Chapter 5 Language PPT by Abe Goldman An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein
French Road Signs, Québec
English Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It’s also used & understood in many others.
1. Language : System of communication thru speech
Literary Tradition : syst. of written communication (documents, novels, etc.)
Official Language : lang. used for a country’s gov’t for laws, reports, etc.
2. The 3 traits that best distinguish cultural values :
a. LANGUAGE b. RELIGION C. ETHNICITY
K–1 Engl .: Origin, Diffusion, & Dialects; Where are Eng. Lang. speakers?
3. English: spoken by 1/2 billion in 42 countries
--1/3 of the world uses English as its official lang.
-More speakers than any except Mandarin in China
4. Why English diffused: 1 st = Brit. Empire took to colonies
-now the official lang. in most of the former British colonies
5. Explain why we speak Engl. now: Brit. In N. Amer. became dominant power when they defeated the French (migration yrs: 1607 – 1840)
6. How the USA diffused Engl.: Thru…
*wars (WWI, WWII, etc.) *US is economic power (trade)
*globalization of communication systems (TV, music, internets, satellites, etc.)
7. Engl. is classified as Germanic lang.
How did this replaced languages in the British Isles. I nclude terms: Angles, Jutes, Saxons, & Vikings :
--450 CE: Angles (S. Denmark), Jutes (N. Denmark ), & Saxons (NW Germany) ; about 800 CE Vikings invade--& some stay
8. Explain the Norman (& when??) influence on English: 1066 Normans invade Brit.; Normans ruled and French (Latin-based) = official lang.
Simpler terms: sky, horse, man, woman
more complex terms: celestial, equine, masculine, feminine
Invasions of England 5 th –11 th centuries Fig. 5-2: Groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
-all came from Old Norse (Vikings), spoken in Scandinavia prior to 1000 CE
Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
Germanic Branch of Indo-European Germanic branch today is divided into N. & W. Germanic groups. English is in the West Germ. grp.
33. Indo-Iranian : Of all Indo-Eur., has the most speakers: over 1 billion in more than 100 lang.’s
Eastern grp = Indic Western grp. = Iranian
34 . Indic Grp.:
India: main lang. = Hindi written w/ script called Devanagari
Spoken versions v. different, but written is the same for all b/c only until recently few Hindi speakers could read & write
Pakistan : main lang: Urdu
-Spoken much like Hindi, but written in Arabic b/c most Paki’s are Muslims & lang. of Qu’ran is Arabic
-Both of these based on = Hindustani
South Asian Languages & Language Families Fig. 5-7: Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia. The country of India has 18 official languages.
35. India’s lang. v. diverse: almost 1 billion ppl & using lang.’s from 4 different lang. families:
1.Indo-European 2. Dravidian
3. Sino-Tibetan 4. Austro-Asiatic
36. Why India has 18 different “official” lang.’s:m So many grps., objected to having just 1 (Dravidan closest to #1 )
Main lang. of Bangladesh: Bengali
37. % of Indians speaking Engl.: 1 %
Why sometimes used as a “common” lang.: So many lang., need a main one; also Brit. econ. Influence
38 . Iranian Group: Uses Arabic alphabet;
a) Persian (aka “Farsi”) in Iran
b) Pathan (E. Afghan. & W. Pakistan)
c) Kurdish used by the Kurds , located on borders of W- Iran, N-Iraq, & E-Turkey
39. Balto-Slavic: Once all one lang.,…now 4 main groups:
East West South plus a Baltic group
40. Main ones = Eastern groups, especially Russian spoken by 80% of Russians & is 1 of the 6 official langs. of the U.N (United Nations)
41. Russian gain importance in new areas after 1945 b/c they gained power after WWII….& forced Eastern European countries to learn & use Russian
Is still important in there b/c still used by leaders of former USSR countries for communicating w/ each other & for economic cooperation
42. In order of importance In this region:
1. Russian 2. Ukrainian 3. Belorussian
43. W/S Slavic: 3 W. Slavic langs., in order of most spoken = 1) Polish 2) Czech 3) Slovak
44. In order to “balance” using their 2 official lang . in the old Czechoslovakia , what did TV announcers do?
1 st ½ of of show used 1 lang., then 2 nd ½ switched to the other
45. 2 most important S. Slavic lang.’s:
46. Most differ.’s betwn. these Slavic lang. are SMALL
EX: they can understand each other
47. Regional differ.’s seen in lang. since Bosnia & Croatia broke from Yugoslavia in ‘90’s:
-MUSLIMS in Bosnia brought in Arabic words;
-CROATS got rid of Serbian words & took new ones
These lang.’s in the future: Might become more & more different from each other b/c of hostilities betwn. Ethnic
48. Romance lang.’s, like other lang.’s, didn’t just appear but evolved… Roman ce from Latin
49. France: 3 main dialects:
--standard FR. = _ Francien (aka Parisienne )
--the dialect of the South lang d’oc (from “Aquataine”)
--the Northern is langue d’oil
50. Spanish : Standard SP: Castillian (are few rural dialects)
51. About 90% of speakers of SP & Port. live outside of Spain & Portugal b/c of colonialism ( aka imperialism )
a) SP is the official lang. of 18 Latin Amer. countries?
b) Brazil’s main lang.: Portuguese & they have 15 times as many speakers of Portuguese than Portugal does
52. Brazil speaks Portuguese b/c of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494); Pope ended argument over who
controlled what in Sp. New World…West S. Amer. = Spain, East = Portugal
53. 2 EX: of how Old & New Worlds continue to blend/evolve languages? a) Books & TV have big influence
b) Brazil & Portg. standardized Portuguese, & Port. lost some of the ways Portg. Spoke & the Brazilians’ lang. won out
Romance Branch of Indo-European The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
So many b/c of limited contact, travel, & interaction of numerous culture groups
65. What is the MAIN N. African lang.: Arabic
66. Swahili has so much Arabic influence b/c came from interaction among African groups & Arab traders
67. What is a big problem in classifying African Languages? oral tradition of lang. (many not written) & only 10 are spoken by large #’s
68. What is Hottentot & where did it get its name?
The lang. sounded like “hottentot” to Europeans b/c of pops & clicks
Language Families of Africa 1,000 or more lang.’s of Africa divided among 5 main lang. families, including Austronesian lang.’s in Madagascar.
