Motivation is the result of processes ,internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.
Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to make a goal oriented pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need.
Theories of Motivation Models Early theories Contemporary theories Human Relations Model Scientific Mgmt Content theories Process theories Ma s lows need hierarchy theory Herzberg two- Factor theory Alderfers ERG theory Achievement Motivation Theory; Porters model Adams Equity theory Vrooms Expectancy theory Goal setting theory McGregor X and Y theory
Content theories focus on the individual needs that activate tensions, which influence satisfaction and behavior. It focus primarily on individual needs—the physiological or psychological deficiencies that we feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate. These theories suggest that the manager’s job is to create a work environment that responds positively to individual needs.
Process theories describe the process through which needs are translated into behavior. They attempt to identify the variables that go into motivation and their relationship with each other. focus on the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the minds of people and that act to influence their behavior. A process approach probes further to identify how this need leads the person to behave in particular ways relative to available rewards and work opportunities
Herzberg conducted a a motivational study on 200 accountants and engineers and concluded:
There are certain factors that tend to be consistently related to job satisfaction( Motivational factor) and on the other hand there are certain factors which are consistently related to job dissatisfaction. (Hygiene factors)
Hygiene Factors: They are extrinsic in nature and do not motivate people. If these factors are present they don’t motivate but if absent leads to dissatisfaction. There are 10 maintenance or hygiene factors:
The scope of this theory is narrow as only 200 respondents were interviewed and method of data collection and interview was not appropriate as they were asked to report exceptionally good or exceptionally bad job experience.
This theory does not emphasis much on pay, status or interpersonal relationships which are generally held as great motivators.
Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by the person’s ability to do the job and also by individual’s perception of what the required task is. So performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. These rewards, along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction. Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward