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zzzPakistan study ppt zzzPakistan study ppt Presentation Transcript

  • A Country StudyA Country Study
  • 2
  • Pakistan “There is no god but GOD” The Story of Islam’s Rise in South Asia 3
  • A Country StudyA Country Study 4
  • THE FIRST MUSLIM CONTACT   First Muslims to make contact in the subcontinent were  Arab traders and sailors, prior to birth of Islam.    Arab businessmen first stepped on the Indian soil in the  first hijra century.   Their fair business dealings and personal piety and  simplicity impressed the locals a lot they also preached the  principles of Islam. “Kirnig Noor” was the first Indian to embrace Islam. Muslims fought their first battle on the Indian shore during  the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar when the Governor of Bahrain  invaded a seaport ‘Thana’ near Mumbai.    5
  • First Muslim expedition-a reconnaissance mission was  sent to the sub-continent in 644 AD through Balochistan  into Sind.    A gloomy feedback of the ground realities was sent by the  leader of the expedition.    Being very pessimistic report it prevented any serious  attempts to conquer further territory, but Mekran and parts  of Balochistan were retained as Arab outposts. THE FIRST MUSLIM CONTACT CONTINUED 6
  • In early 8th  century Hajjaj bin Yusuf was the governor of   and Sind was ruled by a Hindu, Raja Dahir a very cruel and  oppressive ruler; treated Muslims barbarically.   Two incidents paved the way for Muslim invasion of Sind.  Mekran governor Saeed Bin Aslam was murdered by and  Raja Dahir gave them asylum. Demand for their repatriation  of the culprits was refused.   Few years later ships loaded with treasure carrying widows  and orphaned children of Arab traders, were sailing towards  Iraq. Near Debal, sea pirates attacked and looted all. Took  women and children as prisoners and put in jail where a  widow cried out an appeal to Hajjaj to save them. THE FIRST MUSLIM CONTACT CONTINUED 7
  • Hajjaj Bin Yusuf was so moved that he sent a message to  release the women and children and punish the pirates for  their crimes. Dahir refused.   This annoyed Hajjaj and he sent two expeditions under which  failed miserably and both commanders killed in the battles.   Finally, another army was sent under Muhammad Bin Qasim  who was just 17 years old and nephew of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf. India was attacked on 10th  Ramadan, 92 Hijri, 28th  October  711AD laying a strong siege around Debal. Finally Debal was  conquered and Raja Dahir killed THE FIRST MUSLIM CONTACT CONTINUED 8
  • SUFIS AND SUFISM – PAN ISLAMISM   History has examples where religious, military and political guides  have offered people to rise to the serious problems and challenges  faced collectively.   From 16th  century to the creation of Pakistan Muslims have had a  series of leaders and thinkers who gave them direction and hope.   Islam spread in the sub-continent due to the efforts, exertions and  personal examples of Muslim Scholars and Sufis who journeyed  almost the entire sub-continent preaching Islam.  9
  • HAZRAT MUJADID ALF SANI [(SHEIKH AHMED SIRHINDI) (1564-1624)]:    Born on June 14, 1564 was the fourth child of his father Sheikh  Abdul Ahad.  A saint and scholar who challenged Akbar who introduced the  religious philosophy of Din-e-Ilahi which combined the salient  features of Islam with Hinduism. He exposed the above fallacy of Din-e-Ilahi with full vigour and  vitality which was distorting Islam.   Sheikh Ahmed continued his preaching even after Jehangir’s  accession to the throne and emphasized on Tauhid. He declared that sajda could only be offered to God Almighty  and none else.  His emphasised on simple habits, namaz and fasting. Also,  stressed on separate identity of Muslims; thus, laying  foundation of “Two Nation Theory”. 10
  • SHAH WALIULLAH (1703-62)   A great saint, scholar and reformer; persuaded Muslims to follow  teachings of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) and the Quran.   His famous works are ‘Hujatullah-ul-Balighah’ and ‘Izalat-al-Akhfa’.  Besides, Tafseer of Holy Quran, Islamic History, Fiqh and Hadith.   Besides, imparting religious education he led Muslims to wage  struggle for their political rights. After the death of Emperor  Aurangzeb the moghul empire began to crack and the Sikhs,  Marhattas and other non-Muslim forces started emerging.   He gathered the Muslim nobles requesting their military assistance  to fight the Marhatta. Thus, Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded India and  after a fierce battle at Panipat in 1761 routed the Marhattas.   His emphasis to the rulers was enforcement of Islamic laws;  besides, stress of ‘Jihad’ asking traders to adopt fair principles of  trade and refrain from wealth accumulation by unfair means.   11
  • FARAIZI MOVEMENT – HAJI SHARIATULLAH (1781-1840)   Islam spread in Bengal in the 13th  and 14th  century; but, Hindu  revivalism converted many Muslim areas into Hinduism.    Haji Shariatullah started his ‘Faraizi Movement’ in Central Bengal  in reaction to the anti-Muslim policy of the British. Emphasis was on  religious duties in the light of Quran and the Sunnah.   His followers were asked for repentance of all past sins with pledge  to lead a righteous and God-fearing life in future. Muslim peasants  got united against the cruel exploitation by the Hindu zamindars.   It injected lot of confidence amongst the Muslims who were  otherwise in deep slumber.    Hindu zamindars got perturbed due to the above and started  harassing him he left Dhaka for Faridpur where he died in 1840. 12
  • IDEOLOGY   It is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group or a nation  deeply ingrained in the social consciousness of the people.  A set of principles, a framework of action and guidance  system giving order and meaning to life and human action.  It gives a nation direction and worldview; its implementation  is the responsibility of the concerned people.   Pakistan Ideology is based on the ideals of Islamic system- a reaction to the exploitation of the Muslims in the sub- continent by the British and the Hindus. Though, the Hindus and Muslims lived for centuries  together; but retained own cultures and customs keeping  away from each other never amalgamating in each other’s  way of life to become one nation. 13
