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A look at ADHD causes, problems, and assisstances.

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  • “Oh look, a chicken!” Slogan from t-shirt for people with ADD. While the cartoon is funny, it actually presents some of the issues that face people with ADHD. Acting on impulse is developed to a fine art in people with ADHD, sometimes without regard for the consequences.
  • ADHD

    1. 1. “Oh look, a chicken!” <ul><li>Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder </li></ul>
    2. 2. Characteristics of ADHD <ul><li>Not truly “attention deficit”; actually “attention inconsistency” </li></ul><ul><li>Easy distractibility (inattentiveness) </li></ul><ul><li>Low tolerance for frustration or boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to say or do whatever comes to mind (impulsivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Overflow of energy! </li></ul>
    3. 3. Historically speaking… <ul><li>Identified in early 20 th century (1902) by George Frederic Still </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied 20 children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 boys for every girl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defiant, excessively emotional, passionate, lawless, spiteful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors appeared before age 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not the result of poor parenting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Studied in WW I veterans who had received head injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Originally called “minimal brain dysfunction” </li></ul><ul><li>Causes are not clearly identified </li></ul><ul><li>May be physiological (caused by differences in brain </li></ul><ul><li>“ High incidence” - anywhere from 3%-7% </li></ul>
    4. 4. Challenges to the student <ul><li>Poor social skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t relate well to peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t take turns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often solitary and lonely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frustrated teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD students talk out of turn, blurt out answers before question is finished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers often dislike these students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desperation tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Angry, embarrassed parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts over homework and chores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High risk of failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropouts </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Challenges later in life <ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol – trying to “slow the world down” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocaine – actually “focuses” for those with ADHD – approximately 15% of cocaine users report this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Short fuse” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trouble with the law </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Plus Side <ul><li>High energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For those with the “H” component, often very active, energetic and full of enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptional tendency to “think outside the box” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally aware </li></ul><ul><li>Exuberant </li></ul>
    7. 7. In the classroom – a raw deal? <ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be easily distracted, or can be hyperfocused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this, may not handle transitions well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Poor organizational skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing, late homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of needed materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor reading and/or math skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor handwriting </li></ul>
    8. 8. How can we help them get to “well done!”? <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near peer assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal when off-task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cue transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alert students a little while before an activity is going to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows them to “get used” to the idea, and to come out of hyperfocus, if need be. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a consistent schedule </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. How can we help them get to “well done!”? <ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help student to choose the organizer that best fits his/her style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper – school planner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic – PDA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a consistent place for materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extra set of books for home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone student can call when they did not write down an assignment correctly or have a question. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give directions, assignments, and other important information both verbally and in writing </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. How can we help them get to “well done!”? <ul><li>Instructional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide external motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid busywork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students w/ADHD often have trouble doing homework in the first place – will resent assignments which do not clearly relate to the lesson. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the assignment is relevant to what is being taught </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tell students why it will help them master the material. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;Chunk&quot; material to avoid overwhelming students </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple instructional techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Use graphic organizers to communicate most important points of lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Allow additional time for tests and assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid timed tests </li></ul>
    11. 11. Life with AD(H)D – No Joke <ul><li>Excerpt from: </li></ul><ul><li>All About Attention Deficit Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment: Children and Adults </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas W. Phelan, Ph.D. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Famous People with ADHD <ul><li>Harry Belafonte </li></ul><ul><li>Orlando Bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Terry Bradshaw </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Branson – Virgin Airways </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen J. Cannell </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Dempsey </li></ul><ul><li>Whoopi Goldberg </li></ul><ul><li>William Hewlett – Co-founder of Hewlett-Packard </li></ul><ul><li>Jewel </li></ul><ul><li>Keira Knightly </li></ul><ul><li>Jay Leno </li></ul><ul><li>David Neeleman -- JetBlue </li></ul><ul><li>Edward James Olmos </li></ul><ul><li>Ty Pennington </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Schwab – also has dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Jackie Stewart – Indy car driver </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Winkler </li></ul>
    13. 13. References <ul><li>Editorial Staff. (2008) Famous people with dyslexia and other learning disabilities and/or AD/HD. Retrieved June 17, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Hallowell, E. M & Ratey, J. J. (1994). Driven to distraction: Recognizing and coping with attention deficit disorder from childhood through adulthood. New York, NY: Touchstone. </li></ul><ul><li>Phelan, T. W. (2000). All about attention deficit disorder (second edition). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment: Children and adults. Glen Ellyn, IL: Child Management Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, D. D. (2007). Introduction to special education: Making a difference (sixth edition). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Solden, S. (1995). Women with attention deficit disorder: Embracing disorganization at home and in the workplace. Grass Valley, CA: Underwood Books. </li></ul>
    14. 14. A few more chicken thoughts…