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Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
Kathmandu settlement geography
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Kathmandu settlement geography

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KATHMANDU IS CAPITAL OF NEPAL AND IT IS THE ONLY METROPOLITAN CITY OF THE COUNTRY. BEING A CAPITAL CITY, IT HAS A HIGH POPULATION AND MIGRATION HAS ADDED TO IT. …

KATHMANDU IS CAPITAL OF NEPAL AND IT IS THE ONLY METROPOLITAN CITY OF THE COUNTRY. BEING A CAPITAL CITY, IT HAS A HIGH POPULATION AND MIGRATION HAS ADDED TO IT.
THE PRESENTATION SHOWS THE APATIAL GROWTH OF CITY OVER THE YEARS AND WHAT FACTORS HAVE ADDED TO ITS GROWTH.

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  • 1. SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY – STUDY OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE
  • 2. LOCATION AND PHYSICAL SETTING OF KATHMANDU  KATHMANDU VALLEY, WHERE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY (KMC) LIES, SITUATED BETWEEN THE LATITUDES OF 27°32’13” AND 27°49’10” NORTH AND LONGITUDES 85°11’31” AND 85°31’38”EAST.  IT COVERS THE AREA OF ABOUT 667 SQ. KM AND CONSISTS OF FIVE MUNICIPALITIES –  KATHMANDU, LALITPUR, BHAKTAPUR , THIMI AND KIRTIPUR. APART FRON 5 MUNICIPALITIES THEREARE 110 VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEES WITHIN KATHMANDU VALLEY.  THE TOTAL POPULATION OF KATHMANDU VALLEY IN 1991 WAS 15,71,583 AND IS EXPECTED TO BE 20, 20,404 IN 2011.  THE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY COVERS AN AREA OF ABOUT 50.8 SQ.KM.AND IS DIVIDED INTO 35 WARDS OF WHICH THE OLD CITY CORE ENCOMPASSES 12 WARDS.  THE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY IS CONSIDERED AS A HISTORIC, TOURISTIC, CULTURAL AND THE BUSINESS CENTRE OF NEPAL.  THE TOTAL POPULATION OF KMC ACCORDING TO THE LATEST CENSUS 2001 IS 671846. IT WAS421,258 IN 1991 AND 235,160 IN 1981. IT SHOWS THAT THE POPULATION IN KMC IS GROWING UNPRECEDENTED.  THE POPULATION GROWTH RATE OF KMC IS 5.65% IN 91-2001 WHICH IS ONE OF THE HIGHEST OF THE TOWNS AND CITIES OF NEPAL. WITH SAME POPULATION GROWTH RATE POPULATIONIN KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY IN 2011 IS EXPECTED TO BE 10,51,438.  MIGRATION HAD BEEN A MAJOR SOURCE OF POPULATION GROWTH IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY BECAUSE OF THECENTRALIZATION OF SERVICES AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY WITHIN VALLEY. KATHMANDU VALLEY IN PERSPECTIVE 3D
  • 3. PHYSIOGRPAHY Two principle landforms, alluvial & flood plains along the river & slightly more elevated river terraces, locally called ‘tars’. Two principle landforms, alluvial & flood plains along the river & slightly more elevated river terraces, locally called ‘tars’. •TWO PRINCIPAL LANDFORMS ALLUVIAL AND FLOOD PLAINS ALONG THE RIVER AND SLIGHTLY MORE ELEVATED RIVER TERRACES LOCALLY CALLED ‘TARS”. •CITY AREA IS GENERALLY FLAT WITH SLOPE HAVING LESS THAN 1 DEGREE AND SOIL HAVING PREDOMINANTLY LOAMY AND BOULDER TEXTURE. •CITY’S LAND WAS ONCE HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE AGRICULTURE LAND, CROPS CULTIVATED WERE RICE MAIZE, WHEAT ETC. .PRESENTLY BADHGAON OUTSIDE RING ROAD PROVIDES PRODUCTS TO CITY DWELLERS. •THE ELEVATION OF KATHMANDU VALLEY IS 1350M ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL. THE VALLEY IS BOWL SHAPED WITH DRAINING TOWARDS THE CENTER OF THE BASIN.
  • 4. KATHMANDU CITY BANSBARI HIGHWAY CONNECTING TIBET. ARNIKO HIGHWAY CONNECTING CHINA (1950-60),WIDENED COMMERCIALIZATION AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES IN THE CITY. PRITHVI HIGHWAY CONNECTING INDIA NAYA BAZAAR CONNECTING NEPAL Bhagmati Bishnumati Dhobikhola CITY IS LOCATED WITHIN THE VALLEY’S BHAGMATI RIVER SYSTEM OF WHICH EIGHT TRIBUTARIES DRAIN THE CITY. BHAGMATI RIVER SYSTEM HAS BEEN THE MAIN SOURCE OF WATER FOR DRINKING , IRRIGATION & HOLDS RELIGIOUS, CULTURAL& SOCIAL VALUE. LINKAGES
  • 5. HISTORY, GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION DEVOLOPMENT OF INDO- TIBET TRADE ROUTE. HISTORICAL EVIDENCES PROVES THE EXISTANCE OF TOWNS FROM THIS PERIOD INTRODUCTION OF HINDU BASED CASTE SYSTEM & THE 4 CLASSIFICATION OF LAND. ORIGIN – LEGENDARY DRAINING OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY WAS A GREAT LAKE. A CHINESE SAINT, MANJUSHREE HAD CUT A PASSAGE THROUGH THE RIDGE AT THE CHOBAR GORGE, SOUTH OF KATHMANDU,& THUS MADE THE VALLEY’S BOTTOM HABITABLE. •FOUR CATEGORIES OF LAND-ABBAL(HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE),DOYAM(MEDIUM PRODUCTIVE), SIM(PRODUCTIVE) & CHAHAR(LESS PRODUCTIVE) •MALLA’S PERIOD ENDED IN 18TH CENTURY AFTER THE EXPANDED TOWN HAD BEEN DIVIDED INTO 3 KINDOMS;KATHMANDU, PATAN, BHAKTAPUR. •EXTRAORDINARY ACHIEVEMENTS IN URBAN PLANNING, ARCHITECTURE, INFRASTRUCTURE & SOCIO- CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS FOR URBAN MANAGEMENT. •SURVIVING URBAN ELEMENTS THROUGHOUT THE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN IS OF MALLA’S PERIOD. MALLA’S REIGN -13th century PRITHVINARAYAN SHAH-Gorkha king(1769 A.D) •CONQUERED THE 3 SISTER CITIES & DECLARED KATHMANDU AS ITS CAPITAL.CITY DEVELOPED AS MAIN ADMINISTRATIVE & POLITICAL CENTRE OF THE COUNTRY. •BUILT PALACES IN THE PRIME AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE CITY PERIPHERY. •EVENTUALLY NEW SETTLEMENTS AROUND PALACES SINCE THEY OFFERED BASIC AMENITIES –WATER ELECTRICITY, GOODS & ROADS. •THUS BEGAN THE PROCESS OF SUB-URBANISATION OF KATHMANDU & ENCROACHMENT ON PRODUCTIVE AGRICULTURAL LAND. JUNG BAHADUR KUNWAR-Rana Regime(1845-1950)
  • 6. HISTORY, GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY SAYS THAT IT WAS A HUGE LAKE WHICH WAS SETTLED AFTER DRAINING AWAY ALL THE WATER THROUGH CHOBHAR GORGE BY A CHINESE SAINT. EARLY SETTLEMENTS WERE AROUND VERY FEW PLACES. TOWNSHIPS DEVELOPED AND FLOURISHED THROUGH INDO-NEPAL-TIBET TRADE. THOUGH MANY SMALL TOWNS WERE ESTABLISHED BY THE SECOND CENTURY A.D. AND URBAN CENTERS BY THE 11TH CENTURY, ACCORDING TO THE RECORDS, URBANIZATION OF THE VALLEY COMMENCED IN THE LATE 1950S, ACCELERATING DURING THE 1970S. AGRICULTURE BUILT UP FOREST
  • 7. URBAN DENSITY HIGH DENSITY
  • 8. KATHMANDU-DEMOGRAPHY DISTRICT 1991 % OF TOTAL 2001 % OF TOTAL ANNUAL POPULATION POPULATION GROWTH LALITPUR 257086 1.39 337785 1.46 2.73 BHAKTAPUR 17295 0.94 225461 0.97 2.65 KATHMANDU 675341 3.65 1081845 4.67 4.71 TOTAL 1105379 5.98 1645091 7.1 4.06 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY DISTRICT DISTRICT AREA IN SQ.KM 1981 1991 2001 LALITPUR 385 479 670 877 BHAKTAPUR 119 1343 1453 1895 KATHMANDU 395 1069 1710 2739 TOTAL 899 852 1230 1830 POPULATION DENSITY BY DISTRICT
  • 9. CITY STRUCTURE
  • 10. LAND USE MAP
  • 11. AREA IN HECTARE LAND USE CLASS 1989 1999 2006 AGRICULTURE 13350 12944 14420 BARE SOIL 17434 23742 21140 BUILT UP 2454 4366 5732 FOREST 28044 28366 31509 OPEN AREA 26266 18680 15267 WATER 943 393 423 TOTAL 88491 88491 88491 CHANGE IN LAND USE
