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Jamshedpur- Planning History

Planning history of Jamshedpur.

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Jamshedpur- Planning History

  1. 1. CITY PLANNING AND URBAN DESIGN PRESENTATION ON PLANNING HISTORY OF JAMSHEDPUR Presented by: Kaushik Mahto (1105034) Somnath Bhui (1105036) Guided by: Prof. Ajay Kumar
  2. 2. •The steel city of Jamshedpur originated in a small company town in the backwaters of eastern India as a new experiment in urbanism in 1907. •When Delhi was being conceived in 1911 as imperial capital, an industrial town with modern town planning principles, new modes of spatiality and lifestyle associated with industrialization was taking shape. •Unlike Delhi and Chandigarh, Jamshedpur was an indigenous industrial development initiated, financed and built by Indians using local resources albeit foreign expertise. Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata (3rd Mar’1839- 19th May’ 1904)
  3. 3. VISION
  4. 4. •J.N.Tata conceived the dream of this industrial township. He travelled to many of the industrial towns of North America in pursuit of technology for setting up a steel plant. •His efforts set in motion the search of sites rich in Iron ore and coal mines. Though he did not live to see his dream come true, but his efforts culminated in the discovery of iron ore mines in GURUMAHISINI HILLS of Mayurbhanj (presently a district of Odisha). •Thus an iron and steel plant was perceived in Sakchi village (72 km from the hills). •The site of the steel plant was well connected by Railways through the KALIMATI railway station on the BOMBAY-CALCUTTA route. •Sound business management policy, philanthropic motives and the desire to make Industrial township an envied and emulated concept throughout India gave birth to JAMSHEDPUR.
  5. 5. STAGES OF PLANNING •Unlike the planning of Delhi and Chandigarh, which were planned and conceived all at a single time, this town was planned in various stages. •The reason behind these several stages was growth in the production of the steel plant due to World War I and World War II and hence growth in population of workers. Sahlin and Kennedy Plan 1912 Small industrial town Temple Plan 1920 Full fledged industrial township Stoke’s Plan 1936 Expansion of Temple plan with emphasis on housing Koenigsberger’s Plan 1944-45 Garden city+ neighbourhood unit in planning circles.
  7. 7. SAHLIN AND KENNEDY PLAN •The Pittsburgh firm of Julian Kennedy and Axel Sahlin was awarded the contract for the designing and engineering works of Tata Steel Plant. They built the original colony between 1909-12 for housing managers and skilled workers. •There is a little influence of the garden city/suburb ideal of the ‘new’ American company. •Site exigencies dictated the stratified pattern of housing on high ground on the ridge spurs on the north-west and western fringes of the steel plant to ensure protection from the factory dust carried by the prevailing western winds. •The colony was laid out in the grid-iron (North American settlement pattern) with alphabetically named ‘roads’ running east-west and numbered ‘avenues’ running north-south. •There is no evidence of a planned town centre or public park system
  8. 8. SAHLIN AND KENNEDY PLAN TOWNSHIP NORTHERN TOWN(covenanted officers) SOUTHERN TOWN(Skilled workers) G TOWN (middle income group ) R.N TOWN (workers) •The plan ignored the acute need for housing laborers with the result that clusters of mud huts sprang up around the towns and close to the factory gates.
  10. 10. FREDRICK C. TEMPLE PLAN •As the Steel production of the plant grew (due to World War I), population of the township increased and the old Kennedy plan became obsolete. •Fredrick C. Temple, sanitary officer for Orissa and Bihar states was appointed as the Chief Engineer for planning of Jamshedpur. •Temple’s work was influenced by : •Study of lifestyle of local tribal people. •Concept of Garden city of Letchworth. •Design of industrial village of New Earswick. •The fact that “A township already existed around the steel plant” played a detrimental factor in the planning thus making it somewhat different from other industrial townships of its time.
  11. 11. •The principles of Temple’s planning were: •Gravitational Sewerage system. •Street system adapted to contours. •Parkway system in natural drains. FREDRICK C. TEMPLE PLAN •Temple proposed housing of 12 units per acre, balancing it with 1-1 ½ acre plots of bungalows and ¼ acre plots quarters. •He designed the quarters in 3 blocks with the 4th one serving as open space. •He advocated that the problem of housing could be solved by improving the sanitation and preserving the infrastructure of the squatter settlements and the lifestyle of the tribal people respectively.