  • IDEOLOGY CONTINUED Main reason for Islam not to merge into any other system is that it  professes ‘Tauheed”-no sharing of sovereignty with Allah Almighty;  whereas, Hinduism talks of several gods.   Islam preaches peace, brotherhood, belief in God, the Holy  Prophet (Peace be upon him) and the Holy Quran are the basic  tenets of Islam. There is no such concept in Hinduism.   Further, it talks of equality and justice and does not differentiate on  colour, creed or status basis. Besides, geographical or linguistics  affiliations in Islam. Hinduism, promotes caste system thus  degrading mankind.   Under these circumstances, Muslims and Hindus lived like  strangers and never became one society. Hence, the demand for  partition of India was put forth by them.   14
  • PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY (DEFINITION AND EXPLANATION)   Ideological commitment to Islam was basis for Pakistan’s is  creation. “Pakistan Ka Matlab Kiya, La Ilaha Illal-Lah” was the  famous slogan of the freedom movement.   This is based on Muslims being a separate nation, with their own  culture, civilization, literature, religion and way of life. Hence,  merger with other nations is not possible.   When situation got beyond control the Muslims demanded a  separate homeland to protect their national and religious identity.   They were a nation strictly adhering to their religious and national  identity. All out efforts by the British and the Hindus could not rip  Muslim unity and love for their national character.     15
  • THE TWO-NATION THEORY   Pakistan Ideology was founded on ‘The Two-Nation Theory’  which meant that Non-Muslims and Muslims were two separate  nations whose perception of life were different from each other.  Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani was the first to  stress on the separate identity of the Muslims.   But, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first to use the word ‘Two- Nations’ for the Muslims and Non-Muslims when convinced of the  Hindu and Congress hatred and prejudice towards the Muslims. 16
  • SIR SYED AHMED KHAN (18I7-1898) PERSONAL LIFE I. Also known as Syed Ahmed Taqvi. A scholar/reformer who  guided the Muslims who were on the verge of ruin and elimination  from the Indian society due to Hindu British domination.    ii. Born in a noble family got his primary education from his  maternal grandfather including Holy Quran, Arabic and Persian  Literature. He also acquired excellence in History, Mathematics  and Medicine.   17
  • PERSONAL LIFE CONTINUED iii. On completing his studies, he joined Government service in  1837 and posted as Naib Munshi in Commissioner’s Office in  Agra. After serving in different capacities at different places he  was elevated as the Chief Judge in 1846 and posted at Delhi  where he wrote his book “Aasar us Sanadeed”.   iv. After his transfer to Bijnaur in 1854 he compiled the history  of Bijnaur in 1855.   v.In 1857 during the War of Independence he was working in  Bijnaur and saved lives of many British women and children  risking his own life. For his services the British Government  offered him estate which he declined politely. v.He was also knighted with ‘SIR’ carrying with it the  nomenclature of KCSI (Knight Commander of the Star of India). 18
  • MOVEMENTS DONE BY SIR SYED AHMED KHAN These can be highlighted as follows: a.)Aligarh Movement,  b.)Aligarh Muslim Theory and c.)Two Nation Theory 19
  • ALIGARH MOVEMENT 20
  • ALIGARH MOVEMENT a. His first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British  with the Indian mind; then to open his countrymen’s minds to  European literature, science and technology.   b. For attaining these goals, Aligarh Movement was launched;  Aligarh being center.    c. Two immediate objectives in mind were removing the  misunderstanding and tension between the Muslims and the  new British government, also inducing them to go after the  opportunities available under the new regime without deviating  in any way from the fundamentals of their faith. 21
  • EFFORTS a. Fortunately, Syed Ahmad Khan was able to attract into  his orbit a number of sincere friends who shared his views  and helped him.   b. Among those well-known figures were Nawab Mohsin- ul-Mulk, Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, Hali, Shibli, Maulvi Nazir  Ahmad, Chiragh Ali, Mohammad Hayat and Zakaullah. Of  course, his son Syed Mahmood, a renowned scholar,  jurist and educationist, was a great source of help to him.   22
  • A brief chronology of Syed Ahmad's efforts is given below: 1859: Built Gulshan School in Muradabad. 1863: Set up Victoria School in Ghazipur. 1864: Set up the Scientific Society in Aligarh. Was involved in  the translation of English works into the native language. 1866: Published till 1926, Aligarh Institute Gazette. Imparted  information on history; ancient/modern science of agriculture,  natural /physical sciences and advanced mathematics.  1870: Committee Striving for the Educational Progress of  Muslims. 1875: Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental School (M. A. O.),  Aligarh, setup on the pattern of English public schools. Later  raised to the level of college in 1877 and university in 1920.  23
  • 24 ALIGARH MUSLIM THEORY   i. From 1850s, Sir Syed began developing a strong passion for  education. Realising the advantages of Western-style education, being  offered at newly established colleges across India.   ii. Though a devout Muslim, he criticised traditional dogma and  religious orthodoxy, making most Indian Muslims suspicious of British  influences. There future were getting dark.   iii. A descendant of Mughal nobility, was reared in best traditions of  Muslim elite culture fully aware of steady decline of Muslim political  power across India. The animosity between the British and Muslims  before and after Independence War of 1857 threatened to marginalise  Muslim communities for generations.   iv. He intensified his work to promote co-operation with British  authorities, promoting loyalty to the Empire amongst Muslims.    v. Committed to working for the upliftment of Muslims, he founded a  modern madrassa in Muradabad in 1859. It was one of the first religious  schools that imparted scientific education.
