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Kathmandu settlement geography

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KATHMANDU IS CAPITAL OF NEPAL AND IT IS THE ONLY METROPOLITAN CITY OF THE COUNTRY. BEING A CAPITAL CITY, IT HAS A HIGH POPULATION AND MIGRATION HAS ADDED TO IT....

KATHMANDU IS CAPITAL OF NEPAL AND IT IS THE ONLY METROPOLITAN CITY OF THE COUNTRY. BEING A CAPITAL CITY, IT HAS A HIGH POPULATION AND MIGRATION HAS ADDED TO IT.
THE PRESENTATION SHOWS THE APATIAL GROWTH OF CITY OVER THE YEARS AND WHAT FACTORS HAVE ADDED TO ITS GROWTH.

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    Kathmandu settlement geography Kathmandu settlement geography Presentation Transcript

    • SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY – STUDY OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY
      SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE
    • LOCATION AND PHYSICAL SETTING OF KATHMANDU
      • KATHMANDU VALLEY, WHERE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY (KMC) LIES, SITUATED BETWEEN THE LATITUDES OF 27°32’13” AND 27°49’10” NORTH AND LONGITUDES 85°11’31” AND 85°31’38”EAST.
      • IT COVERS THE AREA OF ABOUT 667 SQ. KM AND CONSISTS OF FIVE MUNICIPALITIES –
      • KATHMANDU, LALITPUR, BHAKTAPUR , THIMI AND KIRTIPUR. APART FRON 5 MUNICIPALITIES THEREARE 110 VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEES WITHIN KATHMANDU VALLEY.
      • THE TOTAL POPULATION OF KATHMANDU VALLEY IN 1991 WAS 15,71,583 AND IS EXPECTED TO BE 20, 20,404 IN 2011.
      • THE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY COVERS AN AREA OF ABOUT 50.8 SQ.KM.AND IS DIVIDED INTO 35 WARDS OF WHICH THE OLD CITY CORE ENCOMPASSES 12 WARDS.
      • THE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY IS CONSIDERED AS A HISTORIC, TOURISTIC, CULTURAL AND THE BUSINESS CENTRE OF NEPAL.
      • THE TOTAL POPULATION OF KMC ACCORDING TO THE LATEST CENSUS 2001 IS 671846. IT WAS421,258 IN 1991 AND 235,160 IN 1981. IT SHOWS THAT THE POPULATION IN KMC IS GROWING UNPRECEDENTED.
      • THE POPULATION GROWTH RATE OF KMC IS 5.65% IN 91-2001 WHICH IS ONE OF THE HIGHEST OF THE TOWNS AND CITIES OF NEPAL. WITH SAME POPULATION GROWTH RATE POPULATIONIN KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY IN 2011 IS EXPECTED TO BE 10,51,438.
      • MIGRATION HAD BEEN A MAJOR SOURCE OF POPULATION GROWTH IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY BECAUSE OF THECENTRALIZATION OF SERVICES AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY WITHIN VALLEY.
      KATHMANDU VALLEY IN PERSPECTIVE 3D
    • PHYSIOGRPAHY
      Two principle landforms, alluvial & flood plains along the river & slightly more elevated river terraces, locally called ‘tars’.
      Two principle landforms, alluvial & flood plains along the river & slightly more elevated river terraces, locally called ‘tars’.
      • TWO PRINCIPAL LANDFORMS ALLUVIAL AND FLOOD PLAINS ALONG THE RIVER AND SLIGHTLY MORE ELEVATED RIVER TERRACES LOCALLY CALLED ‘TARS”.
      • CITY AREA IS GENERALLY FLAT WITH SLOPE HAVING LESS THAN 1 DEGREE AND SOIL HAVING PREDOMINANTLY LOAMY AND BOULDER TEXTURE.
      • CITY’S LAND WAS ONCE HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE AGRICULTURE LAND, CROPS CULTIVATED WERE RICE MAIZE, WHEAT ETC. .PRESENTLY BADHGAON OUTSIDE RING ROAD PROVIDES PRODUCTS TO CITY DWELLERS.
      • THE ELEVATION OF KATHMANDU VALLEY IS 1350M ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL. THE VALLEY IS BOWL SHAPED WITH DRAINING TOWARDS THE CENTER OF THE BASIN.