  13. 13. MAJOR P.G.W.STOKES PLAN •Due to the further expansion of Tata Steel in 1930, the township was in immediate need of housing. •Stokes strived a lot to propose an effective plan for this growing township. •According to his report his work was very much influenced by Earnest Burges (1925) who proposed that cities develop outward from central business and manufacturing districts with working class population nearest to the core. •Stokes did not have much to do beyond Temple’s plan. His main work was to quench the shortage of housing.
  14. 14. MAJOR P.G.W.STOKES PLAN •Constrained by the existing mixed and stratified housing of Jamshedpur, Stoke had to conform to Homer Hoyt’s wedge shaped urban model that stipulated segmented growth along transport arteries. •Officers’ bungalows were made in North town along the E-W straight mile road. •Workers’ housing was provided in north and west in Sakchi and Kadma respectively. •To further satisfy the need, he had to provide workers’ housing in Burma mines (S-E of the steel plant) but this exposed the residents to the smoke and dust of the plant.
  16. 16. OTTO KEONIGSBERGER’S PLAN • The primary motive of Keonigsberger was to implement GARDEN CITY concepts in his Master plan for Jamshedpur, but his motive was partially satisfied. • He was reluctant to give up and endeavoured to put in GARDEN CITY principles wherever space permitted. • The major problem was that Jamshedpur did not develop as a Garden city. BUSTEES had developed on the periphery of the industrial area. •His contention was that linear growth along transportation arteries was the best solution to the problems posed by the concentric growth around the place of employment.
  17. 17. OTTO KEONIGSBERGER’S PLAN • Massive urban surgery was untenable, so Keonigsberger proposed for a garden suburb on the forested slopes of Dalma Hills for 200 medium income families who could do the daily commute 7 miles to the Steel Plant. • This was All the bungalows and cottages disappeared behind tree foliage and gardens. • The only public building besides the club/rest house would be the Inspection Bungalow overlooking the Dam on one side and terraced hill-garden with a bandstand on the other. • Intention was to build a leafy suburb at a suitable distance from industrial pollution and haphazard urban growth. • This unbuilt proposal represented what Tata Steel desired all of Jamshedpur to be.
  19. 19. JAMSHEDPUR URBAN AGGLOMERATION (JUA) •Tata Steel remained the largest employer and the physical core of Jamshedpur. New industries and their settlements were built first towards the east and later after independence in 1947 across the river Kharkai on the west. •A multinucleated pattern emerged with industries as the nuclei of settlement growth that minimized the distance between residence and workplace. •Some of these industries were established by the Tatas, others were acquired and became subsidiaries. •Tinplate, Cable, Steel and Wire Industries built their housing in a grid iron pattern on a ridge parallel to the main NW-SE ridge. •The tribal villages that had deteriorated into bustees were now transformed into planned housing colonies. •The Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) built housing for its employees in the village Jojobera.
  20. 20. JAMSHEDPUR URBAN AGGLOMERATION (JUA) •Golmuri was developed by Tinplate Company • Sidhgora by Indian Oxygen and Tata Steel. •Baridih was developed by Tube Company. •The satellite township of Adityapur came up in the 1960’s across the river Kharkhai as a result of state government initiative in planning an industrial complex which incorporated 83 villages and is spread over 53 square miles with much of the development concentrated along the main artery—Tata- Kandra Road. • About 700 industries provide goods and services to Tata Steel although serviced by poorly planned residential and commercial development. • JUA 2027 Master Plan was drawn up by Superior Global Infrastructure of New Delhi in collaboration with the Philadelphia based landscape planning firm of Wallace Roberts &Todd at the behest of state govt. •The scope of planning covered the core of Jamshedpur, Adityapur, Mango, Jugsalai and seven villages, altogether covering an area of 149.23 sq. kms.
  21. 21. THANKYOU . . . .
  22. 22. • Journal of Planning History of Jamshedpur (2011) - BIBLIOGRAPHY Prof. Amita Sinha ( Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois) Jatinder Singh (Chief Architect, JUSCO)