Remember that the students need access and direct instruction on how to use technology tools. Many may help but they have to use them daily.
Got Academic or Behavior Problems: What’s FASD got to do with it?Cheryl A. Wissick, Ph.D. University of South Carolina Presentation adapted from information fromDan Dubovsky, FASD Specialist, FASD Center CFE, SAMHSA Roger Zoorob, M.D., Meharry Medical College & Support from South Carolina Collaborative FASD
Resources FASD Center: FASDsoutheast.org Center for Excellence in FASD: FASDcenter.samsha.org Simulation: http://www.come- over.to/FAS/SimTest.htm
Resources for Technology Wikispaces Behaviorsolutions Webtoolboxes
Objectives What do you know? Pre evaluation What do you want to know? Establish a goal for today FASD: overview and misconceptions Academic Solutions Behavioral Solutions
FASD: Fast Facts FASD – 100% preventable, 0% curable If you are pregnant, don’t drink. If you drink, don’t get pregnant. Exposure to alcohol can affect the brain development at any time during pregnancy. FASD leading preventable cause of ID in Western World
FASD Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is not a diagnostic category, but rather an umbrella term describing the effects that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASD is what a person has not what a person is.
Misconception #1You know a child has been affected by alcohol by the way he/she looks. Facial effects decrease as children age Full facial effects are only required for a diagnosis if one cannot substantiate that the mother drank during pregnancy. FASD is much broader than just FAS FAS has dysmorphic facial features, growth deficit and CNS abnormality
Misconception #2Students with a FASD all have severe intellectual disabilities Students with a FASD can have a range of abilities from severe intellectual disabilities to learning disabilities (IQ range 20-110) Students with a FASD can be labeled as having ADHD, ODD, Personality disorder, Learning Disability, Depression but FASD is the umbrella Leading cause of ID but only 25% have ID
Misconception #3FASD is not as prevalent as Autism More children are affected by alcohol than the number of students identified as having autism spectrum disorders FASD is not as publicized due to stigma Good data are not collected on the incidence of FASD – only birth records of mothers “known” to drink are recorded.
Misconception #4Alcohol does not cause as much damage as cocaine or heroin. Alcohol has long range effects on behavior and brain functioning. FASD is a lifelong disorder.
Misconception #5If there is no cure, then why bother with identification. Early identification helps provide structure and a stable environment. Early identification can assist with strategies for instruction
Misconception #6Only women who are alcoholics give birth to babies with a FASD. We cannot predict how much alcohol exposure will lead to a FASD. What constitutes one drink is much smaller than what we usually consider. FASD is more prevalent in middle to upper class situations than lower class.
Misconception #7If I use evidence based practices the student will respond, otherwise the student is not trying. Students do not respond to typical language-based approaches. We have to shift thinking to what is wrong with the curriculum and not what what is wrong with the student.
So how do we know or when to consider a FASD? Students who do not respond to Research & Evidence based strategies Students do not respond to typical rewards and consequences Students who appear to be unmotivated and unresponsive
Why? Brain disorder creates gapsChart of age level functioning Source:
Use Strengths Based Approach What do they do well? What do they like to do? What are their best qualities? What are your funniest experiences with them? Identify strengths in family, teachers, community, school Always focus on the individual first
“Typical” strengths Friendly Determined Likeable Have points of Verbal insight Helpful Good with younger children or elderly Caring Hard Worker
UDL* Model Paradigm shift: Move from viewing the individual as failing to viewing the program as not providing what the individuals need. (Dubovsky) Identify Barriers to learning and then list possible solutions to those barriers. Identify specific barriers in your classroom Link technology tools to assist students * Universal Design for Learning
Barrier to learningVerbal expressive ability is much moreadvanced than verbal receptive skills orability to produce written products. Students can talk the talk but not walk the walk. Do not assume that what they say is indicative of what they know Allow them to provide verbal explanation and interpretation of what something means or have them demonstrate
Barrier to learningCan’t process several directions at once Provide one direction at a time. Student with ODD still won’t comply but a child with FASD will complete task. Create visual task analysis charts -Interactive Excel chart Provide a checklist
Barrier to learningCannot keep track of multiple plans,each with several goals and a numberof steps per goals Students take part in IEP but they do not understand all the aspects, provide positive feedback, provide checklist. Students cannot be responsible to follow their own behavior plan Work on one goal at a time.