  • 25 TWO NATION THEORY   A. He pioneered the two nation theory, used the word ‘two nation’  for Hindus and Muslims after conviction that the Hindus and  Congress had hatred, hostility and prejudice for the Muslims. B. The entire freedom movement revolved around the above  theory. He considered all those living in India as one nation and  was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the  meeting of Indian Association he said: “I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and  consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’ I mean only  Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, both live together on  the same soil under the same government. Our interests and  problems are common, and therefore, I consider the two factions  as one nation.”
  • 26 TWO NATION THEORY CONTINUED C. An utmost effort was made to make the Muslims realize  their differences with the Hindus regarding religions, social  and language, rational and international identity and thus  he diverted their attention towards a new idea of “Two Nation” or “Two entities.” D. After Hindi-Urdu controversy he felt that it was not  possible for Hindus and Muslims to progress as a single  nation. He said: “I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never  become one nation as their religion and way of life was  quite distinct from each other.”
  • 27 ALLAMA IQBAL (1877-1938) •He received his early education in the traditional maktab. Later  joining the Sialkot Mission School, from where he did his  matriculation. In 1897, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degree from  Government  College, Lahore. •Two years later, he secured his Masters Degree and was  appointed as a lecturer of History, Philosophy and English in the  Oriental College, Lahore.  
  • 28 ALLAMA IQBAL (1877-1938) CONTINUED •Later he proceeded to Europe for higher studies. Having  obtained a degree at Cambridge, he secured his doctorate at  Munich and finally qualified as a barrister. •On returning to India in 1908; besides teaching and  practicing law, he continued writing poetry. He resigned from  government service in 1911 and started propagating  individual thinking among the Muslims through his poetry. •A great poet-philosopher and active political leader, was  born at Sialkot.
  • 29 POLITICAL CAREER   Dividing his time between law and poetry, he remained  active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian  involvement in World War I, and the  Khilafat movement also remained in close touch with  Muslim political leaders like Maulana Mohammad Ali  Johar and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.   He was a critic of the mainstream  Indian National Congress, and regarded it as Hindu  domination and was disappointed with the League  when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional  divides between the pro-British group led by  Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by  Jinnah.  
  • 30 In November 1926, he contested for a seat in the  Punjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore.   He supported the constitutional proposals presented by Mr.  Jinnah with the aim of guaranteeing Muslim political rights and  influence in a coalition with the Congress, and worked with the  Aga Khan and other Muslim leaders to mend the factional  divisions and achieve unity in the Muslim League.   Iqbal stated that Muslims and Hindus are living together but their  customs and traditions differ; they cant live together. They are  two different religions. They have to get their own country where  they can lead lives according to their religions. POLITICAL CAREER CONTINUED
  • 31 SOME POINTS FOR SEPRATE NATION:   i.) Negation of nation,   ii.) Islam does not believe on the nationalism base, iii.) Religion and politics are not separate in Islam, iv.) Islamic state is a welfare state, v.) Criticism on national democracy, vi.) Islam can solve economic problems and vii.) Islam is the complete code of life   Creation of Pakistan is the step towards Pan-Islamism.
  • 32 1930 ALLAMA IQBAL ADDRESS   a. The Allahabad Address, notable for Conception of Pakistan,  was the Presidential Address by Allama Iqbal to the 25th  Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930,  at Allahabad, India.   b. Here he presented the idea of a separate homeland for  Indian Muslims which was ultimately realised in the form of  Pakistan. “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State”.   c. The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to  India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The  Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is,  therefore, perfectly justified.
  • 33 QUAID-E-AZAM (1876 – 1948) EARLY LIFE •Also known as Baba-e-Quam. Was born Mahomedali  Jinnahbhai in Wazir Mansion, Karachi.Sindh. Earlier conquered by  the British and subsequently grouped with other conquered territories  for administrative reasons to form the Bombay Presidency  of British India.  •His earliest school records state that he was born on October 20,  1875, Sarojini Naidu, the author of Jinnah's first biography, gives  the date as ”December 25, 1876”. 
  • 34 JINNAH AS A LEADER Served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 till  August 14, 1947, and as Pakistan's first Governor-General from  August 15, 1947 till his death on September 11, 1948.   He rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress initially  expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslim unity and helping shape the  1916 Lucknow Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian  National Congress; he also became a key leader in the All India  Home Rule League.   He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to  safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing  India.
  • 35 JINNAH ACTS AS A LEADER   Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when, Mohandas Gandhi,  launched a law-violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the  British, which he disapproved.    Unlike most Congress leaders, Gandhi never wore western-style  clothes, did his best to use an Indian language instead of English,  and was deeply rooted to Indian culture. His local style of  leadership gained great popularity with the Indian masses.   Jinnah criticised Gandhi's support of Khilafat Movement, which he  saw as an endorsement of religious zealotry. By 1920, he resigned  from the Congress, with a prophetic warning that Gandhi's method  of mass struggle would lead to divisions between Hindus and  Muslims and within the two communities.    Becoming president of the Muslim League, Jinnah was drawn into  a conflict between a pro-Congress faction and a pro-British faction. 
