Strategic teaching middle and high school (1)


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  • Welcome! Denise and I are secondary regional reading coaches for the Alabama Reading Initiative. This year marks the beginning of a new focus for education in Alabama. 14 schools have been chosen to be part of an initiative in the middle and high schools called ARI Project for Adolescent Literacy. A key factor in promoting adolescent literacy is strategic teaching. Today you will learn about the part that strategic teaching plays in adolescent literacy, the defining features of this, how to recognize strategic teaching in a classroom, and participate in strategic lessons.
  • Notice the term literacy strategies, meaning that strategic teaching is used in all content areas, every day, every class. It is a process, not a program, a way of thinking and organizing a lesson. We tell teachers, strategic teaching isn’t just about teaching reading, it is about maximizing one’s students ability to comprehend content material. It is not isolated strategies, but connections are made before, during, and after reading so that students learn that reading is purposeful and active at all stages. It doesn’t isolate skills such as vocabulary or writing but makes these an integral part of comprehension. The teacher’s purpose for each lesson guides the strategies used.
  • Kids are doing well at the elementary level, but achievement declines as they go through middle and high school. Turn and talk to a neighbor about the reasons for this decline.
  • Strategic teaching will benefit all students. Everyone encounters text that they can’t handle. We as teachers need to provide literacy tools for these students to take with them after they leave our classroom. Struggling readers – 5-10 percent that need extreme intervention (decoding). 10-60% that are poor comprehenders, need leveled text and good strategies via strategic teaching. These students needs can be addressed through strategic teaching. And lastly, expanding readers that still encounter difficult text and need ways to deal with that text successfully.
  • Strategic teaching is able to address each of these at one point or another. The connection to comprehension is made through the connections of before, during, after reading strategies.
  • What makes strategic teaching extremely effective is that connections are made before, during, and after reading. Everyday those kids are engaged in each of these phases. Not, Monday is a day to activate prior knowledge…Tuesday, we read, and Wednesday we access. Purposes….
  • Frequently the part left out the most, replace with well meaning teachers that summarize information, write it up as a study guide, and lecture. During reading activities are purposeful and active.
  • Before and after do not take much of the class period but are vital. Before – 10 minutes, During – 30, After 10, if that much.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • Every day in every class should encompass …
  • Sample lesson plan and activity for today.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • Strategic teaching middle and high school (1)

    1. 1. Using StrategicTeachingin the Middle and HighSchool to PromoteHigh Levels Of ActiveEngagement AndStudent LearningShelby County Schools Strategic Teaching Overview 2.18.10
    2. 2. Strategic Teaching Defined…Strategic teaching is the process of using a variety ofliteracy strategies.It maximizes the understanding and retention of contentmaterial.It incorporates before, during, and after reading strategies.It incorporates a variety of vocabulary development andwriting strategies.The strategies a teacher chooses will depend on the purposeof the lesson and the nature of the material being studied.
    3. 3. Why is Strategic Teaching Necessary?• The student performance drops off in the middleschool and high school years (International Reading Associationand National Middle School Association, 2002).• Research has shown that many children who readat grade level in grade 3 will not automatically becomeproficient comprehenders in later grades. Therefore,teachers must teach comprehension explicitly,beginning in the primary grades and continuingthrough high school (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002).
    4. 4. It benefits ALL of our students.Struggling ReadersStriving ReadersExpandingReaders
    5. 5. The Strategic TeacherThe strategic teacher plans lessons with the outcomein mind. The outcomes of strategic lessons move thestudents toward mastery of content standards.The strategic teacher plans and facilitates engaginglessons. Students in strategic classrooms have theopportunity to talk, listen, read, write, and investigateeveryday while actively involved in the learningprocess.The strategic teacher builds assessment into everylesson. The lesson contains elements that allow theteacher to know which students have and have notmet the stated outcome(s).
    6. 6. Connection to ComprehensionThe following six strategies appear to have a firm scientific basis forimproving text comprehension. These findings are from Put Reading First:The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, 2001. Monitoring comprehension Using graphic and semantic organizers Answering questions Generating questions Recognizing text structure SummarizingThe following strategies have received some support from the research. Making use of prior knowledge Using mental imagery
    7. 7. Before Reading Strategiesactivate background knowledgeestablish a purpose for readinggenerate questionsmake predictions about textencounter new vocabularyconnect writing to reading
    8. 8. During Reading Strategiesengage with the textuse cognitive processverify and reformulate predictionsintegrate new information with prior knowledgeself-monitor comprehensionconstruct graphic organizerssummarize text
    9. 9. After Reading Strategiesreflect on what they readevaluate predictionsexamine questions that guided readingrespond to text through discussionrespond to text through writingretell or summarize
    10. 10. Strategic Teaching Involves Purposeful Planning- Make before, during, and after literacyconnections by choosing strategies depending on the purpose of thelesson, student’s needs, and the nature of the material being studied. Multiple Strategies - Incorporate strategies that support variouslearning styles and preferences. Connected Strategies – Incorporate before, during, and afterreading strategies that include a variety of vocabulary developmentand writing strategies. Explicit Instruction – Maximize the understanding and retention ofcontent material through direct explanation, modeling, guidedpractice, and independent application. (I do, we do, you do.)