    • LINKAGES
      BANSBARI HIGHWAY
      CONNECTING TIBET.
      NAYA BAZAAR
      CONNECTING NEPAL
      KATHMANDU CITY
      PRITHVI HIGHWAY
      CONNECTING INDIA
      ARNIKO HIGHWAY
      CONNECTING CHINA
      (1950-60),WIDENED COMMERCIALIZATION AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES IN THE CITY.
      Dhobikhola
      Bishnumati
      CITY IS LOCATED WITHIN THE VALLEY’S BHAGMATI RIVER SYSTEM OF WHICH EIGHT TRIBUTARIES DRAIN THE CITY.
      Bhagmati
      BHAGMATI RIVER SYSTEM HAS BEEN THE MAIN SOURCE OF WATER FOR DRINKING , IRRIGATION & HOLDS RELIGIOUS, CULTURAL& SOCIAL VALUE.
    • HISTORY, GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION
      ORIGIN – LEGENDARY DRAINING OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY WAS A GREAT LAKE. A CHINESE SAINT, MANJUSHREE HAD CUT A PASSAGE THROUGH THE RIDGE AT THE CHOBAR GORGE, SOUTH OF KATHMANDU,& THUS MADE THE VALLEY’S BOTTOM HABITABLE.
      MALLA’S REIGN -13th century
      • FOUR CATEGORIES OF LAND-ABBAL(HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE),DOYAM(MEDIUM PRODUCTIVE), SIM(PRODUCTIVE) & CHAHAR(LESS PRODUCTIVE)
      • MALLA’S PERIOD ENDED IN 18TH CENTURY AFTER THE EXPANDED TOWN HAD BEEN DIVIDED INTO 3 KINDOMS;KATHMANDU, PATAN, BHAKTAPUR.
      • EXTRAORDINARY ACHIEVEMENTS IN URBAN PLANNING, ARCHITECTURE, INFRASTRUCTURE & SOCIO-CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS FOR URBAN MANAGEMENT.
      • SURVIVING URBAN ELEMENTS THROUGHOUT THE KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN IS OF
      MALLA’S PERIOD.
      DEVOLOPMENT OF INDO- TIBET TRADE ROUTE.
      HISTORICAL EVIDENCES PROVES THE EXISTANCE OF TOWNS FROM THIS PERIOD
      PRITHVINARAYAN SHAH-Gorkha king(1769 A.D)
      INTRODUCTION OF HINDU BASED CASTE SYSTEM & THE 4 CLASSIFICATION OF LAND.
      • CONQUERED THE 3 SISTER CITIES & DECLARED KATHMANDU AS ITS CAPITAL.CITY DEVELOPED AS MAIN ADMINISTRATIVE & POLITICAL CENTRE OF THE COUNTRY.
      JUNG BAHADUR KUNWAR-Rana Regime(1845-1950)
      • BUILT PALACES IN THE PRIME AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE CITY PERIPHERY.
      • EVENTUALLY NEW SETTLEMENTS AROUND PALACES SINCE THEY OFFERED BASIC AMENITIES –WATER ELECTRICITY, GOODS & ROADS.
      • THUS BEGAN THE PROCESS OF SUB-URBANISATION OF KATHMANDU & ENCROACHMENT ON PRODUCTIVE AGRICULTURAL LAND.
    • HISTORY, GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION
      ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY SAYS THAT IT WAS A HUGE LAKE WHICH WAS SETTLED AFTER DRAINING AWAY ALL THE WATER THROUGH CHOBHAR GORGE BY A CHINESE SAINT. EARLY SETTLEMENTS WERE AROUND VERY FEW PLACES. TOWNSHIPS DEVELOPED AND FLOURISHED THROUGH INDO-NEPAL-TIBET TRADE. THOUGH MANY SMALL TOWNS WERE ESTABLISHED BY THE SECOND CENTURY A.D. AND URBAN CENTERS BY THE 11TH CENTURY, ACCORDING TO THE RECORDS, URBANIZATION OF THE VALLEY COMMENCED IN THE LATE 1950S, ACCELERATING DURING THE 1970S.
