Automimicry Edible monarch butterfly mimic poisonous monarch and hence are not eaten by birds
Mertensian mimicry Similar to Batesian mimicry but it does not involve bad taste or permit trial and error learning e.g. beefly, grass snake.
Learning to avoid sickness Animals learn to eat food which are healthy or full of all minerals e.g. sodium deficient rats can learn which food contains salt and select the food which contains more amount of sodium. A/c to Rozin (1976) Animals classify food into novel, familiar-safe, familiar-dangerous and familiar beneficial food.
Cognitive aspects oflearning Are animals conciously aware of themselves??? Do animals have sense of sorrow and feel pleasure??? There are several aspects of learning that cannot be clearly explained by conditioning.
Hidden aspects ofconditioning From cognitive point of view during shaping or conditioning animals might not work mechanically. It is of concern whether animals use their emotions along with their experience to learn the things In classical conditioning the animal might be pairing the UCS with CS thoughtfully to give CR.
Insight Learning Animal uses its experience to respond to something new problems. They suddenly resolve the problems and give appropriate response to the situations. The response thus exhibited might be the result of the calculation done before acting on it.