Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Power Point #1
Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 2 Modern World Governments – Fall 2012 Power Point Presentation – August 28th & August 30th
COURSE LECTURE TOPICSThis Week’s Lecture Covers:•Introduction To Course•Syllabus Review•Defining Political Science Elitism Versus Pluralism•Defining Comparative Politics•Defining Theory•Theories Of Comparative Politics Rational Choice Structural-Functionalism Cultural Approaches
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #1 (2)•Spheres Of Influence•Transitional Effects & Stabilization•Power Theory•Transparency – American Exertion Of Power•How Governments Interact With One Another•Reading Assignment For Week #1: Chapter 1 from “Comparative Politics” Review Key Terms For Chapter 1
COMPARATIVE POLITICS TODAY KEY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 1 (1)1. Democracy2. Democratization3. Ethnicity4. European Union5. Externalities6. Governments7. Gross National Product (GNP)8. Human Rights9. Income Inequality10. Nation11. Nation-States12. Oligarchies13. Political Culture14. Political System
COMPARATIVE POLITICS TODAY KEY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 1 (2)15. Public Goods16. Religious Fundamentalism17. Sovereignty18. State19. State Of Nature20. Totalitarian Systems21. United Nations
INTRODUCTIONNew semesters bring varioushiccups for everyone. This alsogoes for your instructor. We are alladjusting to new situations, courseschedule conflicts and otheradjustments. This course utilizesvarious methods to deliverinformation. Many of our materialsare media driven. You will find manyto be humorous, thought provoking ,or even interesting. This first clip ispresented merely for fun. It is titled“Welcome To School”.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (1)Instructor: “JP” Tabakian POLITICAL SCIENCE 2 – MODERN WORLD GOVERNMENTSSections 1036 (Lecture) & 7986 08/30/20010to 12/19/2010Lecture: Tuesdays & Thursdays – 11:45AM to 12:30PM – Room TE-401Office Hours: Tuesday – 11:45AM To 12:30PMVoice Mail: (213) 763-5377 Ext. 4023E-mail: email@example.com (most reliable way to reach “JP”)URL: www.tabakian.com (use the site to download class material)*Students with disabilities who need any assistance or accommodations should contact the instructor*
SYLLABUS REVIEW (2)COURSE DESCRIPTIONThis course studies a selected variety of major national states tosecure a comparative picture of political philosophies, constitution,political processes and governmental institutions. Emphasis isplaced on how various variables such as the geographic, historic,demographic, and cultural serve to influence various aspects ofsocietal behavior within respective nation-states. The primary goal ofthis class is to assist students in developing a solid foundation ofmajor methodological and theoretical issues in the field ofcomparative politics. Students are expected to become able tocompare nation-states through the use of various intellectual orconceptual tools of the discipline. Various country studies will beexamined that will require careful examination of the politics ofBritain, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, China, Mexico, Brazil,Iran, India, Nigeria and The United States.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (3)OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVESStudents will have attained the following tools upon successfulcompletion of this course:• Acquire a strong understanding of how specific combinations of variables serves to alter societal behavior within a nation-state that in turn influences that government’s foreign and domestic policy. Students will come to understand the following: why compare; how should we compare; and what can or should we compare?• Come to appreciate how theory helps us understand past events, presently unfolding events and even helps researchers to better predict future outcomes. Properly utilize the major strategies of comparative analysis: the case study, two country comparisons, and multiple-unit comparisons.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (4)OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES (CONTINUED)• Gather appropriate research materials during their quest to produce research based papers that utilize proper methodological approaches that draw on proven theoretical approaches in their comparative analysis. The major theoretical traditions in comparative politics will be utilized throughout the course: rationalist, culturalist and structural approaches.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (5)STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLO’s)1. Analyze government and politics in nation-states through the use and interplay of political institutions and processes, public policy, state and non-state actors, and domestic and international issues.2. Analyze the relationships between the economy and political system for a given country.3. Analyze how different kinds of government and political institutions affect both domestic and foreign policies for a given country.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (6)REQUIRED TEXTBOOKSThe following textbook is required. Students are advised tocomplete assigned readings prior to attending class. “Comparative Politics Today: A World View, 9th Edition” By: Gabriel A. Almond, Russell and G. Bingham Powell Jr.