ContentsSir Syed Ahmed KhanAllama IqbalQuaid-e-AzamGeographical Structure of Pakistan
Sir Syed Ahmed KhanSir Syed Ahmed Khan is also known as the Syed Ahmed Taqvi. They was the indian educator andpolitician and islamic reformer. They born in Dehli,Mugal Emperor era. Sir Syed’s greatest achievement was his AligarhMovement, which was primarily an educational venture.He established Gulshan School at Muradabad in 1859, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, anda scientific society in 1864. When Sir Syed was posted at Aligarh in 1867, he started the Muhammadan Anglo-OrientalSchool in the city. Sir Syed got the opportunity to visit England in 1869-70. During his stay, he studied the British educational system and appreciated it. On his return homehe decided to make M. A. O. High School on the pattern of British boarding schools. The Schoollater became a college in 1875. The status of University was given to the college after the death ofSir Syed in 1920. M. A. O. High School, College and University played a big role in theawareness of the Muslims of South Asia.Movements done by the Sir Syed Ahmed Aligarh Movement Aligarh musllim theory Two Nation theory
Aligarh MovementMovementSir Syeds first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British with the Indian mind; his next goal wasto open the minds of his countrymen to European literature, science and technology.Therefore, in order to attain these goals, Sir Syed launched the Aligarh Movement of which Aligarh wasthe center. He had two immediate objectives in mind: to remove the state of misunderstanding andtension between the Muslims and the new British government, and to induce them to go after theopportunities available under the new regime without deviating in any way from the fundamentals oftheir faith.EffortsFortunately, Syed Ahmad Khan was able to attract into his orbit a number of sincere friends who sharedhis views and helped him. Among them were well-known figures like Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, NawabViqar-ul-Mulk, Hali, Shibli, Maulvi Nazir Ahmad, Chiragh Ali, Mohammad Hayat, and Zakaullah. Above all,his gifted son Syed Mahmood, a renowned scholar, jurist and educationist, was a great source of help tohim.A brief chronology of Syed Ahmads efforts is given below: 1. 1859: Built Gulshan School in Muradabad. 2. 1863: Set up Victoria School in Ghazipur. 3. 1864: Set up the Scientific Society in Aligarh. This society was involved in the translation of English works into the native language. 4. 1866: Aligarh Institute Gazette. This imparted information on history; ancient and modern science of agriculture, natural and physical sciences and advanced mathematics. This journal was published until 1926. 5. 1870: Committee Striving for the Educational Progress of Muslims. 6. 1875: Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental School (M. A. O.), Aligarh, setup on the pattern of English public schools. Later raised to the level of college in 1877 and university in 1920. 7. education and abstain from politics. It later became the political mouthpiece of the Indian Muslims and was the forerunner of the Muslim League.
Aligarh Muslim TheoryThrough the 1850s, Syed Ahmed Khan began developing a strong passion for education. While pursuingstudies of different subjects including European [jurisprudence], Sir Syed began to realise theadvantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly established colleges acrossIndia. Despite being a devout Muslim, Sir Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religiousorthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences. Sir Syed began feelingincreasingly concerned for the future of Muslim communities.A scion of Mughal nobility, Sir Syed had been reared in the finest traditions of Muslim elite culture andwas aware of the steady decline of Muslim political power across India. The animosity between theBritish and Muslims before and after the rebellion (Independence War) of 1857 threatened tomarginalise Muslim communities across India for many generations. Sir Syed intensified his work to promote co-operation with British authorities, promoting loyalty to theEmpire amongst Indian Muslims. Committed to working for the upliftment of Muslims, Sir Syedfounded a modern madrassa in Muradabad in 1859; this was one of the first religious schools to impartscientific education.Two Nation TheorySir Syed Ahmed Khan, the pioneer of two nation theory, used the word ‘two nation’ for Hindus andMuslims after being convinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred, hostility and prejudice for theMuslims.The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir SyedAhmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, Hindus and Muslims live together on thesame soil under the same government. Our interests and problems are common, and therefore, Iconsider the two factions as one nation.”Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did his best to make the Muslims realize their differences with the Hindus withregard to religions, social and language, rational and international identity and for this purpose hediverted attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of “Two Nation” or “Two entities.”After Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed felt that it was not possible for Hindus and Muslims to progress asa single nation. He said:“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and wayof life was quite distinct from each other.”
