Rank size rule and primate city concept

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zipf's rank size rule and the primacy concept i an important topic for geographers and town planners.

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Rank size rule and primate city concept

  1. 1. RANK SIZE RULE AND PRIMATE CITY DEMOGRAPHY AND URBANISATION PRESENTED BY TRYAMBAKESH SHUKLA BP/463/2008 SCHOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE NEW DELHI
  2. 2. •IN 1950: 29% OF 2.5 BILLION PEOPLE LIVED IN CITIES AND TOWNS. •BY 2005: 50% OF 6.5 BILLION PEOPLE WILL LIVE IN URBAN AREAS. •BY 2025: 60% OF 8.3 BILLION PEOPLE WILL LIVE IN URBAN AREAS.
  3. 3. • FORM, GROW, CHANGE, AND SOMETIMES DISAPPEAR • INCREASINGLY CONCENTRATE PEOPLE, RESOURCES, AND ENTERPRISES IN SMALL AREAS THE WORLD OVER • ARE DYNAMIC, HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE, INTERACTIVE OPEN ECOSYSTEMS (INVOLVING GEOGRAPHY, ENERGY, PEOPLE, INFORMATION, PRODUCTION) • CREATE COMPLEX HIERARCHAL NETWORKS OF PROXIMITY, INFRASTRUCTURE, MIGRATION, COMMUNICATION, AND COMMODITY EXCHANGE URBAN AREAS
  4. 4. RANK SIZE RULE ZIPF’S OBSERVED THE SIZE AND NUMBER OF SETTLEMENTS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES. HE NOTICED A COMMON CHARACTERISTIC WHICH HAS BEEN CALLED THE RANK-SIZE RULE. HAVING OBSERVED THIS ORDER IN THE REAL WORLD, HE THEN SOUGHT TO EXPLAIN IT. THE RANK-SIZE RULE IS AN EMPIRICAL REGULARITY.
  5. 5. MAIN AIM OF RANK SIZE RULE THE MAIN AIM OF THE RANK-SIZE RULE IS TO FIND REGULARITIES CONCERNING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SETTLEMENTS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES, AND TO FIT A GRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION TO THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF CITIES .
  6. 6. THE RANK SIZE RULE • THE SETTLEMENTS WITHIN A DEFINED AREA ARE RANKED IN DESCENDING ORDER ACCORDING TO THE SIZE OF THEIR POPULATION • THE SIZE OF A PARTICULAR TOWN CAN BE PREDICTED BY OBSERVING ITS RANK AND THE SIZE OF THE LARGEST CITY IN THE AREA • THE TOWN’S POPULATION IS DERIVED BY DIVIDING THE LARGEST CITY’S POPULATION BY THE TOWN’S RANK
  7. 7. THE RANK SIZE RULE • PR P1/R OR PR=P1(R )-1 WHERE P IS THE POPULATION R IS THE RANK P1 IS THE POPULATION OF THE FIRST- RANKED CITY PR IS THE POPULATION OF THE RTH RANKED CITY
  8. 8. THE RANK SIZE RULE • PR P1/R OR PR=P1(R )-1 WHERE P IS THE POPULATION R IS THE RANK P1 IS THE POPULATION OF THE FIRST- RANKED CITY PR IS THE POPULATION OF THE RTH RANKED CITY
  9. 9. THE RANK SIZE PATTERN IT IS USUALLY POSSIBLE TO RELATE THE RANKS AND SIZES OF THE CENTRAL PLACES IN COUNTRY BY USING A REGRESSION ANALYSIS LOG PK = LOG P1 - B LOG K P1 = POPULATION OF LARGEST CITY OR TOWN PK = POPULATION OF THE Kth TOWN B = COEFFICIENT WHICH MUST BE ESTABLISHED EMPIRICALLY FOR EACH INVESTIGATION.
  10. 10. THE RANK SIZE PATTERN • THE THEORETICAL RANK SIZE RULE PATTERN IS A STRAIGHT LINE. • IN URBAN PRIMACY, A SINGLE CITY DOMINATES AND IS MUCH GREATER THAN THE NEXT LARGE CENTER (PRIMARY PATTERN). • IN BINARY PATTERN TWO OR MORE CITIES ARE LARGER THAN THE PREDICTED SIZE. • IN STEPPED ORDER PATTERN THERE ARE SERIES OF LEVELS AND STEPS (CONURBATIONS, CITIES, TOWNS ETC.).
  11. 11. THE RANK SIZE PATTERN