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (7)ARTICLESArticles may be assigned for students to review. They are madeavailable on our supplemental Moodle course site. Students mayreceive hardcopies in class depending on the nature of ourscheduled discussion.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (8)SUPPLEMENTAL TEXTThe following text is optional. It is available on our course websiteat: www.tabakian.com in the publication section. Other interestingtexts are also made available for students to enjoy.“Transparency: American Power In The 21st Century” covers manyof the points made by your instructor during lecture.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (9)ASSIGNMENTSTwo essay assignments, three in class quizzes, one researchpaper, AND ONE FINAL EXAM will serve as the assignments. ALLIN CLASS QUIZZES, INCLUDING THE FINAL ARE OPEN NOTES,BUT CLOSED BOOK. Students are advised to take notes bothduring lecture AND while reviewing assigned readings outside ofclass. Students are given 60 minutes to complete their quizzes. Oneof the three in class quizzes, the lowest scored quiz, will bethrown out. There will be no makeup quizzes. If a student misses aquiz then that will be the one dropped. STUDENTS MUST BRINGTHEIR OWN SCANTRON AND #2 PENCIL. NOTE: Onlinestudents will take all exams online through the Moodle system.
SYLLABUS REVIEW (10)ATTENDANCEStudents are required to attend class. Attendance is taken duringevery class session. Repeated unexcused absences may lead astudent to be dropped or face a reduction in grade due tononparticipation. Lecture discussions are to be addressed in theresearch paper. Be sure to contact your instructor if you are going tobe absent. It is the responsibility of students to formally dropclasses. Your instructor is not responsible for dropping anyone.
DEFINING POLITICAL SCIENCE?Political Science is a branch of the Social Sciences like Sociology.Both fields are fairly similar as each is primarily interested inindividual as well as group behavior. Their fundamental difference isexhibited by what theory serves as the foundation for eachrespective discipline. Social scientists are biased towards elitismwhile political scientists are prone to pluralism. This does not meanthat elite theory is not utilized in the political sciences. It isrecognized, but only in contrast with pluralism. Both theoriescompliment each other, but pluralism is generally favored by politicalscientists. Political scientists examine how political behavior isinfluenced as Sociology, which looks at individual behavior that isdetermined according to elite influence in general. Elite theoryserves as the primary basis of the social sciences (sociology) whilepolitical scientists are biased towards pluralism or the result ofcompeting interests and the end result of conflict and compromise.
ELITISMElitism does not promote elite rule. It merely helps us tounderstand how the rules of a society, especially a democraticone, may actually obstruct the social progress of the masses.Elitism argues that elites are needed, due to the ignorance ofthe masses and their unwillingness to act responsibly. Onething that elites are particularly fearful of is the tendency formasses to be vulnerable to demagogic appeals. Demagoguesor counter elites are mass-oriented leaders who expressoutright hostility toward established order and appeal to themass sentiments. This can be from the far left or far right. Thisalso helps to explain why domestic elites remain fearful ofdirect democracy and why the Founding Fathers were againstthe establishment of national referenda.
ELITISM SUMMARIZED (1)1. Society is divided between the powerful few and the majority weak.2. Governing few are not typical of the governed masses. Elites are not drawn mostly from the upper class socioeconomic section of society.3. Non-elites have to be given the opportunity to rise up to elite positions. The masses have to believe that the process is continuous or revolution may occur. Barriers prevent finite elite positions from being overtaken by unqualified individuals. This is a classic rat and cheese scenario. Sufficient Cheese Sufficient Cheese Lack Of Cheese
ELITISM SUMMARIZED (2)4. Elites share a common belief on the basic values of the elite. Any change of public policy will be incrementally slow rather than revolutionary.5. Elities may base their actions either on narrow, self-serving motives and risk undermining mass support, or they may initiate reforms, curb abuse, and undertake public-regarding programs to preserve the system.6. Active elites are not typically influenced from apathetic masses. Elites influence masses more than the masses influence elites. Sufficient Cheese Sufficient Cheese Lack Of Cheese
ELITISM – HOW INFORMATION FLOWSElite theory also argues that information flowsfrom opinion elites down to opinion leaderswho are looked to the public for information.News is first “created” by opinion elites andthen sent to opinion leaders to helpdisseminate the information. Those at thevery top of the elite network decide whatinformation is deemed as necessary to offersociety. These elites may be news makersthemselves or in charge of large mediacorporations. Opinion leaders may be thoughtof as journalists, news anchors, expertpundits or even celebrities who possesslegitimacy among those in society.
