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Russell Pavlicek
Xen Project Evangelist
Citrix Systems
Xen Project 4.4:
Features and Futures
About This Release
• Xen Project 4.4.0 was released on March 10,
2014.
• This release is the work of 8 months of
developme...
Xen Project 101: Basics
Hypervisor Architectures
Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor
A pure Hypervisor that runs directly on the
hardware and hosts Gues...
Hypervisor Architectures
Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor
A pure Hypervisor that runs directly on the
hardware and hosts Gues...
Xen Project: Type 1 with a Twist
Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor
Host HWHost HW
Memory CPUsI/O
HypervisorHypervisor Schedule...
Xen Project: Type 1 with a Twist
Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor
Host HWHost HW
Memory CPUsI/O
HypervisorHypervisor Schedule...
Xen Project: Type 1 with a Twist
Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor
Host HWHost HW
Memory CPUsI/O
HypervisorHypervisor Schedule...
Basic Xen Project Concepts
9
Control domain
(dom0)
Control domain
(dom0)
Host HWHost HW
VMn
VMn
VM1
VM1
VM0
VM0
Guest OS
a...
Basic Xen Project Concepts: Toolstack+
10
Control domain
(dom0)
Control domain
(dom0)
Host HWHost HW
VMn
VMn
VM1
VM1
VM0
V...
Basic Xen Project Concepts: Disaggregation
11
Control domain
(dom0)
Control domain
(dom0)
Host HWHost HW
VMn
VMn
VM1
VM1
V...
Xen Project 4.4 Features
• PVH mode combines the best elements of
HVM and PV
– PVH takes advantage of many of the
hardware virtualization features ...
Xen Project Virtualization Vocabulary
• PV – Paravirtualization
– Hypervisor provides API used by the OS of the Guest
VM
–...
Xen Project Virtualization Vocabulary
• PVHVM – PV drivers on HVM
– Allows H/W virtualized guests to use PV disk and
I/O d...
The Virtualization Spectrum
VH Virtualized (HW)
P Paravirtualized
VS Virtualized (SW)
HVM mode/domain
PV mode/domain
Disk
...
The Virtualization Spectrum
Scope for improvement
Poor performance
Optimal performance
HVM mode/domain
Disk
and
Network
In...
Mirage OS
• In the next-gen cloud, small and modular is
key
– Some claim that Containers (e.g., Docker) are
the future; hy...
Mirage OS (2)
• Xen Project continues to lead the way in Cloud
Operating Systems
– Mirage OS V2.0 released in July 2014
– ...
• Event channels are paravirtualized
interrupts
• Previously limited to either 1024 or 4096
channels per domain
– Domain 0...
• New FIFO-based event channel ABI allows
for over 100,000 event channels
– Improve fairness
– Allows for multiple priorit...
• Linux driver domains used to rely on udev
events in order to launch backends for
guests
– Dependency on udev is replaced...
• SPICE is a protocol for virtual desktops
which allows a much richer connection
than display-only protocols like VNC
• Ad...
• In the past, Xen Project software required
a custom implementation of GRUB called
pvgrub
• The upstream GRUB 2 project n...
• Modern storage devices work much better
with larger chunks of data
• Indirect descriptors have allowed the size
of each ...
• kexec allows a running Xen Project host to be
replaced with another OS without rebooting
– Primarily used execute a cras...
• XAPI and Mirage OS are sub-projects within the
Xen Project written in OCaml
• Both are also used in XenServer and rely o...
• Nested virtualization provides virtualized hardware
virtualization extensions to HVM guests
– Can now run Xen Project, K...
• EFI is the new booting standard that is
replacing BIOS
– Some operating systems only boot with EFI
– Some features, like...
• You can find a blog post to set up an iSCSI
target on the Gluster blog:
– http://www.gluster.org/2013/11/a-gluster-block...
• A number of new features have been implemented:
• 64 bit Xen Project on ARM now supports booting
guests
• Physical disk ...
• Some DMA in Dom0 even with no
hardware IOMMUs
• ARM and ARM64 ABIs are declared stable
and maintained for backwards
comp...
• Adding new hardware platforms to Xen Project on
ARM has been vastly improved, making it easier for
Hardware vendors and ...
• The hypervisor can update the microcode in the
early phase of boot time
– The microcode binary blob can be either as a
s...
Xen Project Futures
• More Mirage OS and Cloud OS support
• Xen Automotive
– Xen Project in the entertainment center of your car?
• XenGT
– Vi...
• Native support of VMware VMDK format
• Better distribution integration (CentOS, Ubuntu,
CloudStack, OpenStack, etc.)
• I...
Want to Know More?
• Then come to Xen Project User Summit in
New York City on Sept 15!
• One day of great Xen Project talk...
Russell.Pavlicek@XenProject.org
Twitter: @RCPavlicek
Questions?
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LF Collaboration Summit: Xen Project 4 4 Features and Futures

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Published on

Xen Project 4.4 Release Information.