      AGRICULTURE
      BUILT UP
      FOREST
    • URBAN DENSITY
      HIGH DENSITY
    • KATHMANDU-DEMOGRAPHY
      DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY DISTRICT
      POPULATION DENSITY BY DISTRICT
    • CITY STRUCTURE
    • LAND USE MAP
    • CHANGE IN LAND USE
    • LAND REUSE CLASSIFICATION
    • LAND USE CHANGE
    • PROPOSAL – PLANNING MODERN KATHMANDU
      FIRST PHYSICAL DEVOLOPMENT PLAN IN KATHMANDU(1969)
      NEW STRUCTURAL PLAN-UNDP& WORLD BANK 1987 AIMED TO PROVIDE GUIDELINES FOR PHYSICAL DEVOLOPMENT OF METROPOLITAN REGION FOR YEAR 2010.
      MAJOR POLITICAL SITUATION PLAN WAS SHELVED.
      1991,INTEGRATED PLANS TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN NEW DEMOCRATIC ENVIROMENTFOCUSED ON PERPHERAL AREA OUTSIDE RING ROAD,AREA BEYOND BOUNDARY RECOMMENDATION RELATED TO LANDUSE(LAND POOLING) & INFRASTRUCTURE.
      AIMED TO PRESERVE HERITAGE & GUIDE URBAN DEVOLOMENT THROUGH LANDUSE PLANNING TO PREVENT SPRAWL IN CITY FRINGE & ENSURE SETTLEMENT DENSIFICATION.
      STRATERGY- BY REINFORCING TRANSPORTATION LINKAGES .NKAGE OF DISPERSED SETTLEMENT ,CONTINUATION OF EXISTANCE GROWTH TENDENCIES OF KATHMANDU –PATAN COMPLEX & THE BIPOLAR DEVOLOPMENT OF BHAKTAPUR BY REINFORCING TRANSPORTAION LINKAGES .
      TOWN DEVOLOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION ACT 1972,FORMULATED 3 BROAD ZONING,CITY CORE (ZONE A )KATHMANDU& LALITPUR (ZONE B ), BHAKTAPUR(ZONE C).LED TO THE DEVOLOMENT OF RING ROAD ,SIGNIFICANTLY ACCELERATED URBANISATION.PLANS WERE RELUCTANT TO ADDRESS LONG TERM PROBLEMS.
    • CHALLENGES IN URBAN PLANNING AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      UNPLANNED URBANISATION
      • THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT TREND LEADING TO HAPHAZARD GROWTH OR HORIZONTAL EXPANSION OF CITY.
      • ENCROACHMENT ON AGRICULTURAL LAND AND OPEN SPACES.
      • LIMITED URBAN AREA ( DEFINED BOUNDARY OF SURROUNDING MOUNTAINS).
      • HIGH CONSIDERATION FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE VERY ESSENTIAL IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
      HOUSING AND RENTALS
      • INDIVIDUAL OWNER BUILDER ACQUIRES PLOT OF LAND,ORGANISES, MANAGES & SUPERVISES HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN THE ABSENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL FINANCE.
      • SRUNG OF VARIETY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES LED TO INFLUX OF TRANSIENT POPLUTION .THEREFORE INCREASE DEMAND FOR CHEAP RENTAL HOUSING IN THE OLD CITY.
      • RIPPING OF OLD COURTYARDS TO MAKE NEW BUILDINGS WITH MORE SPACE.
      • SQUATTER HOUSING IS A LARGER PHENONMENON IN RURAL AREA OF TERAI WHERE PUBLICLY OWNED FOREST LAND ALONG HIGHWAYS PROVIDED SQUATTING AREA FOR MIGRANTS FROM HILLS
      RECOMMENDATIONS
      • VERTICAL EXPANSION IN BUILDINGS WITH STRUCTURALLY SAFE CONSTRUCTION.
      • REVISION OF PRESENT LAND USE PLAN AND CORRESPONDING ZONING PLAN AND BUILDING BYE-LAWS.
      • PREVENT ENCROACHMENT ON VACANT LANDS FOR EVACUATION PURPOSES / PROVIDING EMERGENCY CAMPS DURING DISASTERS.
