isoprene units and have the molecular formula C40H64. Biologically important tetraterpenes include the acyclic lycopene, the monocyclic gamma-carotene, and the bicyclic alpha- and beta-carotenes. • Polyterpenes consist of long chains of many isoprene units,eg, Natural rubber . • Norisoprenoids,eg: C13-norisoprenoids 3-oxo-α-ionol present in Muscat of Alexandria leaves and 7,8-dihydroiononederivatives, such as megastigmane-3,9-diol and 3-oxo-7,8-dihydro-α-ionol found in Shiraz leaves (both grapes in the species Vitis vinifera) CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES
  61. 61. TERPENES 1. The number of C atoms is a multiple of 5, C5 C10 C15 C20 C25 C30 C35 C40 2. Each group of 5 C is an isoprene subunit 3. They can be saturated or unsaturated 4. Many contain O atoms as well. 5. What they all have in common is 1 & 2 above.
  62. 62. 63 JOINING ISOPRENE UNITS The terms head-to-tail and tail-to-tail are often used to describe how the isoprene units are joined. C C C C C . an extra bond Head-to-Tail Head-to-Tail Tail-to-Tail
  63. 63. a-Phellandrene (eucalyptus) Menthol (peppermint) Citral (lemon grass) O H OH Representative Monoterpenes
  64. 64. Representative Monoterpenes a-Phellandrene (eucalyptus) Menthol (peppermint) Citral (lemon grass) O H OH
  65. 65. a-Phellandrene (eucalyptus) Menthol (peppermint) Citral (lemon grass) Representative Monoterpenes
  66. 66. Representative Sesquiterpenes a-Selinene (celery) H
  67. 67. a-Selinene (celery) H Representative Sesquiterpenes
  68. 68. Vitamin A OH Representative Diterpenes
  69. 69. Vitamin A OH Representative Diterpenes
  70. 70. Vitamin A Representative Diterpenes
  71. 71. Squalene (shark liver oil) tail-to-tail linkage of isoprene units Representative Triterpenes
  72. 72. Farnesol Used as 1. Perfumes 2. Pesticides 3. Pheromones 4. Anti- tumour agent 5. Antibacterial drug
  73. 73. Structure of chlorophyll
  74. 74. Chlorophyll a & b •Chl a has a methyl g roup •Chl b has a carbonyl group Porphyrin ring delocalized e- Phytol tail
  75. 75. Structure of chlorophyll a and b
  76. 76. β-carotene-TETRATERPENE 77 β-carotene carrots tail-to-tail head-to-tail head-to-tail
  77. 77. β-carotene – a linear terpene 8 isoprene units 40 carbon atoms CH2 CH2 CH2 C C C CH3CH3 CH CH C CH CH CH C CH CH CH CH C CH CH CH C CH CH C C CH2 CH2 CH2 C CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 -carotene
  78. 78. 79 • Taxol is a terpenoid • "the best anti-cancer agent” by National Canc er Institute • Has remarkable activity against advanced ovari an and breast cancer, and has been approved for clinical use. Taxol Taxus brevifolia Nutt.
  79. 79. 80 • Camptothecin is an indole alkaloid, derived from tryptophan. • Has anticancer and antiviral activity • Two CPT analogues have been used in cancer c hemotherapy, topotecan and irinotecan.
  80. 80. Phenolics • Derived from aromatic amino acids, such as phenylalanine, tyrosin, and trytophan. • All contain structures derived from phenol • Some examples: Coumarins: antimicrobial agents, feeding deterrents, and germinati on inhibitors. Lignin: abundant in secondary cell wall, rigid and resistant to extraction o r many degradation reagents Anthocyanins Flavones Flavnols Phenols are present in every plant they attract pollinators to the plant an d even impact how these plants act with one another.
  81. 81. 82 Glycosides • Compounds that contain a carbonhydrate and a noncarbohy drate • Glycosides are present in vacuoles in inactive form • Glucosinolates: found primarily in the mustard family to give the pungent taste There are four type of linkages present between glycone and aglyc one: C-linkage/glycosidic bond, O-linkage/glycosidic bond N-linkage/glycosidic bond S-linkage/glycosidic bond • .