Delivered by Russell Pavlicek at Linux Foundation Collaborative Summit on March 27, 2014.

Updated for LinuxCon/CloudOpen North America in August 2014.

Published in: Technology

Transcript of "LF Collaboration Summit: Xen Project 4 4 Features and Futures"

  1. 1. Russell Pavlicek Xen Project Evangelist Citrix Systems Xen Project 4.4: Features and Futures
  2. 2. About This Release • Xen Project 4.4.0 was released on March 10, 2014. • This release is the work of 8 months of development, with 1193 changesets. • Xen Project 4.4 is our first release made with an attempt at a 6-month development cycle. – Between Christmas, and a few important blockers, we missed that by about 6 weeks; but still not too bad overall.
  3. 3. Xen Project 101: Basics
  4. 4. Hypervisor Architectures Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor A pure Hypervisor that runs directly on the hardware and hosts Guest OS’s. Provides partition isolation + reliability, higher security Provides partition isolation + reliability, higher security Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor SchedulerScheduler MMUMMUDevice Drivers/ModelsDevice Drivers/Models VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps
  5. 5. Hypervisor Architectures Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor A pure Hypervisor that runs directly on the hardware and hosts Guest OS’s. Type 2: OS ‘Hosted’ A Hypervisor that runs within a Host OS and hosts Guest OS’s inside of it, using the host OS services to provide the virtual environment. Provides partition isolation + reliability, higher security Provides partition isolation + reliability, higher security Low cost, no additional drivers Ease of use & installation Low cost, no additional drivers Ease of use & installation Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor SchedulerScheduler MMUMMUDevice Drivers/ModelsDevice Drivers/Models VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Host OSHost OS Device DriversDevice Drivers Ring-0 VM Monitor “Kernel “ Ring-0 VM Monitor “Kernel “ VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps User Apps User Apps User-level VMMUser-level VMM Device ModelsDevice Models
  6. 6. Xen Project: Type 1 with a Twist Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor SchedulerScheduler MMUMMUDevice Drivers/ModelsDevice Drivers/Models VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps
  7. 7. Xen Project: Type 1 with a Twist Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor SchedulerScheduler MMUMMUDevice Drivers/ModelsDevice Drivers/Models VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Xen Project Architecture SchedulerScheduler MMUMMU
  8. 8. Xen Project: Type 1 with a Twist Type 1: Bare metal Hypervisor Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor SchedulerScheduler MMUMMUDevice Drivers/ModelsDevice Drivers/Models VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Host HWHost HW Memory CPUsI/O HypervisorHypervisor VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Xen Project Architecture SchedulerScheduler MMUMMU Control domain (dom0) Control domain (dom0) DriversDrivers Device ModelsDevice Models Linux & BSDLinux & BSD
  9. 9. Basic Xen Project Concepts 9 Control domain (dom0) Control domain (dom0) Host HWHost HW VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Memory CPUsI/O Console Interface to the outside world • Control Domain aka Dom0 • Dom0 kernel with drivers Xen Management Toolstack • Guest Domains • Your apps • Driver/Stub/Service Domain(s) A “driver, device model or control service in a box” De-privileged and isolated Lifetime: start, stop, kill Dom0 KernelDom0 Kernel HypervisorHypervisorSchedulerScheduler MMUMMU XSMXSM Trusted Computing Base
  10. 10. Basic Xen Project Concepts: Toolstack+ 10 Control domain (dom0) Control domain (dom0) Host HWHost HW VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Console Memory CPUsI/O Dom0 KernelDom0 Kernel ToolstackToolstack HypervisorHypervisorSchedulerScheduler MMUMMU XSMXSM Console • Interface to the outside world • Control Domain aka Dom0 • Dom0 kernel with drivers • Xen Management Toolstack • Guest Domains • Your apps • Driver/Stub/Service Domain(s) A “driver, device model or control service in a box” De-privileged and isolated Lifetime: start, stop, kill Trusted Computing Base
  11. 11. Basic Xen Project Concepts: Disaggregation 11 Control domain (dom0) Control domain (dom0) Host HWHost HW VMn VMn VM1 VM1 VM0 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Guest OS and Apps Console Memory CPUsI/O One or more driver, stub or service domains One or more driver, stub or service domains Dom0 KernelDom0 Kernel ToolstackToolstack HypervisorHypervisorSchedulerScheduler MMUMMU XSMXSM Console • Interface to the outside world • Control Domain aka Dom0 • Dom0 kernel with drivers • Xen Management Toolstack • Guest Domains • Your apps • Driver/Stub/Service Domain(s) • A “driver, device model or control service in a box” • De-privileged and isolated • Lifetime: start, stop, kill Trusted Computing Base