Allama IqbalAllama Iqbal, great poet-philosopher and active political leader, was born at Sialkot, Punjab, in 1877.Iqbal received his early education in the traditional maktab. Later he joined the Sialkot Mission School,from where he passed his matriculation examination. In 1897, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degreefrom Government College, Lahore. Two years later, he secured his Masters Degree and was appointed in the Oriental College, Lahore, as alecturer of history, philosophy and English. He later proceeded to Europe for higher studies. Havingobtained a degree at Cambridge, he secured his doctorate at Munich and finally qualified as a barrister.He returned to India in 1908. Besides teaching and practicing law, Iqbal continued to write poetry. Heresigned from government service in 1911 and took up the task of propagating individual thinkingamong the Muslims through his poetry.Political carrearWhile dividing his time between law and poetry, Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He didnot support Indian involvement in World War I, as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in closetouch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindusand was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional dividesbetween the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.In November 1926, with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested for a seat in thePunjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a marginof 3,177 votes.He supported the constitutional proposals presented by Jinnah with the aim of guaranteeing Muslimpolitical rights and influence in a coalition with the Congress, and worked with the Aga Khan and otherMuslim leaders to mend the factional divisions and achieve unity in the Muslim League.
Iqbal says that the muslims and the hindus are living together but their customs and traditions aredifferent from each other they cant live together.These are the two different religions.They have to gettheir own country in which they can lead their lifes according to their religions.Some points for seprate Nation Nogation of nation Islam do not believe on the nationalism base. There is no sepratoin between religion and politics in islam. Islamic state is a welfare state. Criticism on national democracy. Islam can solve economic problems. Islam is the complete code of life Creatoin of Pakistan is the step towards pan_islamnism.1930 Allama Iqbal AddressThe Allahabad Address, notable for Conception of Pakistan, was the Presidential Address by Allama Iqbalto the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, India. Here he presented the idea of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims which was ultimately realised inthe form of Pakistan. I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State. The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified.
Quaid-e-AzamBiographyBorn on 25th Dec 1876.Died on September 11 1948.Also known as Baba-e-Quam.Early LifeJinnah was born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai in Wazir Mansion Karachi.Sindh had earlier been conquered bythe British and was subsequently grouped with other conquered territories for administrative reasons toform the Bombay Presidency of British India.Although his earliest school records state that he was born on October 20, 1875, Sarojini Naidu, theauthor of Jinnahs first biography, gives the date as ”December 25, 1876”.Jinnah As a LeaderJinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistans independence onAugust 14, 1947, and as Pakistans first Governor-General from August 15, 1947 until his death onSeptember 11, 1948.Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress initially expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslimunity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian NationalCongress; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in aself-governing India.
Jinnah Act as a LeaderJinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law-violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which Jinnah disapproved of.Unlike most Congress leaders, Gandhi did not wear western-style clothes, did his best to use an Indianlanguage instead of English, and was deeply rooted to Indian culture. Gandhis local style of leadershipgained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah criticised Gandhis support of the Khilafat Movement, which he saw as an endorsement ofreligious zealotry. By 1920, Jinnah resigned from the Congress, with a prophetic warning that Gandhismethod of mass struggle would lead to divisions between Hindus and Muslims and within the twocommunities. Becoming president of the Muslim League, Jinnah was drawn into a conflict between apro-Congress faction and a pro-British faction.Political carrearThree years later, in January 1910, Jinnah was elected to the newly-constituted Imperial LegislativeCouncil. All through his parliamentary career, which spanned some four decades, he was probably themost powerful voice in the cause of Indian freedom and Indian rights. Jinnah, who was also the firstIndian to pilot a private members Bill through the Council, soon became a leader of a group inside thelegislature. Mr. Montagu (1879-1924), Secretary of State for India, at the close of the First World War,considered Jinnah "perfect mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecties..."Jinnah,he felt, "is a very clever man, and it is, of course, an outrage that such a man should have no chance ofrunning the affairs of his own country."For about three decades since his entry into politics in 1906, Jinnah passionately believed in andassiduously worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. Gokhale, the foremost Hindu leader before Gandhi, hadonce said of him, "He has the true stuff in him and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which willmake him the best ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity: And, to be sure, he did become the architect ofHindu-Muslim Unity: he was responsible for the Congress-League Pact of 1916, known popularly asLucknow Pact- the only pact ever signed between the two political organisations, the Congress and theAll-India Muslim League, representing, as they did, the two major communities in the subcontinent."The Congress-League scheme embodied in this pact was to become the basis for the Montagu-Chemlsford Reforms, also known as the Act of 1919. In retrospect, the Lucknow Pact represented amilestone in the evolution of Indian politics. For one thing, it conceded Muslims the right to separateelectorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weightage in representation both at the Centreand the minority provinces. Thus, their retention was ensured in the next phase of reforms.For another, it represented a tacit recognition of the All-India Muslim League as the representativeorganisation of the Muslims, thus strengthening the trend towards Muslim individuality in Indianpolitics. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this. Thus, by 1917, Jinnah came to be recognised amongboth Hindus and Muslims as one of Indias most outstanding political leaders.