  • 36 POLITICAL CAREER   1. In January 1910, got elected to the newly-constituted  Imperial Legislative Council. Throughout his parliamentary  career, of four decades, he was probably the most powerful  voice in the cause of Indian freedom and rights.   2. He was also the first Indian to pilot a private member's Bill  through the Council, soon became a leader of a group inside the  legislature.    3. Mr. Montagu (1879-1924), Secretary of State for India, at the  close of the World War I, considered him "perfect mannered,  impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecties...", "is a  very clever man, …, of course, …such a man should have no  chance of running the affairs of his own country."    4. For about three decades after entry into politics in 1906, he  firmly believed in and worked hard for Hindu-Muslim unity.  
  • 37 5. Gokhale, the foremost Hindu leader before Gandhi, once said  of him, "He has the true stuff in him and that freedom from all  sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of  Hindu-Muslim Unity: …: he was responsible for the Congress- League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact- the only  pact ever signed between the two political organisations, the  Congress and the All-India Muslim League, representing, as they  did, the two major communities in the subcontinent."  6. This scheme embodied in the pact became the basis for the  Montagu-Chemlsford Reforms, also known as the Act of 1919. In  retrospect, the Lucknow Pact represented a milestone in the  evolution of Indian politics.    7. Muslims got the right to separate electorate, reservation of  seats in the legislatures and weightage in representation both at  the Centre and the minority provinces.  POLITICAL CAREER CONTINUED
  • 38 DEMAND FOR PAKISTAN a. "We are a nation", they claimed in the ever eloquent words  of the Quaid-i-Azam- "We are a nation with our own distinctive  culture and civilization, language and literature, art and  architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and  proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calendar,  history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have  our own distinctive outlook on life and of life.  By all canons of international law, we are a nation". 
  • 39     b. Muslim demand for Pakistan in 1940 had a tremendous impact  on the nature and course of Indian politics. Firstly, it shattered  forever the Hindu dreams of a Hindu empire on British exit from  India: secondly, it heralded an era of Islamic renaissance and  creativity in which the Indian Muslims were to be active participants.    c. The Hindu reaction was quick, bitter, malicious. So were the  British to the Muslim demand, having a belief that the unity of India  was their main achievement and their foremost contribution.    d.Both the Hindus and the British had not anticipated the great  response Pakistan demand had elicited from the Muslim masses.  e. They failed to realize how a hundred million people suddenly  became so conscious of their distinct nationhood and high destiny.    f. All these course direction in the establishment of Pakistan in  1947, was provided by Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.  DEMAND FOR PAKISTAN
  • 40 QUAID-E-AZAM AND TWO NATION THEORY   i.) Concept of separate nation ii.) Pakistan is the demand for Islam   iii.) Sovereignty of God iv.) Islamic concept of democracy   v.) National integration vi.) Safeguard of minorities   vii.) Urdu language vii.) Defence and viii.) Bright future  
  • 41 PAKISTAN MOVEMENT Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan  refers to the  successful historical movement against British and Indian  to  have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan. It was led  by Quaid-e-Azam, besides other prominent founding fathers  being Allama Iqbal and Liaqat Ali Khan.   The movement ultimately achieved success in 1947 and  named Pakistan.
  • 42 Some events that happened for the separate homeland  were:   i. 1857 War of Independence, ii.) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan iii.) 1885 Formation of the Indian National Congress iv.) 1906 Founding of All-India Muslim League, v.) 1914-18 World War I vi. 1919-23 Khilafat Movement, vii.)1928 Nehru Report viii.) 1929 Fourteen Points of Jinnah, ix.) 1930 Allama Iqbal Address x.) 1933 Now or Never Pamphlet, xi.) 1939-45 World War II xii.)1940 Pakistan Resolution, xiii.) 1946 The Cabinet Mission xiv)1947 Creation of Pakistan PAKISTAN MOVEMENT CONTINUED
  • 43 1857 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE This war was fought by Indian Muslims and Hindus but after  defeat both of them started thinking differently.    Initial success of the fighters gave the boost to the war of  independence.   Important towns of Haryana, Bihar and Mahdya Pardesh were  captured. Later the British returned and fought the Moghul  Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar; who was defeated and he fled.  After taking control of Dehli the British started large scale  massacre; caught the Shah and deported him to Yangoon  (Rangoon) capital of Burma (now Myannmar).  
  • 44 After this War, the British government assumed sovereignty  over the lands of the British East India Company and became  masters of India, where for nearly 800 years Muslims had ruled.  Their attitude towards the Muslims was that of hatred.   A prominent historian Hunter says, “The Muslims of India are,  and have been for many years, a source of chronic danger to  the British power in India”. The British made policies against the  Muslims and gave them no rights.   Newly introduced English educational system had discouraged  the Muslims, mainly because religious education was not  included. Thus, they stayed away from it.   Within a few years of loss of political power, the Muslims lost all  avenues of employment, dispossessed of their estates and  deprived of the benefits of education. 1857 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE CONTINUED
  • 45 1885 FORMATION OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS Founded by Sir Allen Octavian Hume a Civil Servant to unite all  Indians and strengthen bonds with Britain.   Indian National Congress stressed for economic reforms and  wanted a larger role in the making of British policy for India.    In 1920 the Congress began a campaign of passive resistance, led  by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, against restrictions on the  press and political activities.   Though Congress claimed to represent all Indians, many Muslims,  fearful of the Hindu majority, began to withdraw from the Congress.
  • 46 1906 FOUNDING OF THE ALL-INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE
  • 47 SIR MUHAMMAD SHAFI NAWAB MOHSIN- UL-MULK Founded December 30,1906 at Dhaka (now capital of Bangladesh). •It was here that separate of the Muslims got established and was named as the All India Muslim League. •Sir Agha Khan declared as the first President and Nawab Waqar Ul Mulk Nawab Mohsin Ul Mulk first Joint Secretary. •First meeting held December 20,1907; later events prove its success in getting freedom from the clutches of the British and the Hindus.