  12. 12. Xen Project 4.4 Features
  13. 13. • PVH mode combines the best elements of HVM and PV – PVH takes advantage of many of the hardware virtualization features that exist in contemporary hardware • Potential for significantly increased efficiency and performance • Reduced implementation footprint in Linux,FreeBSD • Enable with "pvh=1" in your config Experimental PVH Guest Support
  14. 14. Xen Project Virtualization Vocabulary • PV – Paravirtualization – Hypervisor provides API used by the OS of the Guest VM – Guest OS needs to be modified to provide the API • HVM – Hardware-assisted Virtual Machine – Uses CPU VM extensions to handle Guest requests – No modifications to Guest OS – But CPU must provide the VM extensions • FV – Full Virtualization (Another name for HVM)
  15. 15. Xen Project Virtualization Vocabulary • PVHVM – PV drivers on HVM – Allows H/W virtualized guests to use PV disk and I/O drivers – Provides HVM drivers which employ PV backend – No modifications to guest OS – Better performance than straight HVM • PVH – PV in HVM Container (New in 4.4) – Almost fully PV – Uses HW extensions to eliminate PV MMU – Possibly best mode for CPUs with virtual H/W extensions
  16. 16. The Virtualization Spectrum VH Virtualized (HW) P Paravirtualized VS Virtualized (SW) HVM mode/domain PV mode/domain Disk and Network Interrupts,Tim ers Em ulated Motherboard, Legacy boot Privileged Instructions and page tables in 4.4
  17. 17. The Virtualization Spectrum Scope for improvement Poor performance Optimal performance HVM mode/domain Disk and Network Interrupts,Tim ers Em ulated Motherboard, Legacy boot Privileged Instructions and page tables in 4.4 PV mode/domain
  18. 18. Mirage OS • In the next-gen cloud, small and modular is key – Some claim that Containers (e.g., Docker) are the future; hypervisors are dead – But Cloud Operating Systems (aka Library Operating Systems, Unikernels, etc.) can create tiny VMs with all the security of hypervisors while reducing the VM attack surface
  19. 19. Mirage OS (2) • Xen Project continues to lead the way in Cloud Operating Systems – Mirage OS V2.0 released in July 2014 – Creates lightweight VM appliances, many 1 MB or less in size – Openmirage.org is self-hosted Mirage-based application – Opens the door to 1000's of VMs per host – Plus, we support many other Cloud OS's as well
  20. 20. • Event channels are paravirtualized interrupts • Previously limited to either 1024 or 4096 channels per domain – Domain 0 needs several event channels for each guest VM (for network/disk backends, qemu etc.) – Practical limit of total number of VMs to around 300-500 (depending on VM configuration) Improved Event Channel Scalability
  21. 21. • New FIFO-based event channel ABI allows for over 100,000 event channels – Improve fairness – Allows for multiple priorities – The increased limit allows for more VMs, which benefits large systems and cloud operating systems such as Mirage OS, LING (formerly ErlangOnXen), OSv, HalVM – Also useful for VDI applications Improved Event Channel Scalability (2)
  22. 22. • Linux driver domains used to rely on udev events in order to launch backends for guests – Dependency on udev is replaced with a custom daemon built on top of libxl – Now feature complete and consistent between Linux and non-Linux guests – Provides greater flexibility in order to run user-space backends inside of driver domains – Example of capability: driver domains can now use Qdisk backends, which was not possible with udev Improved Disk Driver Domains
  23. 23. • SPICE is a protocol for virtual desktops which allows a much richer connection than display-only protocols like VNC • Added support for additional SPICE functionality, including: – Vdagent – clipboard sharing – USB redirection Improved Support for SPICE
  24. 24. • In the past, Xen Project software required a custom implementation of GRUB called pvgrub • The upstream GRUB 2 project now has a build target which will construct a bootable PV Xen Project image – This ensures 100% GRUB 2 compatibility for pvgrub going forward – Delivered in GRUB 2 release v2.02 GRUB 2 Support of Xen Project PV Images
  25. 25. • Modern storage devices work much better with larger chunks of data • Indirect descriptors have allowed the size of each individual request to triple, greatly improving I/O performance when running on fast storage technologies like SSD and RAID • This support is available in any guest running Linux 3.11 or higher (regardless of Xen Project version) Indirect Descriptors for Block PV Protocol
