skill to draw out the really important details
of what the client is saying.
to clarify and understand what client has said
called as reflection of content that
involve the client’s experience and thought.
How to paraphrase??
pay attention of what the client
to choose the important content of
what the client has said.
content in the counselor’s own
repeat word by word what client said.
the appropriate words to paraphrases
Example of paraphrasing
Client statement:“Yesterday I rushed around, I
seemed to have no time to myself, I went
from one place to another and it was really
hard to fit everything in.”
Counselor response: “you had a very full day
Help client think clearly about what he/she had said;
Enabled client to continue talking about the same issue in a
Client can understand what exactly her/his problem
Client can resolve her/his problem without the counselor
Show that counselor understand and pay attention to what
the client has said.
A perception checking statement is a message you
create to check your understanding of someone’s words
The benefits of perception checking statements include:
a) helping us decode messages more accurately: Our
goal is mutual understanding
b) reducing defensiveness & the potential for conflict:
helps us avoid assuming too much.
Perception Checking has 3 parts:
- provide a description of the behavior
provide two possible
interpretations of the behavior.
request clarification from the person
about the behavior & your interpretations.
Perception Checking Example 1
a) Description of behavior noticed
When you walked out of the room without saying
b) Two possible interpretations of behavior
“I didn’t know if you were mad at me”
“or if you were in a hurry and forgot.”
c) Request for clarification
“What was up?”
Perception Checking Example 2
Description of behavior noticed
“You haven’t called in the few days"
possible interpretations of behavior
I am not sure whether you’re upset with me
or you’ve been busy
Request for clarification
What’s going on?”
is considered the most important core
condition in terms of promoting positive outcomes.
(2002) describes empathic understanding as a
process that involves listening, understanding
communicating that understanding to the client.
understanding can be understood as a
Several kinds of empathy : primary empathy and
counselor understands the client's feeling and
experiences within the client's frame of reference and
communicates that understanding without judgment.
to understand the feelings, attitudes, roles and
perceptions and world of another. The counselor uses
an "as if" quality to sensing the client's world as
: to establish rapport, gain an understanding of the
client, and encourage self-exploration in the client.
goal of empathy is to move the client toward
identifying and exploring crucial topics and feelings.
Rogers described empathy as the capacity:
-to assume the internal frame of the client,
-to perceive the world as the client sees it, and the client as he
or she perceives themselves,
-to lay aside perceptions from external frames of reference
during this time,
-and to communicate this understanding back to the client.
Empathic understanding as a multistage
Gladstein (1983) identifies the following stages of
empathy: the counselor has an emotional reaction to
the client's situation, the counselor attempts to
understand the client's situation from the client's
perspective, the counselor communicates empathy
to the client, and the client feels a sense of caring
and understanding from the counselor.
There are several kind of empathy :
Primary empathy : A process that involves the
counselor attending, listening, and
communicating accurate perceptions of the
Advanced empathy : Involves the characteristics
associated with primary empathy as well as
utilizing the skills of self-disclosure, directives,
avoid overwhelming the client and evoking
resistance, the counselor’s empathetic responses
should be tentative and cautious.
- “ From what you have said…,”
- “ Could it be that...?”
- “ It seems as if…,”