  • 48 1914-18 WORLD WAR I i.) Also known as the great war from 1914-1918. ii.) Machine gun and poison gas were introduced in this battle. iii.) Was an extremely bloody war, huge losses of life and little ground lost or won. iv.) More than 9 million died on the battlefield due to growth of large army.
  • 49 1919-23 KHILAFAT MOVEMENT a. Clubbed with Non Co-operation Movement. With the thought that an opportunity had come for a Hindu- Muslim joint movement against the British. b. During World War 1 people were against English, Turkish sided with Germans. But latters defeat gave chance to the English who created problems for Turkey. Then, the Muslims started a movement in 1919 called the Khilafat Movement with these goals:. i. Turkey should remain with the Muslims and should be in the protection of Turkish. Its boundaries of the should remain those which were before the World War.
  • 50 ii. Movement had thoroughly roused the country but had little impact on the British and they attached no importance to it. iii.) Annoyed by the British attitude the Khilafat Conference at Karachi called upon the Muslim soldiers in the British Indian army to quit. However, abrupt suspension of the Non Co- operation and Khilafat Movement created a different situation. The Movement leaders got sharply divided. iv.) A large number of them lost faith in Mahatma, and turned to the government for help. This movement (1919–1924) was Pan- Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. 1919-23 KHILAFAT MOVEMENT CONTINUED
  • 51 SIMON COMMISIONSIMON COMMISION 19271927   On 26th November, 1927 a commission was announced byOn 26th November, 1927 a commission was announced by British Government under the Chairmanship of Sir John Simon .British Government under the Chairmanship of Sir John Simon . Consisting of 7members. It was charged with the duty ofConsisting of 7members. It was charged with the duty of investigating Indian constitutional Problem and Dropinvestigating Indian constitutional Problem and Drop Recommendation for future action .Recommendation for future action . All members of commission were white with no localAll members of commission were white with no local representation.representation. There was negative response of Indians towards theThere was negative response of Indians towards the commission and they greeted them with slogancommission and they greeted them with slogan " Simon Go" Simon Go Back , Simon Go Back "Back , Simon Go Back ".. Both Congress and the Muslim League boycotted theBoth Congress and the Muslim League boycotted the Commission . It was Published in 1930 named Simon Report . ItCommission . It was Published in 1930 named Simon Report . It had 2 Volumes , first deals with Indian problem andhad 2 Volumes , first deals with Indian problem and ssecondecond Deals with Recommendation and Proposal.Deals with Recommendation and Proposal.
  • 52 1928 NEHRU REPORT After the Failure of Simon Commission in 1927, the minister of India Lord Birkenhead Challenged Indians by saying: "IF THEY HAVE ANY POLITICAL CAPABILITY AND COMPETENCE THEN THEY SHOULD FORM A UNANIMOUS CONSTITUTION AND PRESENT IT TO US AND WE WILL IMPLEMENT IT". ANSWER TO THE CHALLENGE OF LORD BIRKENHEAD First and Second All Party Conference was Held at Delhi on 12 February and 19 May, 1928. Had two Muslim representatives, namely Sir.Ali Imam and Mr. Shoaib Qureshi .
  • 53 Head of the Constitutional Assembly was Moti Lal Nehru other members of the Committee were his son Jawaharlal Nehru Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, G.R. Pardhan, M.R. Jaikar and N.A. Joshi. The Committe prepared a report after three months and was called Nehru Report. It made following recommendations: 1. Ending Separate Electorate. 2. Joint electorate be introduced in proportion to population of minorities. 3. Refusal to give 1/3 Representation to Muslim in the center. 4. Separation of Sind from Bombay (Mumbai) 5. Full provincial status for N.W.F.P and Balochistan. 6. Foreign Affairs, Army and defence be controlled by the Parliament and Viceroy. 1928 NEHRU REPORT CONTINUED
  • 54 1928 NEHRU REPORT CONTINUED REACTION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE: The anti-Muslim suggestions of Nehru Report shattered the Lucknow Pact and the Delhi proposal . Different Muslim leaders expressed their views and feelings on this report : COMMENTS OF SIR AGHA KHAN: Sir Agha Khan said "Any sensible person cannot think Muslim will accept these insulting conditions" COMMENTS OF QUAID-E-AZAM: Quaid-e-Azam on 22 December, 1928 at a failure of Calcutta convention and due to stubbornness commented on Nehru Report: "From now the paths of Hindu and Muslims are separate" In short, all Muslim leaders expressed great dislike to the Nehru Report, but it did not have any effect on Hindus.
  • 55 Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s 14 PointsMuhammad Ali Jinnah’s 14 Points 19291929 With the rejection of the Nehru Report by the Muslim League Quaid-e-Azam gave his own Fourteen Points Formula at Delhi which contained the following: 1. Future constitution should be federal; residual powers vested in the provinces. 2. Provincial autonomy in uniform measures be granted. 3. All legislatures and other elected bodies be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality. 4. In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third.
  • 56 MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH’S 14 POINTS 1929MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH’S 14 POINTS 1929 CONTINUEDCONTINUED 5. Communal groups representation should be through separate electorate as at current, besides; it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favour of a joint electorate. 6. Any territorial distribution if necessary at any time shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and the North West Frontier Province. 7. Full religious liberty, i.e. of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities. 8. No bill or any resolution or any part thereof be passed in any legislature any other elected body if three-fourth members of any community in that particular body oppose it as being injurious to the interests of that community. Alternatively, methods be devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases.