  12. 12. INTERPRETING ZIPF’S GRAPH LINES • DISTANCE FROM ORIGIN = TOTAL URBAN POPULATION • SLOPE: AN INTEGRATED SCALING FACTOR • CURVES (VIOLATE ZIPF’S LAW) –CONCAVE –CONVEX • TAILS (A PROBLEM FOR POWER LAWS) –UPPER (A FEW BIG CITIES) LOWER “FAT” (MANY, MANY SMALL CITIES)
  13. 13. INTERPRETING ZIPF’S GRAPH LINES • SLOPE OF THE LINE (AMT OF DROP FOR 1 UNIT ON THE HORIZONTAL AXIS) • E.G.1.0 = • E.G. 2.0 = • HIGH = EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN POPULATIONS AMONG ALL CITIES • LOW = URBAN POPULATION CONCENTRATED IN CERTAIN SIZE CITIES
  14. 14. WHAT DOES THE CURVE TELL US? • CONVEX (SEE RIGHT): BIG CITIES MAY BE LIMITED IN SIZE, POPULATION IN MANY MEDIUM SIZE CITIES • CONCAVE: FEW MEDIUM SIZE CITIES, BIG CITIES OR SMALL CITIES MAY ACCOUNT FOR LARGE SHARE OF URBAN POPULATION US CENSUS DATA 2000, n = 448
  15. 15. EXAMPLES NOT FITTING THE RULE • IN AUSTRALIA, THERE IS A LARGE GAP BETWEEN THE “PRIMATE” OR LARGEST CITY AND LOWER RANKED CITIES. THERE IS A DEVIATION FROM THE IDEAL STRAIGHT RANK-SIZE LINE.THIS IS BECAUSE IN AUSTRALIA, THE STATE CAPITALS DOMINATE EACH STATE’S TERRITORY
  16. 16. THE LAW OF A PRIMATE CITY • A PRIMATE CITY IS ONE WHICH FAR OUT-RANKS ALL OTHER CITIES OF THE COUNTRY IN WHICH IT IS LOCATED,IN TERMS OF POPULATION, COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES, INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT AND POLITICAL INFLUENCES.
  17. 17. THE LAW OF A PRIMATE CITY • THE LAW OF THE PRIMATE CITY IS MAINLY APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURAL BASED, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.IT WILL SHOW FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: - SMALL TERRITORIAL EXTENT - RELATIVELY HIGH POPULATION DENSITIES - LOW PER CAPITA INCOME
  18. 18. THE LAW OF A PRIMATE CITY • IDEA OF PRIMACY WAS FIRST INTRODUCED BY MARK JEFFERSON IN 1939. HE STUDIED 46 COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD AND FOUD THAT THE LARGEST CITIES WERE TWO OR THREE TIMES AS LARGE AS NEXT LARGEST CITY. • FRYER ISOLATED THE MILLION CITIES OF SOUTHEAST ASIA AND ANASLYSED THEIR SITE, MORPHOLOGY AND PATEREN OF GROWTH. • MURPHEY TRACED THE GROWTH OF CAPITAL CITIES OF ASIA.
  19. 19. FACTORS GIVING RISE TO PRIMATE CITY • SPREAD OF COLONIALISM • STRONG CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT • ECONOMIC FACTORS • INDUSTRIAL AGGLOMERATION • RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION • EFFICIENCY OF MODERN TRANSPORT
  20. 20.  SILIGURI IS THE ONLY PRIMATE CITY IN THE REGION. IT IS 6 TIMES LARGER THAN THE 2ND LARGEST URBAN CENTER (JALPAIGURI).  POPULATION IS CONCENTRATED IN SILIGURI.  PRESENCE OF ONLY 1ST & 4TH ORDER OF URBAN CENTERS. MISSING LINK OF 2ND , 3RD ORDER URBAN CENTERS. EXAMPLE OF RANK SIZE RULE IN INDIA Siliguri Jalpaiguri Mal Mainaguri Uttar Bagdogra Bairatal Actual Population 1258256 213713 45288 44254 38505 8205 rank size rule expectation(Pn=P1/n) 1250000 625000 416667 312500 250000 208333 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 POpulation Projected Population 2031 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Towns Towns PRIMACY INDEX = POPULATION OF THE SUBJECT TOWN/ POPULATION OF THE NEXT LARGER TOWN IN THE REGION
  21. 21. RANK SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF CITIES IN EASTERN INDIA

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