  • 12. LAND REUSE CLASSIFICATION ARE IN HECTARES LAND USE CLASS 1989 1999 2006 BUILT UP 2454 4366 5372 NON BUILT UP 86037 84125 82759 TOTAL 88491 88491 88491
  • 13. LAND USE CHANGE
  • 14. FIRST PHYSICAL DEVOLOPMENT PLAN IN KATHMANDU(1969) AIMED TO PRESERVE HERITAGE & GUIDE URBAN DEVOLOMENT THROUGH LANDUSE PLANNING TO PREVENT SPRAWL IN CITY FRINGE & ENSURE SETTLEMENT DENSIFICATION. STRATERGY- BY REINFORCING TRANSPORTATION LINKAGES .NKAGE OF DISPERSED SETTLEMENT ,CONTINUATION OF EXISTANCE GROWTH TENDENCIES OF KATHMANDU –PATAN COMPLEX & THE BIPOLAR DEVOLOPMENT OF BHAKTAPUR BY REINFORCING TRANSPORTAION LINKAGES . TOWN DEVOLOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION ACT 1972,FORMULATED 3 BROAD ZONING,CITY CORE (ZONE A )KATHMANDU& LALITPUR (ZONE B ), BHAKTAPUR(ZONE C).LED TO THE DEVOLOMENT OF RING ROAD ,SIGNIFICANTLY ACCELERATED URBANISATION.PLANS WERE RELUCTANT TO ADDRESS LONG TERM PROBLEMS. NEW STRUCTURAL PLAN-UNDP& WORLD BANK 1987 AIMED TO PROVIDE GUIDELINES FOR PHYSICAL DEVOLOPMENT OF METROPOLITAN REGION FOR YEAR 2010. MAJOR POLITICAL SITUATION PLAN WAS SHELVED. 1991,INTEGRATED PLANS TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN NEW DEMOCRATIC ENVIROMENTFOCUSED ON PERPHERAL AREA OUTSIDE RING ROAD,AREA BEYOND BOUNDARY RECOMMENDATION RELATED TO LANDUSE(LAND POOLING) & INFRASTRUCTURE. PROPOSAL – PLANNING MODERN KATHMANDU
  • 15. CHALLENGES IN URBAN PLANNING AND RECOMMENDATIONS • THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT TREND LEADING TO HAPHAZARD GROWTH OR HORIZONTAL EXPANSION OF CITY. • ENCROACHMENT ON AGRICULTURAL LAND AND OPEN SPACES. • LIMITED URBAN AREA ( DEFINED BOUNDARY OF SURROUNDING MOUNTAINS). • HIGH CONSIDERATION FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE VERY ESSENTIAL IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION • INDIVIDUAL OWNER BUILDER ACQUIRES PLOT OF LAND,ORGANISES, MANAGES & SUPERVISES HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN THE ABSENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL FINANCE. • SRUNG OF VARIETY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES LED TO INFLUX OF TRANSIENT POPLUTION .THEREFORE INCREASE DEMAND FOR CHEAP RENTAL HOUSING IN THE OLD CITY. • RIPPING OF OLD COURTYARDS TO MAKE NEW BUILDINGS WITH MORE SPACE. • SQUATTER HOUSING IS A LARGER PHENONMENON IN RURAL AREA OF TERAI WHERE PUBLICLY OWNED FOREST LAND ALONG HIGHWAYS PROVIDED SQUATTING AREA FOR MIGRANTS FROM HILLS UNPLANNED URBANISATION HOUSING AND RENTALS • VERTICAL EXPANSION IN BUILDINGS WITH STRUCTURALLY SAFE CONSTRUCTION. • REVISION OF PRESENT LAND USE PLAN AND CORRESPONDING ZONING PLAN AND BUILDING BYE-LAWS. • PREVENT ENCROACHMENT ON VACANT LANDS FOR EVACUATION PURPOSES / PROVIDING EMERGENCY CAMPS DURING DISASTERS. RECOMMENDATIONS • PROMOTE LAND POOLING / LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS • DEVELOP RIVER CORRIDORS AS SPACES FOR RECREATION AND GREENERY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION • PROMOTE GROUP HOUSING / APARTMENTS TO DISCOURAGE FRAGMENTATION OF LAND AND UNCONTROLLED HORIZONTAL EXPANSION
