Politics from “polis” - city; sovereign state
Science from “scire” - to know; study
Political Science is the study of state and government.
It is the understanding of the state i.e. principles and
ideals underlying its organization and activities.
It is the study of a body politic, the association of
people into a political community.
It studies relations of men and groups, men and
groups to the state, and state to other states.
Political Science is a social science discipline
concerned with the study of the state, government,
Aristotle defined it as the study of the state.
It deals extensively with the theory and practice of
politics, and the analysis of political systems and
Political Science is the social science concerned
chiefly with the description and analysis of political
and governmental institutions and processes.
(Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary cited in Costales et al 2010)
Political Science is the study of politics.
How do we study Political Science?
- Studying political behavior (behavioralist approach)
- Studying political structure and functions
- Studying political phenomena (phenomenological
- Studying political ideas (philosophical approach)
- Studying political documents
- Studying political futures
According to Harold Lasswell, politics is “who gets
what, when, and how” and that political science is
the study of “the shaping and sharing of power.”
Power is the ability to have others do something,
whether they like it or not. It often connotes
sanctions for those who will not abide.
Legitimate power or "Positional power", it is the
power of an individual because of the relative
position and duties of the holder of the position
within an organization.
Referent power is the power or ability of individuals
to attract others and build loyalty. It's based on the
charisma and interpersonal skills of the power
holder. A person may be admired because of
specific personal trait, and this admiration creates
the opportunity for interpersonal influence.
Expert power is an individual's power deriving from
the skills or expertise of the person and the
organization's needs for those skills and expertise.
Reward power depends on the ability of the power
wielder to confer valued material rewards.
Coercive power is the application of negative
influences. It includes the ability to demote or to
withhold other rewards.
Informational power Informational power is based
on the potential use of informational resources.
Authority is the legitimate use of power. (Weber)
It is the right to exercise the power and influence of
a particular position that comes with that position.
Weber’s 3 types of Legitimate Authority
- Charismatic authority - political order is maintained
by the force of a leader’s personality.
- Traditional authority - political order is maintained
by the constant reference to customs, traditions and
- Rational legal authority - political order is
maintained by a regard of legality in the eyes of the
Legitimacy is the mass feeling that the
governmental authority is rightful and should be
Political legitimacy means having widespread
approval for the way one exercises political power.
Sources of Legitimacy
Legitimacy by results: providing the basic needs of the people
such as security, welfare and respect for human rights.
Legitimacy by habit: people through time become
accustomed to obeying the laws of the government.
Legitimacy by historical, religious or ethnic identity:
legitimacy may come from various historical, religious or
Legitimacy by fear: fearing undesired alternative can enhance
the government’s legitimacy.
Legitimacy by procedures: procedures can also promote and
Name people in the Philippines who are powerful.
Name the kinds of power they have. Be sure to
have examples for each of the kinds of powers.
Does the government of Pres. PNoy have authority?
Support your answer.
In the context of ruling a government or state: Is it
possible to have political power without authority,
and vice-versa? Is it possible to have political
power without legitimacy, and vice-versa? Cite
real-life examples or situations that these may
Political Science is the study of how power is
achieved (or gained), shared and used in the realm
of state (or local) governance and global relations.
Political Theory- entire body of doctrines relating
to origin, form, behavior, and purposes of a state
Public Law- covers constitutional law,
administrative law, and international law
Public Administration- methods and techniques
used in actual management of state affairs by the 3
branches of government
(de Leon and de Leon)
To discover the principles that should be
adhered to in public affairs and to study the
operations of the government.
Its findings can be used in seeking resolutions to
To be able to deal with social and economic
problems and other matters of public and private
Education for citizenship
Essential part of liberal education
Knowledge and understanding of government
State – a community of persons more or less
numerous permanently occupying a definite
portion of territory, having a government of
its own to which the great body of inhabitants
renders obedience, and and enjoying freedom
from external control
1. People – mass of population living within the
2. Territory – fixed portion of the surface of the
earth inhabited by the people of the state
3. Government – agency through which the will of
the state is formulated, expressed and carried
4. Sovereignty – the supreme power of the state to
command and enforce obedience
1. Divine Right Theory – holds that the state is of divine
creation and the ruler is ordained by God to govern the
2. Necessity or force theory – maintains that states must
have been created through force
3. Paternalistic theory – attributes the origin of states to the
enlargement of the family
4. Social Contract theory – asserts that the early states must
have been formed by deliberate and voluntary compact
among people to form a government of their own
free from external
one state may consist
of one or more nations
may or may not be
free from external
one nation may be
made up of several
cannot exist without
cannot be changed so
long as the elements
externalize the will of
can exist without a
can be changed
1. As to the number of the persons exercising sovereign power:
a. Monarchy – the supreme and final authority is in the
hands of a single person. It is further classified into:
absolute monarchy and limited monarchy.
b. Aristocracy – the political power is exercised by the few
c. Democracy – the political power is exercised by the
majority of people. It is futher classified into two: direct or
pure democracy and indirect or representative democracy
2. As to the nature of tenure of the officials
Hereditary – power and authority is passed on to
one who is a relative by consanguinity
Elective or Popular – leader is chosen by an
3. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or
a. Unitary Government – the control of national
and local affairs is exercised by the central or
b. Federal Government – the powers of
government are divided between two sets of
organs, one for national affairs and the other for
4. As to the relationship between the executive and
the legislative branches of government
a. Parliamentary – the state confers upon the
legislature the power to terminate the tenure of
office of the real executive
b. Presidential – the state makes the executive
constituionally independent of the legislative