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 Helps transfer information in the form of
nerve impulse
 Pre-synaptic to postsynaptic
 Neurohormones ?
 Must be synthesized by a neuron
 Stored in pre-synatic endings
 Released at the synapse
 Has specific receptors on Post-synaptic
membrane
 Suitable termination of action
Group Ex’s
Acetylcholine Ach
Catecholamines NE, Epinephrine, Dopamine,
Serotonin, Histamine
Amino Acids Excitatory – Glutamate, Aspartate
Inhibitory – GABA , Glycine
Polypeptides ADH, oxytocin , endorphines ,
enkephalines , somatostatin ,
sunstance p , CRH, TRH..etc
Purines Adenosine , ATP
Gases NO , CO
 Distribution
› All preganglionic neurons
› Post-ganglionic parasymapthetic
› Neuromuscular junctions
› Many parts of brain
› Amacrine cells in retina
 Nicotinic – ligand gated ion channel
› Two subtypes
 Muscarnic – G protein coupled
› Five subtypes (M1 to M5 )
 Post ganglionic sympathetic nerves
 Adrenal medulla (NE)
Properties Adrenalin & Nor-
Adrenalin
Dopamine
Receptors Alpha – 1, 2
Beta – 1, 2, 3
D1-5
Termination MAO
COMT
Same
 Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain
and retina
 Produced by decarboxylation
glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase
GABA a Brain Ligand gated ion
channel
GABA b Brain G protein coupled
GABA c Retina Ligand gated ion
channel
 Inhibitory neurotransmitter
 Site of action for
 Anaesthetics
 Sedatives ( benzodiazepins )
 Alcohol
 Predominantly inhibitory neurotransmitter
 Glutamate
› major excitatory neurotransmitter
› Derived from kreb cycle
› Termination – taken up by astrocytes
› Excitotoxic
 Aka 5 – Hydroxy tryptamine
 Found in CNS , ENS , retina
 In brain Raphe nucleus contain serotonin
 Derived from trptophan
 Receptors are 5HT 1-7 ( 7 types with
subtypes )
 Acts as a mood elevator
 Hallucinogen
 Also secreted by enterochromaffin cells
,platelets , basophills
 Smooth muscle contraction ,
 Neurotransmitter and hormone
 Hypothalamus , limbic system
 H1, H2, H3
 Smooth muscle contraction
 Secretion of HCL
 Increased capillary permeability
 Its one of the major tachykinin
(polypeptide11AA)
 Found in many parts of brain , GIT,
Nerves
 NK 1 , 2, 3 are receptors
 Neurotransmitter for pain in dorsal horn
of spinal cord
 in hypothalamus for endocrinal
modulation
 Axon reflex
 Peristalsis in gut
 Along with dopamine in basal ganglia
 Aka endothelium derived relaxing factor
(EDRF)
 Blood vessels , brain
 Derived from arginine by NO synthase
Physiology of neurotransmitters
Physiology of neurotransmitters
Physiology of neurotransmitters

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Physiology of neurotransmitters

  • 1.
  • 2.  Helps transfer information in the form of nerve impulse  Pre-synaptic to postsynaptic  Neurohormones ?
  • 3.  Must be synthesized by a neuron  Stored in pre-synatic endings  Released at the synapse  Has specific receptors on Post-synaptic membrane  Suitable termination of action
  • 4. Group Ex’s Acetylcholine Ach Catecholamines NE, Epinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, Histamine Amino Acids Excitatory – Glutamate, Aspartate Inhibitory – GABA , Glycine Polypeptides ADH, oxytocin , endorphines , enkephalines , somatostatin , sunstance p , CRH, TRH..etc Purines Adenosine , ATP Gases NO , CO
  • 5.  Distribution › All preganglionic neurons › Post-ganglionic parasymapthetic › Neuromuscular junctions › Many parts of brain › Amacrine cells in retina
  • 6.
  • 7.  Nicotinic – ligand gated ion channel › Two subtypes  Muscarnic – G protein coupled › Five subtypes (M1 to M5 )
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.  Post ganglionic sympathetic nerves  Adrenal medulla (NE)
  • 11. Properties Adrenalin & Nor- Adrenalin Dopamine Receptors Alpha – 1, 2 Beta – 1, 2, 3 D1-5 Termination MAO COMT Same
  • 12.  Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain and retina  Produced by decarboxylation glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase
  • 13. GABA a Brain Ligand gated ion channel GABA b Brain G protein coupled GABA c Retina Ligand gated ion channel
  • 14.
  • 15.  Inhibitory neurotransmitter  Site of action for  Anaesthetics  Sedatives ( benzodiazepins )  Alcohol
  • 16.  Predominantly inhibitory neurotransmitter  Glutamate › major excitatory neurotransmitter › Derived from kreb cycle › Termination – taken up by astrocytes › Excitotoxic
  • 17.  Aka 5 – Hydroxy tryptamine  Found in CNS , ENS , retina  In brain Raphe nucleus contain serotonin  Derived from trptophan  Receptors are 5HT 1-7 ( 7 types with subtypes )  Acts as a mood elevator  Hallucinogen  Also secreted by enterochromaffin cells ,platelets , basophills  Smooth muscle contraction ,
  • 18.
  • 19.  Neurotransmitter and hormone  Hypothalamus , limbic system  H1, H2, H3  Smooth muscle contraction  Secretion of HCL  Increased capillary permeability
  • 20.  Its one of the major tachykinin (polypeptide11AA)  Found in many parts of brain , GIT, Nerves  NK 1 , 2, 3 are receptors
  • 21.  Neurotransmitter for pain in dorsal horn of spinal cord  in hypothalamus for endocrinal modulation  Axon reflex  Peristalsis in gut  Along with dopamine in basal ganglia
  • 22.  Aka endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF)  Blood vessels , brain  Derived from arginine by NO synthase