  • 16. SUSTAINABILITY AUDIT LAND AIR WATER TRANSPORTATION FLORA/FAUNA CLIMATE • ALTITUDE : 1300 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL • AREA OF ABOUT 665 SQ.KM. • BETWEEN 1984 AND 1998 6300 HA OF FERTILE LAND WERE LOST TO URBANIZATION, INDUSTRILIZATION AND QUARRYING OF SAND , SOIL AND STONE. • ABOUT 43% OF VALLEY PRODUCTIVE LAND WILL BE LOST TO THE URBAN SPRAWL BY THE END OF 2010. • BOWL SHAPED TOPOGRAPHY WHICH RESTRICT AIR MOVEMENT. • THE SITUATION IS WORSEN DURING WINTER WHEN TEMPERATURE INVERSION DURING THE NIGHT AND EARLY MORNING TRAPS A LAYER OF COOL AIR UNDER A LAYER OF WARMER AIR TRAPING POLLUTANTS CLOSE TO THE GROUND LEVEL. • BESIDES THE TOPOGRAPHY THE RELATIVELY HIGH ELEVATION OF THE VALLEY ALSO RESULTS IN INCREASED VEHICULAR EMISSION. • TRADITIONAL WATER SPOUTS 237 IN KTHMANDU. • WATER SUPPLIED THROUGH “RAJ KULOS” FOR IRRIGATION AND DOMESTIC PURPOSE. • THE SPOUTS ARE DRYING UP BECAUSE OF MODERN CONSTRUCTION AND FALLING WATER LEVEL. • THE WATER IN VALLEY CONTAINS HIGH AMOUNT OF IRON. • THE NO. OF VEHICLES IN KATHMANDU IS GROWING AT THE RATE OF 12% PER YEAR ALMOST THRICE THE POPULATION GROWTH RATE. • IT IS RESULTING IN TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND AIR POLLUTION. • THE VALLEY HAS 20,945 HA OF FOREST, ABOUT 32.7% OF THE TOTAL AREA OF VALLEY. • THE NATURAL VEGETATION IS UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE. • SCRUBLAND OCCUPIES NEARLY 34% OF TOTAL FOREST AREA. • SUBTROPICAL AND TEMPERATE. • MEAN MONTHLY MAXIMUM: 29.30 C • MEAN MONTHLY MINIMUM:16.50 C • DIURNAL TEMPERATURE RANGE:10.90 C • RALATIVE HUMIDITY: 36 % AND 100%.
  • 17. VISUAL ELEMENTS OF URBAN CITY DESIGNAxis City Edges Gateways Streetscape City Graphics Urban Adjuncts Night view of Hindu temples in Durbar Square Rugs,guides, massages and beer for salein Thamel backpacker district Handicrafts on sale to tourists in Durbar Square Bicycle market stand on Boudha Road Nine kilometer stone sign Bus stop sign View of a street in Kathmandu A busy street in Thamel Thamel Crowded Kathmandu
  • 18. VISUAL ELEMENTS OF URBAN CITY DESIGN Landscape Landmark Buildings Squares Bridges Parking Towers 09 Curious monkey in window of Swayambhunath Buddhist Temple Patan Durbar Square with octagonal Krishna Temple in foreground Night view of Hindu temples in Durbar Square Ratna park Central bus station Tuk Tuk on Boudha Road Tuk Tuk graveyard with children playing Clock Tower People bathing in the Bagmati river -Pashupatinath area Nepali style house with a bridge Durbar Square Stupa of Boudhanath Maru sattal street Maru sattal Row of small gompas- The kopan Monastery Boudhanath Stupa Kumari Ghar (Home of the Living Goddess) at Kathmandu Durbar Square Bakhtapur Durbar Square Swayambhunath Stupa A Hindu temple in Bakhtapur Durbar Square bridge across Bagmati River Statue of Hanuman at Kathmandu Durbar Square
  • 19. ALLOWING FOR MIXED LAND USE AND PRODUCTION AND INCOME OPPORTUNITIES LOCALLY. STEPWISE INTENSIFICATION OF LANDUSE. FREEHOLD, INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP. MIXED LANDUSE WITH INCREASING DENSITY WILL LEAD TO DANGER OF POLLUTION. UNCONTROLLED END RESULT. HIGH, UNCONTROLLED LAND PRICES FOR FREEHOLD LAND. GIVES VALLEY WIDE FLEXIBILITY TO LOCATE TO VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE AREAS. AREA AND COMMUNITY BASED UPGRADING. DEVELOPMENT OF AFFORDABLE LEASE SYSTEM. THREATENS A REGULATED LANDUSE WITH ZONING FOR MORE POLLUTING ACTIVITIES AND FOR IRRIGATED ARABLE LAND. THREATENS NATIONAL INTEREST OF LANDUSE PLANNING OF CAPITAL REGION. OVERALL, SPECULATIVE ALND MARKET. LOSS OF COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC LAND RESOURCES. SWOT

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