      • PROMOTE LAND POOLING / LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
      • DEVELOP RIVER CORRIDORS AS SPACES FOR RECREATION AND GREENERY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
      • PROMOTE GROUP HOUSING / APARTMENTS TO DISCOURAGE FRAGMENTATION OF LAND AND UNCONTROLLED HORIZONTAL EXPANSION
    • SUSTAINABILITY AUDIT
      LAND
      AIR
      WATER
      • ALTITUDE : 1300 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL
      • AREA OF ABOUT 665 SQ.KM.
      • BETWEEN 1984 AND 1998 6300 HA OF FERTILE LAND WERE LOST TO URBANIZATION, INDUSTRILIZATION AND QUARRYING OF SAND , SOIL AND STONE.
      • ABOUT 43% OF VALLEY PRODUCTIVE LAND WILL BE LOST TO THE URBAN SPRAWL BY THE END OF 2010.
      • BOWL SHAPED TOPOGRAPHY WHICH RESTRICT AIR MOVEMENT.
      • THE SITUATION IS WORSEN DURING WINTER WHEN TEMPERATURE INVERSION DURING THE NIGHT AND EARLY MORNING TRAPS A LAYER OF COOL AIR UNDER A LAYER OF WARMER AIR TRAPING POLLUTANTS CLOSE TO THE GROUND LEVEL.
      • BESIDES THE TOPOGRAPHY THE RELATIVELY HIGH ELEVATION OF THE VALLEY ALSO RESULTS IN INCREASED VEHICULAR EMISSION.
      • TRADITIONAL WATER SPOUTS 237 IN KTHMANDU.
      • WATER SUPPLIED THROUGH “RAJ KULOS” FOR IRRIGATION AND DOMESTIC PURPOSE.
      • THE SPOUTS ARE DRYING UP BECAUSE OF MODERN CONSTRUCTION AND FALLING WATER LEVEL.
      • THE WATER IN VALLEY CONTAINS HIGH AMOUNT OF IRON.
      TRANSPORTATION
      FLORA/FAUNA
      CLIMATE
      • SUBTROPICAL AND TEMPERATE.
      • MEAN MONTHLY MAXIMUM: 29.30 C
      • MEAN MONTHLY MINIMUM:16.50 C
      • DIURNAL TEMPERATURE RANGE:10.90 C
      • RALATIVE HUMIDITY: 36 % AND 100%.
      • THE VALLEY HAS 20,945 HA OF FOREST, ABOUT 32.7% OF THE TOTAL AREA OF VALLEY.
      • THE NATURAL VEGETATION IS UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE.
      • SCRUBLAND OCCUPIES NEARLY 34% OF TOTAL FOREST AREA.
      • THE NO. OF VEHICLES IN KATHMANDU IS GROWING AT THE RATE OF 12% PER YEAR ALMOST THRICE THE POPULATION GROWTH RATE.
      • IT IS RESULTING IN TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND AIR POLLUTION.
    • VISUAL ELEMENTS OF URBAN CITY DESIGN
      Axis
      City Graphics
      City Edges
      Streetscape
      Bicycle market stand on Boudha Road
      Crowded Kathmandu
      View of a street in Kathmandu
      Gateways
      A busy street in Thamel
      Thamel
      Urban Adjuncts
      Night view of Hindu temples in Durbar Square
      Bus stop sign
      Rugs, guides, massages and beer for sale in Thamel backpacker district
      Handicrafts on sale to tourists in Durbar Square
      Nine kilometer stone sign
    • VISUAL ELEMENTS OF URBAN CITY DESIGN
      Landscape
      Landmark Buildings
      Stupa of Boudhanath
      Marusattal
      Curious monkey in window of Swayambhunath Buddhist Temple
      Squares
      Durbar Square
      Marusattal street
      Statue of Hanuman at Kathmandu Durbar Square
      Row of small gompas- The kopan Monastery
      Patan Durbar Square with octagonal Krishna Temple in foreground
      BoudhanathStupa
      SwayambhunathStupa
      A Hindu temple in Bakhtapur Durbar Square
      Parking
      KumariGhar (Home of the Living Goddess) at Kathmandu Durbar Square
      Bakhtapur Durbar Square
      bridge across Bagmati River
      Bridges
      TukTuk graveyard with children playing
      Night view of Hindu temples in Durbar Square
      TukTuk on Boudha Road
      People bathing in the Bagmati river -Pashupatinath area
      Ratna park Central bus station
      Towers
      Nepali style house with a bridge
      Clock Tower
      09