  26. 26. • kexec allows a running Xen Project host to be replaced with another OS without rebooting – Primarily used execute a crash environment to collect information on a Xen Project hypervisor or dom0 crash • The existing functionality has been extended to: – Allow tools to load images without requiring dom0 kernel support (which does not exist in upstream kernels) – Improve reliability when used from a 32-bit dom0 – kexec-tools 2.0.5 or later is required Improved kexec Support
  27. 27. • XAPI and Mirage OS are sub-projects within the Xen Project written in OCaml • Both are also used in XenServer and rely on the Xen Project OCaml language bindings to operate well • These language bindings have had a major overhaul – Produces much better compatibility between XAPI, Mirage OS and Linux distributions going forward Improved XAPI and Mirage OS support
  28. 28. • Nested virtualization provides virtualized hardware virtualization extensions to HVM guests – Can now run Xen Project, KVM, VMWare or HyperV inside of a guest for debugging or deployment testing (only 64 bit hypervisors currently) – Also allows Windows 7 "XP Compatibility mode" – Tech Preview not yet ready for production use, but has made significant gains in functionality and reliability – Enable with "hap=1" and "nestedhvm=1" • More information on nested virtualization: http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Xen_nested Tech Preview of Nested Virtualization
  29. 29. • EFI is the new booting standard that is replacing BIOS – Some operating systems only boot with EFI – Some features, like SecureBoot, only work with EFI Experimental Support for Guest EFI boot
  30. 30. • You can find a blog post to set up an iSCSI target on the Gluster blog: – http://www.gluster.org/2013/11/a-gluster-block- interface-performance-and-configuration/ Improved Integration With GlusterFS
  31. 31. • A number of new features have been implemented: • 64 bit Xen Project on ARM now supports booting guests • Physical disk partitions and LVM volumes can now be used to store guest images using xen-blkback (that is, using PV drivers) • Significant stability improvements across the board • ARM/multiboot booting protocol design and implementation • PSCI support Improved ARM Support
  32. 32. • Some DMA in Dom0 even with no hardware IOMMUs • ARM and ARM64 ABIs are declared stable and maintained for backwards compatibility • Significant usability improvements, such as automatic creation of guest device trees and improved handling of host DTBs Improved ARM Support (2)
  33. 33. • Adding new hardware platforms to Xen Project on ARM has been vastly improved, making it easier for Hardware vendors and embedded vendors to port to their board • Added support for the Arndale board, Calxeda ECX- 2000 (aka Midway), Applied Micro X-Gene Storm, TI OMAP5 and Allwinner A20/A31 boards • ARM server class hardware (Calxeda Midway) has been introduced in the Xen Project OSSTest automated testing framework Improved ARM Support (3)
  34. 34. • The hypervisor can update the microcode in the early phase of boot time – The microcode binary blob can be either as a standalone multiboot payload, or part of the initial kernel (dom0) initial ramdisk (initrd) – To take advantage of this use latest version of dracut with --early-microcode parameter and on the Xen Project command line specify: ucode=scan. – For details see dracut manpage and http:// xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/unstable/misc/xen-comm and-line.html Early Microcode Loading
  35. 35. Xen Project Futures
  36. 36. • More Mirage OS and Cloud OS support • Xen Automotive – Xen Project in the entertainment center of your car? • XenGT – Virtualized GPU support • Even More ARM Support – On your server, in your phone, wherever… • PVH stability and performance – The new hypervisor mode to get harder and faster – Domain 0 support, AMD support More Fun to Come…
  37. 37. • Native support of VMware VMDK format • Better distribution integration (CentOS, Ubuntu, CloudStack, OpenStack, etc.) • Improvements in NUMA performance and support • Additional libvirt support: parity between xl & xm • Automated Testing System – http:// blog.xenproject.org/index.php/2014/02/21/xen-project-automatic-t esting-on-community-infrastructure/ • General performance enhancements http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Xen_Project_Hypervisor_Roadmap/4.5 And Still More Fun to Come…
  38. 38. Want to Know More? • Then come to Xen Project User Summit in New York City on Sept 15! • One day of great Xen Project talks – Unikernels, security, high availability – SUSE Cloud, OpenStack, CentOS, OSv, HaLVM – LinuxCon 25% Discount Code: Xenuser25 • Even if you are just investigating virtualization alternatives, we'd like you to join us!
  39. 39. Russell.Pavlicek@XenProject.org Twitter: @RCPavlicek Questions?
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