PLURALISM SUMMARIZED (1)1. Society is divided into numerous groups with all making demands on government while none of the participants are able to dominate all decision-making.2. Citizens do not directly participate in decision-making, but they are able to vote for leaders to make decisions through a process of bargaining, accommodation, and compromise.3. Competition among leadership groups helps protect individuals’ interests. Countervailing centers of power – for example, competition among business leaders, labor leaders and government leaders – can check one another and keep each interest from abusing its power and oppressing the individual. Each of these individual “spheres of influence” allies themselves with other spheres that possess similar goals. See “Spheres Of Influence”.
PLURALISM SUMMARIZED (2)4. Individuals may not participate directly in decision-making, but they can exert influence through active participation in organized groups, political parties and elections.
PLURALISM – SPHERESPluralism insures that groups arerestricted from single handedlyinfluencing public policy. Rather,cross-cutting cleavages would form,as groups seek compromise withothers to build coalitions that wouldsucceed in affecting change. Thishelps to assure that minority factionsare protected from an overwhelmingmajority. Majority power-holdersamong the “Spheres of Influence” areessentially “checked” by theformation of cross-cutting cleavagesin an effort to balance againstoverwhelming forces
ELITISM VERSUS PLURALISM (1)Comparing and contrasting elitism and pluralism allows us toobserve how they differ:1. Elitism asserts that the most important division in society is between elites and masses.2. Elitism emphasizes the importance to leaders to maintain their position of power – Pluralism emphasizes this devotion to their group interests.3. Elitism asserts that mass membership of organizations rarely exercises influence on elite leadership. That these organizations have no democratic processes and are controlled by leaders who operate for their own self-interest. Pluralists offer no evidence that the giant organizations represent the interests of their individual members.
ELITISM VERSUS PLURALISM (2)4. Elitism takes into account of all power holders – private and public. Pluralism focuses on governmental leaders and those who interact directly with them.5. Elitism emphasizes shared characteristics of leaders on top of their interest in preserving the social diversity among leaders, differences in backgrounds, ideologies, and viewpoints. Pluralism also argues that decisions made by leaders are a product of their role perception, institutional constraints, interest group pressure, public opinion, etc. Elitism focuses on leadership consensus – Pluralism focuses on elite conflict.
DEFINING COMPARATIVE POLITICS (1)Comparative politics inspires students to establish linkagesbetween international relations with domestic politics.Structural-functionalist approaches had failed to recognize theinteractions between international and domestic issues.Comparative politics deals with complex systems issues thatcan include comparing capitalism to communism, democracyto totalitarianism, free markets to planned economies, etc.Scholars saw many avenues open to comparison from the1960s to 1970s when comparative analysis started to takenotice. Nothing seemed to be beyond these scholars as theypursued every conceivable option including democracy,authoritarianism, Marxism, revolution, corporatism,totalitarianism, fragmentation, disintegration, and civil war.
DEFINING COMPARATIVE POLITICS (2)Comparing to control is perhaps the major point of interest forstudents as it relates to case studies. Control means to testour hypothesis. An example would be a claim that “Democracycannot be imposed on society by an external power.” How dowe know if this is a strong or weak claim? The first thing to dois look for other cases where democracy has been imposed onanother society. Looking at two cases like Germany and Japanafter World War II reveals that we may need to adjust our mainthesis statement. This is why it is a good idea to look at evenmore cases to evaluate the strength of our argument. Thoughwe cannot ignore any evidence, we can explain why differentresults occurred.