Languages of Nigeria More than 200 lang.’s are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa (by pop.). English, considered neutral, is the official language .
K- 4: Diversity & Uniformity:
Why people preserve languages:
69. Most spoken Austronesian language:
Malay-Indonesian , Indonesia’s most important lang. (world’s 4th most populous country)
70. Nigeria’s Lang. problems: -200 lang.’s in small areas
-regional jealousies & tensions;
-lots of cultural diversity = lang. diversity…
-which often = conflict
71. What are “extinct” languages?
Lang.’s once spoken, no longer used in daily coversation; may still be read or studied
(EX’s: Latin, Cornish, Gothic)
What was done to revive the following languages?
By Whom ? Why ? How ?
72. Hebrew : What ? Ancient lang. of the Jews
- Whom ? Jews…especially by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
- Why ? Establishment of Israel encouraged them to bring it back into daily use…b4 was used for religious services only (pride in new country)
- How ? Had to “invent” new terms for recent innovations b/c Hebrew had none of these
73: Gaelic : : What ? Lang. of Ireland & Scotland before the Brits
- Why ? Pride in new country: Revived & used daily when the Republic of Ireland was formed in the early 1900’s…
- How ? taught in schools, used as road signs, = official language
1858 – 1922: Ben Yehuda
“ Israel must be reborn on its ancestral land……” A Zionist leader …tying the national restoration of the Jewish people to that of its language. He and his wife settled in Palestine where they mutually agree to no longer speak to each other except in Hebrew….then he accepted a position offered to him at the Alliance Israelite Universelle on condition that he teaches in Hebrew. …compiled the first, modern, Hebrew dictionary.” (in late 1800’s…country of Israel “born” in 1947)
74: Multilingual states : Why the following are multilingual states…What languages & people… (slides )
- Belgium : Flemish, a Germanic lang. (N. area = Flanders)
… & French (S. areas = Walloons)
- Switzerland : In order…German, French, Italian, Romansh
75. “Isolated” lang .’s? Lang. not related to other lang.
2 isolated lang .’ s: Basque & Icelandic
76: Basque : Where? N. Spain, SW France, in N. Pyrenees
What? Lang. there b4 Indo-Euro.…not sure from where
Who? Separate culture, fighting for “full independence” From where ? Not sure…
77. Icelandic : Where? Iceland What? From Old Norse Who? Viking From where? Scandinavia (Denmark)
Basque culture in the Pyrenees Mtns. area, mostly in NE Spain, but bit over into SW France.
Language Divisions in Belgium Are tensions in Belgium between Flemings , in the north who Speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, & Walloons in the south…& speak French
Language Areas in Switzerland Switzerland remains peaceful w/ 4 official languages & a decentralized government structure.
78. What is a lingua franca ?
Lang. used for international communication, espec. for trade…Was once Latin…then w/ Brit. Empire lingua franca became English…USA continued to encourage this use
79. What is the main lingua franca in the world today? Engl.
80. How Engl. continues to grow thru expansion diffusion:
Expansion diffusion : -spread of a trait thru a snowballing effect rather than relocation of any people
1) new words, new spellings, & new pronunciations
2) fusion (joining ) of Engl. into other languages
EX: Words from Latino-Amer. ( Tex-Mex , various foods, etc.), Appalachia (“ holler ”, “ a-sittin’ ” etc.), Afr.-Amer. ( jazz , gumbo , etc.
There was a push for Ebonics (Black English); now is seen as a true dialect…not separate lang.
81: Franglais: Mix of French & English;
Fr. resist this & had “lang. police” w/ actual laws to keep it out til 1994)
82. Spanglish ? Used by Latino folk; they mix Sp. w/ Engl., using Sp. spellings but very similar English pronunciation (shorts = chores ; vacuum cleaner: bacuncliner )
83. Pidgin: A small mix of words from a lingua franca + another lang. in order to have basic communication w/ ppl in another culture group
84. a. French in N. Amer.: French Canadians are surrounded by Engl. Speakers in…Quebec, N. of NY, VT., etc.
b . What’s Quebecois ? The Fr-Can. folks; surrounded by the Engl.
c . How is that affecting these people? Some resist & resent English …causes tensions
d . What do some there want? To secede & create separate country…not majority
NOTE : This is ethnicity affecting changes…
On following slide, what effect can you often see RE: the location of the speakers of the 2 languages?
French-English Boundary in Canada Though Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the Québec, where 80% of the ppl. speak French.
Internet: Encourages further globalization of English Fig. 5-1-1: A large proportion of the world’s internet users and hosts are in the developed countries of North America & western Europe.
Internet Hosts by Language The large majority of internet hosts in 1999 used English, Chinese, Japanese , or European languages .