Migration in Pakistan


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Presentation on Migration by the students of SZABIST University Islamabad

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Migration in Pakistan

  1. 1. Migration Patterns in Pakistan By: Ali Abbasi Fatima Lodhi Rimsha Sohail Qureshi
  2. 2. Migration Patterns related to geography <ul><li>Northern mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Western highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Indus plains </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern deserts </li></ul>
  3. 10. Reasons for international immigration <ul><li>Canal colonies </li></ul><ul><li>1947 migration </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-pak wars </li></ul><ul><li>Afghan conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladeshi and burmese migrants </li></ul>
  4. 11. Development of punjab canal colonies <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Colonized 4.5 m hectares of land (desert & pastoral) for agriculture purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Imported peasants from eastern punjab </li></ul><ul><li>Development of mandi towns for export of agricultural products </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Population increase of 18% (1901-1911) – rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Population increase 22% (1911 – 1921) – urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of “locals” and “settlers” </li></ul>
  5. 12. 1947 migration from India <ul><li>No communication link with KPK and Baluchistan </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory migration between India and Pakistan’s punjab </li></ul><ul><li>Migrants had a cultural and linguistic link with punjab </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan population increased 6% (1.8m) </li></ul><ul><li>No migration to KPK and Baluchistan </li></ul><ul><li>Migration increased in Punjab - 90% to 192% (1941-1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Migration increased in Sindh - >150% (1941-1951)s </li></ul>
  6. 13. Impact of this migration <ul><li>Caste and clan organization became weak and ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Go-getting culture replaced by old value system </li></ul><ul><li>Mono-religious society emerged aiming to be mono-cultural </li></ul>
  7. 14. Result of indo-pak wars <ul><li>Pakistan and India fought wars in 1948 – Kashmir conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1965 & 1971, Thar’s population migrated to india </li></ul><ul><li>Kargill conflict took place in 1977 – all producing refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmiris migrated to Karachi owing to geographical limitations </li></ul><ul><li>3500 muslim families moved to Thar and were alloted 12 acres of land, yet infrastructure and agricultural output collapsed. </li></ul>
  8. 15. As a result of Afghan Conflict <ul><li>Population growth rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peshawar > 2% (1961-1972)- 9% (1972-1981) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quetta > 3%(1961-1972)-7%(1972-1981) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600,000Afghans settled in Karachi (NARA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Koochis of Pawandas settled permanently in Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Increased numbers of Pushto speakers in Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened Pukhtoon culture and religious establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of “heroine and klashinkove” culture </li></ul><ul><li>Major segment of unskilled labor force plus earth-work contractors </li></ul>
  9. 16. Bangladeshi and Burmese migrants <ul><li>1971 war prompted non-bengalis to shift to Orangi Karachi </li></ul><ul><li>Riots between Burmese muslims and Burmese government increased migration to karachi </li></ul><ul><li>Belonging to educated class, they have worked for improving infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in the fishery industry </li></ul>
  10. 17. Impacts of international migration <ul><li>Illegal encroachments </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired CNIC plus vote that disrupts electoral process </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladeshi and Burmese women trafficked for prostitution to karachi </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of unemployment as these foreigners work for lowest wages </li></ul>
  11. 18. Rural – Urban Migration <ul><li>Agricultural economy shifted to a capital intensive system </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization in the urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Free their children from oppression of the feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>As per 1998 census, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>43% migrants moved with household head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17% because of marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% for employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9% for business </li></ul></ul>
  12. 19. Impacts – urban areas <ul><li>Creation of informal settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Public land unavailable, settlements being created by informal subdivision of agricultural land </li></ul><ul><li>Along the transport corridors creating problem for infrastructural development </li></ul><ul><li>Water and seweage discharged to water bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Aquifiuers being depleted plus formation of soak-pits </li></ul><ul><li>Transport has become a major issue </li></ul><ul><li>Inner cities becoming male-dominated and hubs of corruption </li></ul>
  13. 20. Impacts- rural areas <ul><li>Migrant families have improved their homes and created new ones </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbied for piped water </li></ul><ul><li>Created schools under government support </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new types of outlets and fast foods </li></ul><ul><li>Caste system and feudal system being demolished </li></ul><ul><li>Artisan products replaced by industrial goods </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural estrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Problems regarding maintenance of agricultural infrastructure and natural resources increased with a significant decline in agricultural activities </li></ul>
  14. 21. Emigration <ul><li>95% of emigrants are men </li></ul><ul><li>People from Mirpur migrated to UK (1950’s and 1960’s) owing to creation of mega-irrigation project </li></ul><ul><li>Demand of physicians and IT professionals in USA and UK </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale migration owing to the building boom in Middle East in 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement signed in 2006 between Korea and Malaysia for pakistani workers </li></ul><ul><li>Minorities migrated owing to socio-political reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Working class emigrants possess skills and education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of physicians migrated to USA and UK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People in possession of agricultural land constitute a major portion of emigrants : Rawalpindi and Sahiwal </li></ul><ul><li>Young Pakistanis wish to emigrate owing to social and economic reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Ismailiz migrated owing to “taalibanization” </li></ul><ul><li>Makran coast locals work in Muscati army and police </li></ul>
  15. 22. Remittances – a major consequence <ul><li>KPK highest dependence on remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Quarter of all income in Azad Jammu Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>Emigrants of Makran coast suffer owing to a very low inflow of remmitences </li></ul><ul><li>Remittances sent via the “hundi” system </li></ul><ul><li>Families to have washing machines, refrigirators, piped water and flush toilets, yet no difference in education or food intake </li></ul><ul><li>Social status of women changed – greater independence </li></ul><ul><li>Emigrants become psychologically challenged </li></ul><ul><li>In Makran, lack of labor has increased the gap in middle and low income families </li></ul><ul><li>Macroeconomic indicators improved </li></ul>
  16. 23. Emigrant organization and Socio-economic development <ul><li>Gateshed-Sahiwal Initiative by Dr.Bashir in UK </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Pakistani physicians of North America </li></ul><ul><li>Shifa International Hospital plus Shifa foundation </li></ul><ul><li>World sindhi Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas Pakistan Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Health program linking gateshed council and sahiwal TMA </li></ul><ul><li>Support medical and charity initiatives in NA. Collected 1.7m for earth quake affectees </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital providing services plus education youngsters of Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of sindhi speaking people in india and pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Works for a welfare fund to enhance infrastructure </li></ul>