DEFINING COMPARATIVE POLITICS (3)Comparative Politics used to be focused mainly on WesternEurope until the Cold War compelled American policymakersto pay attention to “lesser” countries, regions and formercolonies. The concern was that these countries representedeither future enemies or allies. This concern propelledAmerican policymakers to learn more about these countries.Cases are usually based on a specific issue or concern likeindustrialization, social revolution, terrorism, democracy, or anyother issue of interest. They are also delimited graphically astime can be a focal point of analysis.
COMPARATIVE POLITICS THEORIES (1)Comparative Politics Possesses three main theories:1. Rational Choice2. Structural Analysis3. Cultural ApproachesRational Choice Analysis: This theory argues that self-interestsguides all behavior, which involved conducting a cost benefitanalysis. Individuals weigh the cost along with the benefits andthen decide to pursue something if the benefits outweigh thecosts. If we assume that everyone basis their actions on self-interest then we have to come to terms with situationsinvolving actions that are not beneficial. This depends on thequality of information one has been able to accrue.
COMPARATIVE POLITICS THEORIES (2)Decision makers rarely have access to perfect information, asthey simply don’t possess viable access to the informationrequired to make a rational decision. This includes a lack ofexperience, limited data, lack of education, inability to assessactions of others, lack of knowing future developments, oreven just bad luck. Strategic interaction also comes into play,which is the implication that indecisions made by oneindividual is made according to decisions made by others,which leads us to game theory. Prisoner’s dilemma is oneaspect of strategic interaction.
COMPARATIVE POLITICS THEORIES (3)Structural-Functionalism: This theory utilizes micro-interpretation to suggest that given the issue, individuals mayunite temporarily to defend its interests. Structural-functionalism helps to explain how political leaders can dealwith citizen demands that are hard to fulfill. Instead ofproviding the actual goods sought, political leaders may instillloyalty based on symbolic or cultural goods. The structural-functional approach maintains two points:1. In different countries, the same structure may perform different functions.2. Absolute power is impossible and no one institution, or individual entity, no matter how powerful, may be able to control all facets in society.
COMPARATIVE POLITICS THEORIES (4)Culturalist Approaches: This theory is likely to accept thearguments of rational choice or structural analysis as both areseen as helping to construct societal norms. Culturalismbegins with the premise that culture matters in anyexplanation. It is important not to state grand assumptionswhen using culture as a variable. For example, statements like“Muslim countries are resistant to democracy,” or“Confucianism helps explain capitalist development in EastAsia” are not appropriate. The problem with these claims isthat it represents a decontextualized generalization thatportrays culture as clear-cut, uniform, and basically static. Themajority of Culturalists would argue today that culture is multi-vocal and multidimensional.
ROLE OF THEORYEveryone uses theory whether they know it or not. Manyof us devise our own theories through our childhoodsocializations up to adulthood. Disagreements within thefield of political science for example come about whenthere is no agreement over the basic forces that shapethe discipline. Students become disillusioned whensituations arise that sweep forecasts into the abyss.Elitism and Pluralism serve as the foundation for thesocial sciences with political science being more inclinedto adhere to pluralist arguments. Readers areencouraged to utilize both theories throughout the text.This will assist students of the political sciences tocritically analyze those arguments presented by theauthor in order to devise their own methodologiesconcerning political science. Theory also helpsresearches to classify certain variables. It may bethought of as a pair of sunglasses that helps us filterunwanted information.
EXAMPLE OF THEORY - REALISMRealism accords that as humannature remains the predominant factorin a nation-state’s foreign policy, it isfurther determined that such policiesare focused upon self-interest. As theinherent motive for man is survival, itapplies to the applied foreign policiesof nation-statesfor the actions of a state are determined according to the tenets of politicaldetermination. Considered to be a synonym for power politics, though at timesconstrued as pragmatic and wrought with simplicity, it is a somewhat abruptphilosophy focused on the inherent evils of mankind. Let us look at a clip fromthe movie “Failsafe”. Walter Matthau plays the role of National Security Advisorwho applies rational choice and realist theory to explain why striking at theSoviet Union is necessary to survive.