  • 57 MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH’S 14 POINTS 1929MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH’S 14 POINTS 1929 CONTINUEDCONTINUED 9. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency. 10. Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan on the same footing as in the other provinces. 11. Muslims be given adequate share in the State services along with other Indians. 12. Constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion and civilisation. 13. No cabinet, central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers. 14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State's contribution of the Indian Federation.
  • 58 1930 ALLAMA IQBAL ADDRESS The Allahabad Address, notable for Conception of Pakistan, was the Presidential Address by Allama Iqbal to the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, India. Here he presented the idea of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims which was realised in the form of Pakistan. To quote him: “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State”. c) European principle of democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. d) Hence, Muslim demand for the creation of a separate state is, therefore, justified.
  • 59 1933 NOW OR NEVER PAMPHLET (CHOUDHRY RAHMAT ALI) Also called the “Pakistan Declaration”. Choudhry Rahmat Ali , one of the founders of Pakistan and living in England at that time had designed a pamphlet; Now Or Never (28th January 1933) where Pakistan and its provinces were used for the first time. He was living in England that time. Excerpts of the letter are being reproduced:
  • 60 3, Humberstone Road, Cambridge, England. 28th January, 1933 Dear Sir or Madam, I am enclosing herewith an appeal on behalf of the thirty million Muslims of PAKISTAN, who live in the five Northern Units of India--Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, (Afghania) (NWFP), Kashmir, Sind, and Baluchistan. It embodies their demand for the recognition of their national status, as distinct from the other inhabitants of India, by the grant to Pakistan of a separate Federal Constitution on religious, social and historical grounds. 1933 NOW OR NEVER PAMPHLET (CHOUDHRY RAHMAT ALI) CONTINUED
  • 61 I shall be pleased if you will kindly acquaint me with your valuable opinion on the proposed solution of the great Hindu- Muslim problem. I trust that, vitally interested as you are in a just and permanent solution of that complex problem, the objects outlined in the appeal wiIl meet with your fullest approval and active support. Yours truly, Rahmat Ali (Choudhry). (Founder, Pakistan National Movement) From the foregoing contents of the letter it implies that the word PAKISTAN has been derived as P-Punjab, A-Afghania (NWFP), K-Kashmir, S-Sind and TAN-Baluchistan. 1933 NOW OR NEVER PAMPHLET (CHOUDHRY RAHMAT ALI) CONTINUED
  • 62 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935 Following the Round Table Conferences a White Paper was issued in 1933 and discussed in the Parliament. A Committee was set up under the chairmanship of the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow for giving their recommendations. Other members were Sir Agha Khan, Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Shafaat Ahmad Khan, Abdur Rahim and A.H. Ghaznavi. Report of the Committee was published in 1934 which was contained in a Bill of Law and was presented to the British Parliament for approval. This bill was passed and after Royal assent on July 24, 1935 was enforced in the country as Government of India Act, 1935. It failed to win appreciation from various sectors Indian political leaders rejected it as it failed to meet the demands of different political factions. Quaid-e-Azam declared it as ‘a defective document’. Rajgopalacharia declared it as the worst type ever.
  • 63 1939-45 WORLD WAR II a. It included all great powers of that time viz; UK, France, USSR (Soviet Union), Germany, Italy, Japan, USA etc. b. 100 million people served in the military units. c. Economic and industrial damages were enormous. d. Almost every person/business/service was involved directly or indirectly. e. 61 countries with a population of 1.7 billion were involved one way or the other. f. 50 milion lives were lost and hundreds of million injured.
  • 64 1940 PAKISTAN RESOLUTION Commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution passed in Lahore, also called The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Lahore) on March 23,1940 at Minto Park, Lahore now named Iqbal Park. Above picture denotes the memorial of the famous place where this resolution was passed. It was a formal political statement adopted by the Muslim League- interpreted as a demand for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. The resolution was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq, from East Bengal also later given the title of Sher-e-Bangal. Although the name "Pakistan" was proposed by Rahmat Ali Choudhry in his Pakistan Declaration.
  • 65 Crips Mission 1942Crips Mission 1942 • The British government wanted to get cooperation of theThe British government wanted to get cooperation of the Indians with the war situation. It found it difficult to make theIndians with the war situation. It found it difficult to make the war a success without the cooperation of both the Hindus andwar a success without the cooperation of both the Hindus and the Muslims.the Muslims.  On March 22, 1942, Britain sent Sir Stafford Cripps with constitutional proposals.  The important points of the declaration were as follows:  General elections in the provinces would be arranged as soon as the war ended.  A new Indian dominion, associated with the United Kingdom would be created.  Those provinces not joining the dominion could form their own separate union.  Minorities were to be protected. Congress rejected this proposal as Gandhi termed it as ‘a post dated cheque on a failing bank’. The Muslim League rejected them on the ground that it did not concede Pakistan unequivocally.
  • 66 1946 THE CABINET MISSION All of the British Government’s attempts to establish peace between the Congress and the Muslim League had failed. The Mission's task was to try to bring the leaders of the principle Indian political parties to agreement on two matters: a. The method of framing a constitution for a self-governing, independent India. b.Setting up of a new Executive Council or interim government that would hold office while the constitution was being hammered out. Main features of the Cabinet Mission were: 1. India would be granted the status of Federation consisting of Indian Princely States and the British provinces. 2. Federal government look after defense, foreign affairs and communication while rest of the subjects would be responsibility of the federating units.