    11. 11. Strategic Teaching Should Include…The Five Literacies in Every LessonReadingWritingTalkingListeningInvestigating
    12. 12. Strategic Lesson ExampleTopic: Survival Course of StudyObjectives: N/ALesson Objectives: touse comprehensionskillsBefore ReadingOutcome: activate priorknowledge and buildvocabulary.Strategy: Interview andresponseTeacher Activity:Teacher will model theinterview and responsestrategy .Student Activity:Students will interviewthree people with thequestion: What doessurvival mean to you?Write responses on notecard. Then turn note cardover and write astatement that includesinterviews as well aspersonal response.During ReadingOutcome: Students focuson skills needed as onereads.Strategy: GrandConversationsTeacher Activity:The teacher reads aloudarticle (Hiker Resorts toSelf-Amputation)encouraging students touse cards.Student Activity:Respond to the readingwithWonder, Notice, PriorKnowledge, or Spark card.After ReadingOutcome: To reflect onarticle and respond to thereading through writing.Strategy: Reflection CircleTeacher Activity:Model the use of thereflection circle graphicorganizer (Venn diagram)Student Activity:Respond to each phase ofthe circle about how thisman’s survival affectedhim, his family, hiscommunity, and otherhikers.
    13. 13. Wonder, Notice, Prior Knowledge, or Spark cardGrand Conversations StrategyGrand conversations are discussions held by the entire classcommunity. This strategy allows for dialogue amongstudents that is student directed and each one has theopportunity to critique, debate and extend upon eachother’s ideas.Objectives -To provide a skillful strategy to students thathelps them focus on comprehending and thinking as theyread-To develop deeper understanding.
    14. 14. Wonder, Notice, Prior Knowledge, or Spark cardProcedure:1. Hand out the think aloud cards to students and areading passage such as an article, a text or a novel.2. The teacher or a fluent reader from the classreads aloud. As the reading takes place, thestudents are directed to use the cards as follows:
    15. 15. W – “I Wonder” card- use when you have aquestion about what is being read or “wonder” aboutthe information.N – “I Notice” card – use when you noticesomething interesting about the text or pictures, anyconnections or incongruence’s.P – “Prior Knowledge” card – use when you haveany prior knowledge to share about the topic.S – “Spark” card – use when someone else sayssomething that makes you think of something elserelated to the text. This can only be used during adiscussion.Wonder, Notice, Prior Knowledge, or Spark card
    16. 16. 3. As each student uses a card, the card is turnedover. All students must usetheir cards before starting over.4. When all students have used their cards, turnthem back to front and startthe process over.Wonder, Notice, Prior Knowledge, or Spark card
    17. 17. N SWPWonder, Notice, Prior Knowledge, or Spark card
    18. 18. Venn Diagram
    19. 19. Literacy Strategies to Promote StudentsEngagementQuick WritePurposes: (1) introduce a concept and connect this conceptwith prior knowledge or experiences and (2) allow students todiscuss and learn from each otherProcedure:1. Introduce a single word or phrase to the class2. Students copy the concept on index cards.3. Students are given two minutes to write whatever comes totheir minds relative to the concept. They may write freely usingsingle words, phrases, sentences, etc.4. After time is called, students may volunteer to share their thoughtson the subject.
    20. 20. Exit SlipsPurpose: (1) reflect on content of lessonThe exit-slip strategy requires students to write responses to questionsyou pose at the end of class. Exit slips help students reflect on whatthey have learned and express what or how they are thinking about thenew information. Exit slips easilyincorporate writing into your content area classroom and requirestudents to think critically.(Fisher & Frey, 2004)Literacy Strategies to Promote StudentsEngagement
    21. 21. X Marks the SpotPurpose: engage with the textProcedure:1. Teacher puts key on the board:X = Key point ! = I get it! I can explain this! ? = Idon’t get this.2. Teacher models the procedure for students using firstchunk of text.3. Students practice using this procedure independently* copied text may be written on directly, but sticky noteswork well in books.Literacy Strategies to Promote StudentsEngagement
    22. 22. Say SomethingPurposes: (1) make connections with texts during readingand (2) enhance comprehension of written material throughshort readings and oral discussionsProcedure:1. Choose a text for the students to read and have them workin pairs.2. Designate a stopping point for reading.3. Have students read to the stopping point and then “say something”about the text to their partners.4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until they finish reading the text.Source: Short, K., Harste, J., & Burke, C. (1996). Creating classrooms for authors and inquirers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Literacy Strategies to Promote StudentsEngagement
    23. 23. References