Not only was he prominent in the Congress and the Imperial Legislative Council, he was also thePresident of the All-India Muslim and that of lthe Bombay Branch of the Home Rule League. Moreimportant, because of his key-role in the Congress-League entente at Lucknow, he was hailed as theambassador, as well as the embodiment, of Hindu-Muslim unity.Demand for Pakistan"We are a nation", they claimed in the ever eloquent words of the Quaid-i-Azam- "We are a nation withour own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names andnomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calendar, historyand tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life.By all canons of international law, we are a nation". The formulation of the Muslim demand for Pakistanin 1940 had a tremendous impact on the nature and course of Indian politics. On the one hand, itshattered for ever the Hindu dreams of a pseudo-Indian, in fact, Hindu empire on British exit from India:on the other, it heralded an era of Islamic renaissance and creativity in which the Indian Muslims wereto be active participants. The Hindu reaction was quick, bitter, malicious.Equally hostile were the British to the Muslim demand, their hostility having stemmed from their beliefthat the unity of India was their main achievement and their foremost contribution. The irony was thatboth the Hindus and the British had not anticipated the astonishingly tremendous response that thePakistan demand had elicited from the Muslim masses.Above all, they failed to realize how a hundred million people had suddenly become supremelyconscious of their distinct nationhood and their high destiny. In channelling the course of Muslim politicstowards Pakistan, no less than in directing it towards its consummation in the establishment of Pakistanin 1947, non played a more decisive role than did Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.Quaid & Two nation theory 1. Concept of seprate nation 2. Pakistan is the demand for islam 3. Soverignity of God 4. Islamic concept of democracy 5. National integration 6. Safeguard of minorties 7. Urdu language 8. Defence 9. Bright future
Geographical Importance of Pakistan 1. Pakistan is an ideological Islamic state. It is inhabited by 98% of Muslims,2% of Christians, Hindus. 2. Estimated population of Pakistan 166 Millions 3. The total area of Pakistan is 796,096 km ² 4. Divided in Four Provinces , Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, NWFP, Capital & FATAPakistan lies between the latitude of 24˚ north to 37˚ north latitude and between longitudeof 61˚ east to 77˚ east longitude.Pakistan shares its borders with four neighboring countries Afghanistan, China, India, and Iran – addingup to about 6,975 km in length.Border with Afghanistan 1. To the West, Pakistan is bordered with Afghanistan. 2. Length of Border is 2,250 km. 3. Border between Pakistan & Afghanistan is called Durand Line. 4. Its proposal was drafted by and named after the former secretary of British India Sir Henry Mortimer Durand
Border with China 1. To the East , Pakistan is Bordered with its Best Friend China. 2. The length of border between Pak & China is 600 Km. 3. A Road connects Pakistan & China. SILK ROUTE (Shahra-e-Resham) For Trade Purpose between Pak & China. 4. China helped & helping Pakistan in the development of many Projects. Defence projects are very important.Border with Iran 1. Iran is also situated in the West of Pakistan. 2. Length of border between Pak & Iran is 950 km. 3. Delimited by a British commission in the same year as the Durand line was demarcated .Border with India 1. In east, The Pakistan and India has boundary of 1600 kms. 2. Pakistan & India are traditional Rivals. 3. Pakistan & India spend their major part of their budget on their defence. 4. Pakistan & India both are now nuclear powers. 5. Dispute of Kashmir between Pak-India is still unresolved in UNO.
Arabian Sea Arabian sea is located in the South of Pakistan. Arabian sea is very Important for Pakistan to Trade with the other countries of world. In Arabian sea Pakistan has Two Sea Ports, Port Bin Qasim in Karachi Gawadar Port.Importance of Pakistan LocatoinTrade links with china have been established through road known as “Shahra-e-Resham”.The position of Pakistan gives it an internationally important position among the Muslim nations anddue to ECO (Economic Cooperation Organization) treaty the relation between Iran, turkey and Pakistanhas extended in the various fields.Karachi is most important port of our country which is situated on the international sea route and itprovides the inter link between European countries and the Asian countries. And way to trade to centralAsian countries. Because Pakistan has Warm waters.Pakistan lies in the Torrid Zone climate condition in Pakistan remain normal, Agriculture activities can beperformed throughout the year.The water of our sea remains open throughout the year due tomoderate temperature. It does not freeze so the trade activities are performed in every season.Pakistan has road and railway link with Iran and turkey and trade with European countries can beperformed through this route.Geo-political ImportancePakistan is situated at the center of the Islamic countries of Africa and Asia.It is linked to these Muslim states through land and sea routes its geographical centrality necessitatesthat it supports the unity of the Muslim world worked for mutual alliance and unity of the Muslims.