  82. 82. Cyanogenic glycosides All of these plants have these glycosides stored in the vacuole, but, if the plant is attacked, they are released and become activated by enzymes in the cytoplasm. These remove the sugar part of the molecule and release toxic hydrogen cyanide. An example of these is amygdalin from bitter almonds Cyanogenic glycosides can also be found in the fruit seeds (and wilting leaves) of many members of the rose family (including cherries, apples, plums, bitter almonds, peaches, apricots,raspberries, and crabapples
  83. 83. Sources Plant resins[ A liquid compounds found inside plants or exuded by plants, But not saps, latex, or mucilage, The resin produced by most plants is a viscous liquid, composed mainly of volatile fluid terpenes resins do not serve a nutritive function. The toxic resinous compounds may confound a wide range of herbivores, insects, and pathogens; while the volatile phenolic compounds may attract benefactors such as parasitoids or predators of the herbivores that attack the plants
  84. 84. Latex latex as found in nature is a milky fluid found in 10% of all flowering plants (angiosperms). It is a complex emulsion consisting of proteins, alkaloids, starches, sugars, oils, tannins, resins, and gums that coagulate on exposure to air. It is usually exuded after tissue injury. In most plants, latex is white, but some have yellow, orange, or scarlet latex. It serves mainly as defense against herbivorous insects. Natural rubber is the most important product obtained from latex This latex is used to make many other products as well, including mattresses, gloves, swim caps, catheters and balloons In chewing gum, and glues
  85. 85. Sources Plant sterol; The richest naturally occurring sources of phytosterols are vegetable oils and products made from them. They can be present in the free form and as esters of fatty acid/cinnamic acid or as glycosides, Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are steroid compounds similar to cholesterol which occur in plants and vary only in carbon side chains and/or presence or absence of a double bond. Stanols are saturated sterols, having no double bonds in the sterol ring structure.
  86. 86. Sources Sapogenins sapogenins are the aglycones, or non-saccharide, portions of the family of natural products known as saponins. Sapogenins contain steroid or other triterpene frameworks as their key organic featu re. For example, steroidal sapogenins like tiggenin, neogitogenin, a nd tokorogenin have been isolated from the tubers of Chlorophytu m arundinacelum. Some steroidal sapogenins can serve as a prac tical starting point for the semisynthesis of particular steroid hor mones.
  87. 87. Essential Oil An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophob ic liquid containing volatile aroma compound s from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils , ethereal oils, aetherolea, They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and dri nk, and for adding scents to incense and hous ehold cleaning products Oil Tonnes Sweet orange 12,000 Mentha arvensis 4,800 Peppermint 3,200 Cedarwood 2,600 Lemon 2,300 Eucalyptus globulus 2,070 Litsea cubeba 2,000 Clove 2,000 Spearmint 1,300
  88. 88. Phenylpropanoids The phenylpropanoids are a diverse family of organic compounds that are synthesized by plants from the amino acid phenylalanine Phenylpropanoids are found throughout the plant kingdom, where they serve as essential components of a number of structural polymers, provide protection from ultraviolet light, defend against herbivores and pathogens, and mediate plant-pollinator interactions as floral pigments and scent compounds.
  89. 89. Plant-derived Insecticides
  90. 90. Outline: Plant-Derived Insecticides Important insecticides from plants -rotenoids - New World and Asia -pyrethrins - Near Eastern center -tobacco - New World Ryania speciosa, Flacourtiaceae Antifeedants -neem, Azadirichta indica, Meliaceae
  91. 91. Introduction • Many insecticidal compounds are known from plants. Most plant s make defensive compounds called allomones. Only a few are i mportant commercially. • Plant-derived insecticides have largely been replaced by synthe tic materials, but there are some advantages to the naturally oc curring materials. For example, these substances are biodegrad able. • Selectivity is needed. Compounds that are toxic to insects, but n ot toxic to mammals, are preferable, of course.