Barrier to learningCan’t remember what they weresupposed to do when (whether its anhour, day or week after being told) Working and short term memory ideas Reduce Cognitive Load Use of texting to remind young adults. Set alarms or reminders
Barrier to learningCannot understand abstract concepts Teach underlying skills Provide manipulatives Use concrete examples Role play to act out concepts Provide Examples & NOT-examples of concepts
Barrier to learningCannot filter what they are thinking Support points of insight Foster their creative ideas, Model journaling without censorship or grading They don’t mean to be rude or intrusive, just say what they think. Model good ways to speak your mind
Barrier to learningSay they know what they need to dobut they cannot show they can do it Have them act out what to do Have them complete an example Provide guided practice
Barrier to learning Literal thinking Be careful of specific directions, they will do what they are told. Do not use sarcasm, joking, similes, metaphors, proverbs, idiomatic expressions. Do a task analysis of a skill, do not assume that the students will fill in a step Explain & consider misinterpretations of words
Barrier to learningDifficulty with number concepts:time, money, measurement Provide direct instruction for time & money Provide schedules for month, mark off each day. Provide support for shopping with a peer to help with money Set alarms or timer
Barrier to Behavior ManagementTry to “go along with the crowd” sothat they have friends. Model their peers, so provide positive ones Provide Social skills training Work on Strengths Identify positive role models and foster those relationships as they won’t thrive on their own Do better in 1-to-1 situation
Barrier to Behavior Management Does not learn by experiencingconsequences of their behavior Short term consequences –no more than 1 day Do not use natural consequences USE positive reinforcement - immediately Use repeated role playing Do not take away what they like to do as a consequence for their behavior.
Barrier to Behavior Management Act oppositional or angry Brain might be overloaded Try using fewer directions or only one Find out if student knows what to do Find out if student understands the directions and can do the academic task Provide a chill-out space when they start to get frustrated.
Barrier to Behavior Management Keep breaking the rules Rather be bad, instead of be stupid. Make sure rules are simple, in a positive form Have students explain what the rule means and not just repeat the rule Act out the rules or see if they can provide a Not-Example
Barrier to Behavior ManagementProblems with lying. Students do not have a good sense of a timeline, so they fill in the gaps Discover the “purpose” of the lying, a behavior analysis Verify the person’s story from credible sources, not always peers. Not always a connect between what they feel to how they act so they might “look” like lying.
Barrier to BehaviorProblems with Adaptive Behavior Direct instruction for daily living skills Increase support for older students by providing relevance of academic skills to daily living Understand that supporting typical organization skills is not enabling
Barrier to Behavior ManagementDifficulty making & maintaining friends. Provide positive mentors Foster relationships through strengths & interests Social skill training so that others do not see them as weird, strange, being inappropriate Find something that student likes to do and let them do that regardless of their behavior Be careful about their attitudes about death (people who die get lots of attention, death be at peace)
People whoare on theother side of People I canthe fence,who are not hang aroundgood friends. with are in my circle People who are on the fence.
Overall Strategies Simplify the individual’s environment Use of a lot of repetition, more than what we think based on their intellect & verbal behavior. Provide one direction or rule at a time. De-stress situations as it creates cortisol in their brain. Do not use ZERO Tolerance policies- add in the IEP considerations
Technology Tools: Organization Start with tools EARLY so by middle school they are automatic and not an add on Livescribe Pen Todo lists: Jing: video and screenshots Excel interactive chart Visual models
Take home information Modify approaches to meet needs based on brain damage Simplify the environment and add structure. Listen when they tell you that they cannot do something but they are trying as they learn differently They do get frustrated: like trying to put together something from IKEA daily