  • 67 Main features of the Cabinet Mission were: 1. India would be granted the status of Federation consisting of Indian Princely States and the British provinces. 2. Federal government would take charge of defense, foreign affairs and communication while rest of the subjects would be responsibility of the federating units. 3. India would be divided into three groups: Group A Bihar, Bombay, U.P. Madras, Orissa and C.P. Group B Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and British Baluchistan while group C included Asam and Bengal. These groups were authorised to frame their constitution jointly with the other provinces of their respective groups. 4. A constituent assembly would consist of 389 members to draft the constitution out of whom 292 would be from provinces. 5. Out of these 292, 93 members would be from Princely States and 4 would be from the areas headed by Chief Commissioners. 1946 THE CABINET MISSION CONTINUED
  • 68
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  • 70 JUNE 03, 1947 PLAN   Prime Minister Atlee declared in Parliament that India would be  freed by 20th  February 1948. Lord Mountbatten was made last  Viceroy replacing Lord Wavell.   Atlee had told Mountbatten to transfer power to the Indians by 1st   June 1948. The latter faced several problems on his arrival.  Muslim League was not prepared to accept anything short of  Pakistan. Congress, on the other hand, was pressing hard for  transferring power to Hindu dominated Constituent Assembly.   Another problem was transfer by June 1948. Fifteen months was  too short a period for resolving the political, constitutional and  administrative issues. Lord Mountbatten soon began negotiations  with the Indian political leaders. After prolonged discussions, he  worked out a partition plan by middle April 1947.  
  • 71 Both Muslim League and the Congress gave their approval of  the final draft of the partition plan. British Government gave their  accord on this plan and issued on June 3, 1947 and is known as  June 3, Plan containing the following features:   1. Punjab and Bengal Legislatures shall decide if their province  should be divided or not.   2. Indian people shall make the Constitution of India and it  shall not be applicable on areas whose people reject it.   3. Referendum shall be held in NWFP.   4. Balochistan shall adopt appropriate way to decide its future.   5. States shall be free and independent to join any of the  country. JUNE 03, 1947 PLAN CONTINUED
  • 72  6. A Boundary Commission shall be set up after partition to  demarcate boundaries of the two countries.   7. Both countries shall have their own Governor-Generals  who will be the Executive Heads of their respective countries.   8. Military assets shall be divided amongst the two countries  after partition  JUNE 03, 1947 PLAN CONTINUED
  • 73 RADCLIFFE PLAN As per June 3, Plan Punjab and Bengal legislatures were to  decide if they should be partitioned or not. Following their  decision in favour of division Boundary Commission was set  up under the Chairmanship of Sir Cyril Radcliffe.   Equal number of representatives from each countries were to  be members besides one or more impartial members. A  proposal was given to put the problems of demarcation under  UNO which Nehru refused.   Quaid-e-Azam wanted three law Lords from the United  Kingdom as impartial members. Mountbatten insisted on  Radcliffe who would have the power to make the award in  case of a deadlock.   Members of the Punjab Boundary commission were Justice  Din Mohammad and Justice Munir on Pakistan’s behalf and  Justice Meher Chand Mahajan and Justice Teja Singh on  behalf of India. 
  • 74 Members of the Bengal Boundary Commission were Justice Abu  Saleh Muhammad, Justice M. Akram and Justice S.A. Rahman  representing Pakistanand Justice C.C. Biswas and Justice B.K.  Mukherjee on India’s behalf.   Several rounds of talks failed to reach agreement on the  boundaries. Lord Radcliffe, as the Chairman gave his award.   The award was unfair many Muslim majority areas in Punjab and  Bengal went to India. In Bengal Murshidabad was handed over to  India. In Punjab Gurdaspur, Batala and Pathankot; besides, tehsil  of Ajnala in Amritsar District and Zira and Ferozepur in the  Ferozepur district were given to India.   Commenting on the award in a radio speech, Quaid-e-Azam said:  “The division of India is now finally and irrevocably effected. No doubt we feel the carving of this great Muslim State has suffered great injustices. As honourable people we must abide by it.” RADCLIFFE PLAN CONTINUED
  • 75 INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT 1947   Viceroy announced Partition Plan on July 4, 1947. India was  divided into two sovereign States of Pakistan and India.   Princely states were given the option to join any country. Both  countries had the right to remain in the British.   Agreements between the Princely states and the British would  cease once British control over India came to an end.
  • 76 1947 CREATION OF PAKISTAN The Indian Independence Act 1947 was passed by the British  Parliament that partitioned British India into the two new  independent dominions of India and Pakistan.    On the 14th August the Muslims of India got Pakistan where they  could lead lives according to the (Rule of Islam) that was all the  due to the effort of the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.   Quaid-e-Azam became the first Governor-General, and  Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.   Here, it is worth mentioning that he was also given the title of  Quaid-e-Millat and following his assassination Shaheed-e-Millat.
  • 77 PERSPECTIVESPERSPECTIVES   Lord Mountbatten accused of rushing the process.   Complete breakdown of Law and Order. Large scale loot, plunder,  rape and arson took place on both sides of the divide.    Trains filled with dead bodies with fresh blood were reaching their  destinations on either side. Governments of both the countries  seemed to be helpless even with the deployment of heavy  contingent of military and para military forces.   Historian Lawrence James concurs that in 1947 Mountbatten was  left with no option but to cut and run. 
  • 78  DELHI-PUNJABI REFUGEES   25 million Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs crossed the borders.   12 million were forced to move from Punjab and North Western  Frontier Province following the Rawalpindi violence.   Delhi received the largest number of refugees.   From 1941-1951 population grew from 1 million to 2 million in  Delhi    Refugees were housed in historical and military locations.   Camp sites were later converted into permanent housing.   Schemes were provided for the refugees.