  92. 92. Rotenoids • A series of compounds found in members of the genera Derris, Lonchocarpus, Tephrosia are known as rotenones. • Commercially, rotenoids are isolated mostly from the roots of Derris elliptica in Indonesia and from Lonchocarpus • These compounds are isolated by grinding the plant and extracti ng with solvents such as hexane or petroleum ether or chlorofo rm. • The compounds are oil soluble or lipids. They make up 1-20% of the dry weight of the roots.
  93. 93. Derris elliptica, Fabac eae Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) Photo by Agnes Rinehart
  94. 94. Rabo molle, Loncho carpus muehlenberg ianus, Fabaceae Libro del Arbol, Celulosa Arg entina, Vol. 2, 1975
  95. 95. False indigo bush, Amorpha fruticosa, Fabaceae
  96. 96. Pyrethrins • Another major series of compounds, the pyrethri ns, come from species of the genus Chrysanthem um (some people put these species in Pyrethrum) (Asteraceae or Compositae). • These were used as far back as the 1st century B. C. by the Chinese. Insecticidal plants mostly are g rown in countries with inexpensive labor and hig h elevations such as Kenya and New Guinea.
  97. 97. Pyrethrum, Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, Asteraceae Courtesy Dr. Saifu Dossaji
  98. 98. Harvesting pyrethrum flowers in Kenya Courtesy Dr. Saifu Dossaji
  99. 99. • Ryania speciosa (Flacourtiaceae) is also used occ asionally and an insecticide. • A mixture of diterpene, alkaloids is isolated and us ed for specialty insecticide uses. • Because the extract is expensive, it is not commo nly used. Other plant-derived insecticides
  100. 100. Ryania speciosa, flower and fruit, Flacourtiacea e
  101. 101. Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanaceae • Tobacco (which contains nicotine) is another major source of insecticides. Tobacco wastes are often extracted and used as a source of n icotine. Nicotine especially effective against aphids.
  102. 102. Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanaceae,
  103. 103. Calabar bean • Calabar bean (Physostigma venenosa, Fabacea e) is (or has been) a trial-by-ordeal drug in the Calabar coast of Nigeria. The active compone nt is physostigmine, an acetyl choline esterase inhibitor. • The structure of several commercial carbamate insecticides is patterned after the structure of th e plant alkaloid.
  104. 104. Calabar bean, Physostigma venenosum, Fabaceae R. Bentley and H. Trimen, Medicinal Pl ants, London, Churchill, 1880
  105. 105. Antifeedants • Antifeedants are compounds that prevent insect fe eding. Although many are toxic, the insects usuall y don’t consume enough to be poisoned. • Only one of these, neem, Azadirachta indica, Meli aceae, is commercially available. The active comp ound, azadirachtin, is a structurally modified triter pene.
  106. 106. Neem, Azadirachta indi ca, Meliaceae Courtesy Dr. Ramesh Pandey William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, United States
  107. 107. 108 Natural Colors And Flavors Better & Safer Alter natives
  108. 108. 109 Natural Colors  saffron  Anthrocyanin  Carotenoids  Carotene  Chlorophyll  Curcumin  Iron oxides  Riboflavin  Titanium dioxides
  109. 109. 110 Carotenoids Yellow & Red colors. Sources- Sweet potatoes, spinach and tomatoes. Antioxidant - Cancer research.
  110. 110. 111 Carotene Yellow to Orange colors. Sources: Carrots, yellow or orange fruits. Rich in Vitamin A. Lycopene saffron
  111. 111. 112 Chlorophyll Green coloring agent. Occurs naturally in all plants
  112. 112. 113 Curcumin •Extracted from turmeric. •Coloring and medicinal uses •Wound healing •Antiulcer •Anti inflammatory •Antimicrobial & antiviral •Hepatoprotective •Antioxidant •No toxicity.
  113. 113. 114 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Yellow to Orange colors. Sources- Leafy vegetables, Eggs, Milk & Wheat. Safe & Beneficial for health.
  114. 114. 115 Sweet Orange Oil • Sweet orange fruit peel  Stress reducing agent  Aroma therapy: Peace of mind
  115. 115. 116 Flavor  Cocoa seeds Vennila Strawberry Cinnamon Cardamom Cloves Pepper areca