Motivation

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  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 120. Ask students whether they’re motivated more by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, and the conditions where this varies.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 121-123.
    Motivation-Hygiene Theory was proposed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg after investigating the question, “What do people want from their jobs?” Factors affecting job attitudes were tabulated and classified. Herzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good about their jobs were significantly different from the replies given when they felt bad.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 121-123.
  • Motivation

    1. 1. MOTIVATION 6–1
    2. 2. Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Key Elements Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. 2. 3. 3. 6–2 Direction: toward beneficial goal Direction: toward beneficial goal Persistence: how long a person tries Persistence: how long a person tries
    3. 3. DEFINITION “ THE ACT OF STIMULATING SOMEONE OR ONE SELF TO GET DESIRED COURSE OF ACTION -MICHAEL J JUICUS “MOTIVATION IS THE WORK A MANAGER PERFORM TO INSPIRE ,ENCOURAGE AND IMPEL PEOPLE TO TALK REQUIRED ACTION -LEWIS ALLEN 6–3
    4. 4. NATURE OF MOTIVATION -Is an internal feeling of an individual -Is a continuous process -Is a complex process -Motives of an individual change from time to time -Motivation is different from satisfaction 6–4
    5. 5. TYPES OF MOTIVATION 1)Positive or incentive motivation - based on reward - praise and credit for work - wages and salaries - appreciation -pull mechanism 6–5
    6. 6. 2)Negative or fear motivation -based on force or fear -push mechanism
    7. 7. Motivators Intrinsic Motivators A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.
    8. 8. Extrinsic Motivators Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.
    9. 9. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 6–9
    10. 10. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Theory David McClelland’s Theory of Needs John Stacey Adams Equity Theory Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    11. 11. Mallow's needs hierarchy theory “We each have a hierarchy of needs that ranges from "lower" to "higher." As lower needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for other, higher needs to emerge.” 6–11
    12. 12. Maslow’s theory rests on a number of basic assumptions: • Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become motivators • A need that is satisfied no longer serves as a motivator • There are more ways to satisfy higher-level than there are ways to satisfy lower-level needs 6–12
    13. 13. Motivation - Maslow Hierarchy of needs Selfactualisation Selfesteem Love and belonging Safety and shelter Physical (comfort) needs
    14. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. 6–14 Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
    15. 15. 2)Theor y X and Theor y Y -Douglas McGregor Douglas McGregor’s theory of motivation or XY theory proposes that organizations follow one of two approaches in their management of people Theory x and y are two sets of assumption about the nature of people
    16. 16. Theory X The average employee does not like work and will attempt to avoid it. As employees are lazy they do not want responsibility and have no ambition. Individuals prefer to be directed and want security above everything else. Individuals need to be closely supervised and controlled.
    17. 17. Theory Y Individuals exercise self control and self-direction to achieve objectives that they are committed to. Threats of punishment are unnecessary. The rewards of achievement generate commitment from employees. If individuals are given freedom there is opportunity to increase productivity.
    18. 18. Individuals exercise self control and self-direction to achieve objectives that they are committed to. Threats of punishment are unnecessary. The rewards of achievement generate commitment from employees. If individuals are given freedom there is opportunity to increase productivity.
    19. 19. 3)Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theor y The theory argues that: The motivation factors or motivators are the primary causes of motivation and address the question “why work harder”; The hygiene factors are necessary conditions to achieve a state of neutrality and address the question “why work here”.
    20. 20. Herzberg’s MotivationHygiene Theor y Hygiene factors – the sources of dissatisfaction Extrinsic factors (context of work) Company policy and administration Unhappy relationship with employee’s supervisor Poor interpersonal relations with one’s peers Poor working conditions
    21. 21. Herzberg’s MotivationHygiene Theor y Motivatiors– the sources of satisfaction Intrinsic factors (content of work) Achievement Recognition Challenging, varied, or interesting work Responsibility Advancement
    22. 22. 4)ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) A variation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs Both similar to and different from Maslow's need hierarchy Satisfied and unsatisfied needs operate in much the same way Movement upward is the same
    23. 23. ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. Core Needs Core Needs Concepts: Concepts: Existence: provision More than one need Existence: provision More than one need of basic material of basic material can be operative at the can be operative at the requirements. requirements. same time. same time. Relatedness: desire Relatedness: desire If a higher-level need If a higher-level need for relationships. for relationships. cannot be fulfilled, the cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a desire to satisfy a Growth: desire for Growth: desire for lower-level need lower-level need personal personal increases. increases. development. development. 6–23
    24. 24. 5)David McClelland’s Theor y of Needs Need for Achievement nPow Need for Affiliation Need for Power nAch nAff
    25. 25. Need for Achievement The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, get feedback on level of success Need for Affiliation The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need reduce uncertainty
    26. 26. Need for Power The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a need to win arguments, a need to persuade and prevail
    27. 27. 6) John Stacey Adams, Equity Theor y Individuals compare their job inputs and Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any respond so as to eliminate any inequities. inequities. .. 6–27 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive
    29. 29. 7)Expectancy Theor y -Victor Vroom The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. 6–29
    30. 30. Expectancy Theor y Relationships Effort–Performance Relationship The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. Performance–Reward Relationship The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. Rewards–Personal Goals Relationship The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual. 6–31

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