  • 79   REFUGEES SETTLED IN INDIA   Hindus from East Pakistan settled across Eastern India.   Many end up in West Bengal, Assam and Tripura.   Some were sent to Andaman Islands.   Refugee camps were set up for Sindhi Hindus
  • 80 A refugee train on its way to Punjab, Pakistan
  • 81 ROLE OF WOMEN IN PAKISTAN MOVEMENT A. BEGUM SHAISTA IKRAMULLA:   Born on July 22, 1915 at Kolkata in the Suharwardy family.   Received education at Kolkata and London.   Was Pakistan’s former ambassador to Morocco and mother-in- law of Jordan’s Crown Prince Hasan bin Talal and also niece of  Huseyn Shaheed Suharwardy.   She has also earned fame as an author.   Her works in the English language include “Letters To Neena”, “Behind the Veil” and “From Purdah To Parliament”.   “Common Heritage” was her idea to improve ties between  Pakistan and India by providing a platform to citizens of both  countries who had lived in the Sub Continent before partition.
  • 82 She was the first female representative of the first Constituent  Assembly of Pakistan (1947).   Indian Government asked her in 1945 to attend the Pacific  Relations Conference.    Quaid-e-Azam convinced her to refuse, as he wanted her to go  to as the representative of the Muslim League and speak on its  behalf.   Six weeks after Pakistan’s establishment the Quaid-e-Azam  asked her to go as member of the delegation to the United  Nations. BEGUM SHAISTA IKRAMULLA CONTINUED
  • 83  BEGUM SHAH NAWAZ   1. Begum Jahan Ara Shah Nawaz was the daughter of famous  Muslim League leader, Sir Muhammad Shafi.   2. Born in April 1896 and educated at Queen Mary College,  Lahore.   3. She was associated with the education and orphanage  committees of the Anjuman-e-Islam, Lahore.   4. An active member of the All India Muslim Women’s  Conference and President of it’s Provincial Branch for seven  years; besides, Vice President of the Central Committee of the All  India Muslim Women’s Conference.   5. Was a member of the Lahore Municipal Committees and the  first women to be elected Vice President of the Provincial  Executive and also associated with the All India General  Committee of the Red Cross Society.
  • 84 BEGUM SHAH NAWAZ CONTINUED   6. A woman delegate to the Round Table Conferences.   7. In 1935, she founded the Punjab Provincial Women’s  Muslim League.   8.Elected as a member of the Punjab Legislative Assembly in  1937 and appointed Parliamentary Secretary for Education,  Medical relief and Public Health. 9. Became a member of the Women’s Central Sub Committee  of the All India Muslim League in 1938.   10. Passed away on November 27, 1979 at the age of 83.
  • 85  BEGUM TASADDUQ HUSSAIN   1. Real name was Salma Mahmuda, daughter of Mian Fazal Ilahi  Bedil, was born on August 1908 at Gujranwala.   2. With the formation of the Punjab Provincial Women’s Sub  Committee, she became it’s most active member.   3. In 1940, was elected as one of its Secretaries. Helped in  opening Primary Schools and Industrial Homes for girls at Lahore.   4.Rendered valuable services during the elections of 1946. 5. She successfully contested on the Muslim League ticket for  the Punjab Provincial Assembly seat by an overwhelming  majority.   6. The same year she was again taken on the Working  Committee of the Punjab Provincial Muslim League.   7. During the Partition was appointed Refugee Relief Secretary  in the Provincial Muslim League Office. Receiving the refugees,  make arrangements for their boarding and lodging  at Lahore.  
  • 86 LADY ABDULLAH HAROON   1. Real name was Nusrat Khanum and was born in 1886 in Iran.   2. Her parents migrated to India and later settled in Karachi.   3. Took keen interest in female education started a school.   4. Founded a female organization known as Anjuman-e-Khawateen  to improve the social and economic condition of the women in Sind.   5. In 1919, she entered the political arena and worked as an ardent  supporter of the Khilafat Movement in her Province.   6. Nominated in the Women’s Central Sub Committee of the All  India Muslim League in 1938. Elected President of the Sind  Provincial Women’s Sub Committee.   7. Muslim League owes its existence to Lady Haroon, brought the  Muslim women under the banner of the Muslim League.   8. Made great contributions for the Party during 1946 elections.   9. She died in 1966.
  • 87 LADY GHULAM HUSSAIN HIDAYATULLAH   1. Real name was Sughra Begum and was born in 1904 in a  feudal family of Shikarpur, Sind.   2. Though brought up in strict pudah, Sughra Begum was given a  liberal education, especially in Religion, Urdu, Sindhi and  Elementary English.   3. She began her political career in 1938as a worker of the All  India Muslim League and became the member of the Women’s  Central Sub Committee.   4. It was due to her efforts that various Branches of the Provincial  Sub Committee were formed in different Districts of Sind such as  Hyderabad, Nawabshah and Dadu.   5. In December 1943, during the Annual session of the All India  Muslim League held at Karachi, she was elected President of the  Women’s Reception Committee.  
  • 88 LADY GHULAM HUSSAIN HIDAYATULLAH CONTINUED 6. Sughra Begum came to Lahore in February 1947 and  took part in political processions.    7. She led a grand procession that marched towards the  Civil Secretariat at the end of February 1947 and hoisted  the Muslim League flag on the Secretariat building.   8. During the partition riots, she actively worked with the  refugees to relieve their sufferings.   9. Passed away in the year 1985.
  • 89