RATIONAL CHOICE (1)What is the primary goal of the individual? The answer may besummed up in one word: Survival. This basic humanrequirement serves as the foundation for all action. If survival isthe ultimate goal, then one must assume that individual partiesare determined to make decisions that are based on rationality.This of course assumes that people as individual units will baseall decisions on self-interest. Let us even assume that thedecision maker is in possession of perfect information. Whythen do people make irrational or even foolhardy decisionseven when all signs point to negative or even disastrousresults? The answer is simply that human beings are not robotsor computers. We are fallible to emotions that encompass beliefsystems like religion that in turn are great influences overindividual behavior.
RATIONAL CHOICE (2)Decisions are based on self-interest…as we define our self-interest to be. Consider this example. We have a nun and areal-estate mogul. The nun gives up all her worldlypossessions and dedicating herself to helping those in poverty.Her justification may be great rewards in the afterlife. The real-estate mogul does not believe in an afterlife, but does believe inmaking as much money as possible, spending it all on anoverly extravagant and abusive lifestyle. Who is actingrationally? Both individuals are for they are fulfilling their self-interest…as they define their self-interest to be.
SPHERES OF INFLUENCE (1)Pluralism is best in describing howcompeting spheres of influence protectminority rights against majority factions.These majority factions may consist ofindividual powerful elite entities or groupsof “spheres of influence”. Alliances will formamong once competing spheres in order to“check” another sphere or individual elitebase that acquires too much power. Thisconstant “checking” as described in the“competing spheres of influence” diagramdescribes how this plays out in all systems.Individual spheres of influence are alwayson the alert for one of their peers assumingtoo much power.
SPHERES OF INFLUENCE (2)Spheres consist of individuals who share acommon set of interests and/or beliefsystems. Individual participants are theabsolute micro-level of every sphere. Hereare some examples of spheres: family,work, school, political parties, and religion.Different spheres of influence communicatewith one another through the individualwho is a member of those same spheres.Various societal interactions influenceindividual behavior.
COMPETING SPHERESCompeting Spheres of Influenceessentially check each other within thepolitical system. This is seen as essentialfor the protection of minority rightsespecially as it pertains to majorityfactions. Elites in our society are notdefined according to race, gender,religion, etc. They are seen mainly asthose who hold positions of power withsociety. Our Founding Fathers consideredthe protection of minority rights as thosefew individuals who retained control oversociety. These individuals were propertyholders, policy makers or those whopossessed positions of power.
TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS (1)Competition among spheres of interest produces great returnsfor humanity. The constant strive for marketplace acceptancehas resulted in America progressing from a predominantlyagricultural society to an industrial, nuclear, and informationbased society. The United States is unique in that it excels inmore than one particular capitalist endeavor. Innovation has ledto advancements that have greatly influenced every aspect ofsociety. Society has benefited from constant advancements inenergy harvesting, computers, communication, waterpurification, medicine and all other areas not listed for the listwould be enormous.
TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS (2)Every significant discovery has in turn greatly influencedsocietal norms of behavior. Masses today view internetcommunications as a vital necessity. It is nearly impossible tooperate in a complex society without easy access to the web.The majority of masses did not have this belief fifteen yearsago. Only society determining that the internet allowed forgreater efficiency was it adopted as a societal norm. Those notwilling to adapt became obsolete.
STABILIZATIONSudden instability is the greatest threat to humanity for itthreatens to cause irreparable harm to the individual. One maynever consider harming another person in a state of nature.Elimination of one’s sustenance throws the individual into astate of war, because their survival is now threatened. Nation-states consist of multiple spheres of interest in turn consistingof individual units consisting of people. As survival is theprimary goal of man, so it is the ultimate pursuit of nation-states. The primary concern is that of stability. This philosophyhas prevented a major war from taking place over the last sixtyyears. Instability is the primary cause of all conflict both withinand between nation-states.
