A drug that calms a patient, easing agitation and
A sedative or tranquilizer is a substance that
induces sedation by reducing irritabilityor excitement.
Sedatives are central nervous system (CNS)
depressants, a category of drugs that slow normal brain
At higher doses it may result
in slurred speech, staggering gait,
poor judgment, and slow,
Are misused or accidentally
combined, as in the case of combining
prescription sedatives with alcohol, they can
dangerously depress important signals that
are needed to maintain heart and lung
• Difficulty in thinking
• Slowness of speech
• Faulty judgment
• Shallow breathing
and in severe cases,
TYPES OF SEDATIVES
are drugs that act as central nervous
system depressants and can therefore produce
a wide spectrum of effects, from
mild sedation to total anesthesia.
They are also effective
as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants.
the effect of
the neurotransmitter gamma-
aminobutyric acid (GABA) at
the GABAA receptor, resulting
in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-
anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle
Benzodiazepines are useful in
treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and
as apremedication for medical or dental procedures
are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiaze
pinespharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same
as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits,
side-effects, and risks.
Antihistamines work well
to relieve symptoms of different
types of allergies, including
seasonal (hay fever), indoor, and
food allergies, but they can't
relieve every symptom.
(fast drying glues and adhesives, assorted paint and
petroleum products, lighter fluid, dry-cleaning fluids,
assorted aerosol sprays, surgical spirit, cleaners etc.)
Solvent abuse involves inhaling the fumes from
domestic and industrial products creating a strong
Traditionally referred to as 'glue sniffing',
There is a real risk of vomiting, choking and possibly
unconsciousness. At the very least, expect a king size head ache,
and a less than handsome red rash around the mouth.
• Dazed appearance
• Slurred speech
• Unpredictable behavior.
Under the influence of solvents, users can undertake
dangerous and reckless acts and be at increased risk from
accidents. Long term abuse can lead to a permanent 'sniffer's
rash', conjunctivitis, liver, heart and kidney damage and in
extreme cases, brain damage. Children are at the greatest risk
and some have died after trying solvents for the first time
• Suffocation if solvents are inhaled via a plastic bag over the
head. This is also a risk if a gas product is squirted into the throat
as it causes it to swell which impeded breathing.
• Indulging in impulsive or dangerous actions due to the
• Long term use can damage the brain, liver or kidneys.
• Can cause heart problems which may be fatal - even the first
time it is used.
• Rash around the nose and mouth
• Tremors and a lack of co-ordination
• Weight loss
• Excessive thirst
• Cognitive impairment e.g. unable to think clearly, focus or
Types of Stimulants
a potent central nervous system stimulant of the
phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy
sometimes called “uppers,”
temporarily increase alertness and
energy. Medical uses
• To counteract lethargy and fatigue throughout the day while
at work or while doing other activities
• To reduce sleepiness and to keep the person awake when
necessary, as well as to treat narcolepsy
• To decrease appetite and promote weight loss, as well as to
Marketed as herbal supplement
and as an asthma reliever. It lowers blood
pressure and it is a nasal congestion
treatment. Even if it’s a natural stimulant
or supplement, it has the same structure
as methamphetamine, but it has lesser
effect on the central nervous system.
Caffeine stimulates the
body’s central nervous system to
make the muscles relax. The urine
flow will increase too.
This stimulant is addictive. That’s
why lots of people can’t stop smoking
cigarettes. The American Heart Association
states that the body will immediately react
with the nicotine through increase heart
rate and blood pressure.
This crystallized cocaine comes from the leaves of
cocoa. Users heat this crystal before smoking it. The name
crack is derived from the sound the drug created when being
smoked. People can really get addicted on crack and they
might probably suffer from psychological and physical
They are strong drug
stimulants and are manufactured
illegally. They are usually bought as
OTC medications. They occur as
powders or crystals that are
dissolved in alcohol or water
before being injected.
It is another powerful
stimulant that is illegally
manufactured. Some people snort this
powder to get high, while some
dissolve the powder in water before
injecting it into the body.