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Presentation on "Creole"

Published in: Education, Technology
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  1. 1. Altaf Ahmad Khan
  2. 2. Creole • Creole is a Pidgin which has acquired native speakers. • a language that has its origin in extended contact between two language communities, one of which is dominant. It incorporates features from each and constitutes the mother tongue of a community.
  3. 3. Creoles are of more interest than Pidgins from the social point of view I. One of the main sources of information about the origin and identity of its speakers. e.g. Descendants of African slaves in America o A similar interest is shown by the people who speak varieties whose origins are in creole but later moved towards the dominant variety. e.g. English of Black people in United States
  4. 4. Creoles are of more interest than Pidgins from the social point of view II. Minority groups, who speak some form of Creole. e.g. West Indian immigrants in Britain. - In this case, serious educational problems may arise if both teacher and learner are not sure whether this Creole is different from majority one or a dialect of it.
  5. 5. Creoles are of less interests from the point of view of what they tell us about language I. Except their origin, Creoles are just ordinary languages, as any other. o o Unlike ordinary languages, they arise through a process called Creolisation. They are likely to gradually lose their identity by Decreolisation. - between these two stages, Creoles are ordinary languages.
  6. 6. Decreolisation (Definition) • Over time, a Creole language re-converges with one of the standard languages from which it originally derived. (Wikipedia) • The loss of creole features in an original creole language as the result of contact with a major international language that was one of its ancestors. (the free online dictionary)
  7. 7. Decreolisation (Process) • It happens when Creole is spoken in a country where other people speak the Creole`s lexical source language (the dominant language). • Because of the more prestige of dominant language, Creole`s speakers tend to shift towards it. • Decreolisation is caused by social, political or economic factors.
  8. 8. Imp. terminologies in Decreolisation • Basilect: A variety of Creole which is most remote from prestige language. - The common and low variety. • Acrolect: The variety which is closest to the standard prestige language. - The Super and high variety. • Mesolect: A variety of speech that is midway between the acrolect and the basilect. • Post Creole continuum: The range of varieties (mixture of all Mesolects) spanning the gape between Basilect and Acrolect.
  9. 9. Creolisation • The process by which a Pidgin is developed to Creole is called Creolisation. • Generations of Pidgin speaking communities adopt Pidgin as their first language which in turns become Creole.
  10. 10. Example • A baby is born to a Pidgin (Tok Pisin) speaking parents (both having some other but different languages as their native languages) in Papua New Guinea. • This child starts to speak Tok Pisin (pidgin variety), as his/her First Language. • The difference between parents and child is that the baby is learning this Pidgin variety as first language while when parents learned it, they already knew another language.
  11. 11. Followers of Chomsky on Creolisation (One view) • Linguists who follow Noam Chomsky believe that - a child is genetically prepared or programmed to learn a human language. OR - Our ability to learn language is innate.  When children are born into families where the only language they hear is mere PIDGIN, there genes push them to up-grade it to a full language by enriching it with relative clauses and other complexities not needed in mere pidgins
  12. 12. Enriched pidgin and creole (Another view) • Pidgin can become richer (in vocabulary and constructions) to the extent of being similar to ordinary languages. • The speakers of a Pidgin continue to develop it using all the available resources, in a process that does not depend on Creolisation. (Gillan Sankoff and Penelope Brown 1976) • The only difference is that - Creole has native speakers while enriched Pidgin does not.
  13. 13. Difference b/w Pidgin & Creole • There is no difference between both except that of native speakers. • If it is said that:  Creole is ordinary language and Pidgin is rather peculiar?? BUT I- The distinction between ‘normal’ and ‘peculiar’ is unclear and is a fact of continuum rather than a qualitative difference.
  14. 14. Difference b/w Pidgin & Creole II- It is clear that a Pidgin does not come into existence suddenly, at one moment, but it is gradually built up out of nothing- a process of variety creation.