POWER THEORY (1)To exert power one must first possess adequate reserves todraw upon. This is defined simply as “capacity of power”.Achieving higher positions is dependent on various factors thatmay include: education; wealth; profession; charisma and othertalents either developed or engrained from birth. This “capacityof power” is not determined according to a single resource,ability or possession. It is instead a combination of differentvariables that serve to make up the individual. This is just like abattery consisting of energy resources drawn upon when itcomes time to draw power in order to achieve a set objective.Just like a battery powering a flashlight so does one’s individual“capacity of power” serve to assist one in achieving a set goalor in this case influencing or affecting political behavior tomaintain, expand or protect one’s standing in order to survivein society.
POWER THEORY (2)Our example of “capacity of power” is applicableto individual capacity of power and allassociations up to the nation state as allcombined units consist of individuals pursuingtheir set of priorities or self-interest that is in turnbased on survival. Drawing upon these reservesallows one to pursue agendas of self-interest.Power is the ultimate pursuit, as the ultimate goalof humanity is survival. Individual participants inpursuit of these goals join together in commonpursuits under the umbrella of common interest.These resulting “spheres of interest” in turn joinunder broader umbrellas that also offer anotherdistinct set of common goals that in turncompetes with respective peers.
POWER THEORY (3)Power equals resources (capacity of power) timescompliance squared, divided by force. Every accounting ofpower theory is taken into consideration in the construction ofthis formula. We have explored the contention that the pursuitof self-interest encourages man to engage in politicalbehavior. This serves as the foundation for rational choicetheory, which in turn has led us to power theory. One mayargue that the pursuit of power maintains the never endingcycle of political: conflict; compromise; alliances; and wars.
POWER THEORY (4)Many have countered this argument with a direct assault onthe statement that “there is no morality in politics”. Thesecritics are both right and wrong. It is true that morality has nodirect correlation with political science if the pursuit of self-interests and power resources maintains utmost priority. Onthe other hand they may be correct if one party sells theirpursuit as a moral cause in order to achieve their agenda. Forexample, one may argue that good may come from conflicteven if it leads to the destruction of a nation-state and theslaughtering of thousands or millions of people if the seed ofdemocracy is planted and nurtured to maturity.
TRANSPARENCY (1)America has grown from the days of a colony to major power,superpower, and hegemon, to its present empire status.American power is felt throughout the international community.Playing poker requires one to adopt what is commonly knownas a “poker face”. Players will hide their true emotions, evenfaking their true intentions to catch other players off guard.Some have even taken to wearing sunglasses. The exactopposite tactic that the United States has adopted is“Transparency”. This involves disclosing all routes the nation-state will undertake with regards to all forms of public policypertaining to its political, economic and military strategies.
TRANSPARENCY (2)Alexander Hamilton initiated thispolicy as the chief financialphilosopher of the United Stateseven if he did not coin the term.Hamilton is regarded as the chiefarchitect of our economic policy,which in turn was developed inorder to win the confidence ofdomestic US business andfinancial elites as well as gainingthe confidence of internationalbusiness.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE #1America possesses themost technologicallyadvanced military hardware.This video demonstratesone of the first deployableforce fields for light armoredvehicles (LAVs). Welcome tothe 21st Century.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE #2America is not the onlynation that utilizesTransparency. This videoshows the Israeli DefenseForce demonstrating a newtype of gun that can shootaround corners. A briefinterview with the inventor ofthis amazing weaponfollows the demonstration.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE #3Some forms of transparency areboth political and military innature. The military sponsoredthe development of the MassiveOrdinance Aerial Burst (MOAB). Itis commonly referred to as “TheMother Of All Bombs”. It is thelargest conventional bomb in ourarsenal. There is a psychologicalcomponent to this bomb. Amushroom cloud forms followingsuccessful detonation. It lookssomewhat like a nuclear devicebeing detonated.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE #4Javelin is a fire-and-forget missilewith lock-on before launch andautomatic self-guidance. Thesystem takes a top-attack flightprofile against armored vehicles(attacking the top armor which isgenerally thinner) but can alsotake a direct-attack mode for useagainst buildings or fortifications.This missile also has the ability toengage helicopters. Javelin issupplied by Raytheon/LockheedMartins JAVELIN Joint Venture.