An Overview of the History of Pakistan: 1947 - 1973


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Describes early problems faced by Pakistan as an independent state.
Major events between 1947 and 1973 are given in a timeline. Foreign relations between Pakistan and power states such as China,Former USSR and US are also described.

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An Overview of the History of Pakistan: 1947 - 1973

  1. 1. Pakistan Early problems:-  Unfair and delayed division of financial assets (700/750) for PAK, Development board and state bank set up in 1948.Geographical location of east and west made economy unstable Award of Calcutta to India also created economic problems  Unfair and delayed division of defence and military assets (36/64), no ordnance factories given to PAK. Wah Ordnance factory established. Outdated weapons and equipment given to Pak  Refugee problem, Many muslims were massacred on their journey to Pakistan particularly in the Punjab region of both Pak and Ind. Refugee relief fund established.  Water dispute. Sutlej and Ravi flow stopped in 1948. Indus water treaty signed in 1960. Chenab ,Jhelum and indus control given to Pak. and efforts were made to build dams and irrigation systems. Only 2 out of the required 5 or 7 dams were built in the duration specified by the treaty. World Bank assisted.  Establishment of admin. and govt. machinery. Civil services rules based on Chaudhri Muhammad Ali’s ideas. Pay commission established in 1948.  Accession of princely states: o Junagadh …. Muslim ruler, Hindu majority …… accession to Pakistan but India annexed Junagadh o Hyderabad …. Did not accede but signed treaties for defence and foreign policy with India, India later invaded Hyderabad and despite resistance , was able to take control and divided the state. o Kashmir…. Hindu ruler, muslim majority …. Ruler decided to accede to India under pressure and India sent troops to control. Pakistan filed complaints with UNO. Tribal muslims fought for freedom. India rejected all UNO proposals and decrees for referendum.  Provincialism and sectarianism  Linguistic riots 1951 – Liaqat Ali Khan assassinated
  2. 2. 1951 – Ghulam Mohammed becomes Gov-Gen and Khawaja nazimuddin become PM, KN’s tenure marred by civil unrest, Linguistic riots 1954 – Muhammad Ali Bogra becomes PM, one unit scheme imposed but not favoured by all stakeholders in government, Pak enters SEATO and CENTO , angers USSR Multiple PM changes occurred between 1954 and 1957 , H. Suhrawardy, C . M. Ali , Bogra, F Noon. 1956 – First constitution presented ( Islamic Republic , Islamic provisions) 1958 – Martial law imposed by Iskander MIrza , Ayub Khan became CMLA Basic democracies system introdcuced. Iskander mirza sacked 1960 - Presidential elections took place in and AK won against FJ 1962 – a new constitution drafted 1960 – 65 : Economic growth bolstered by industrial growth, Islamabad becomes new capital ( official 1967), Family planning programmes , Women rights promotion, Indus water treaty signed , East and West divide grows 1965 – Pakistan – India war over Kashmir 1966 – 1969 : Ayub Khan’s Popularity declines, opposition and poor treatment of the foreign Minister ZAB and he resigns in 69 1969 – Martial Law declared by General Yahya Khan 1970 – Elections held and Awami League won in East and PPP in west, New constitution to be drafted in 60 – 100 days. Mujib ur rehman pushed for autonomy for East, ZAB rejected that. 1971 – National Assembly suspended. Mujib launches civil disobedience. Yahya meets with Mujib in Dhaka to solve issues. Talks broke down and military action launched against Politicians in East. Civil War ensued, Bengalis instigated by India to proclaim Independence and fight. Against West. Bangladesh created. ZAB becomes CMLA.
  3. 3. 1972 – Simla agreement signed between India and Pak. Preventing Pak. from taking Kashmir issue to foreign platforms, steel mills established at Karachi with help from USSR 1973 – New constt. Presented and adopted. ZAB becomes PM 1973 – 1977 Nationalization of industries , educational institutes occurs. Nuclear Programme started. Land reforms, ZAB becomes increasingly autocratic. 1977 – Elections occur, PPP victory, opposition parties align to declare elections fraudulent, ZUH imposes martial Law to prevent chaos. 1978 – ZUH becomes president 1979 – ZAB hanged 1988 – Zia dissolves NA and Junejo cabinet , introduces Shariat Ordinance , ZUH dies in plane crash, Elections held and Benazir Bhutto becomes PM 1990 – Benazir govt. dismissed and Nawaz Sharif Becomes PM 1993 – Benazir’s 2nd time 1997 – Nawaz’s second time 1998 – UNSC deny nuclear power status to PAK 1999- Musharraf imposes Martial Law Foreign Policy: Year INDIA CHINA USA USSR 1947 - 49 Poor due to early problems Pak acknowledges China as a Sovereign state and support its inclusion into UN Aid from USA USA detests Pak support of china
  4. 4. 1950 poor LAK visits USSR invites LAK but LAK visits US instead 1954 Pak joins SEATO and CENTO , Poor relations result, USSR supports india in Kashmir issue 1960 - 1961 Good, Ayub khan aligns with west U2 plane incident occurs , relations worsen but get better when ayub khan visits USSR 1962 Pak resolves border disputes with china US support to India in Indian – Sino war angers Pak 1965 war China aids Pak in War with India US provides no aid or support 1971 war No support from US USSR supports India 1972 -73 poor China provides economic aid, steel mills Pak’s Nuclear program not approved by US USSR provides economic aid, steel mills, oil and gas explo.